A student in North America should expect to complete at least 7-8 years of post-secondary education in order to become a doctor of chiropractic.
Before a student can attend a chiropractic college he/she must complete a minimum of 90 semester hours, or three full-time years, of undergraduate courses. Most students (> 80%) entering chiropractic college in North America have completed an undergraduate degree (1).
The Doctor of Chiropractic programs in North American are four years of full-time study, but many schools provide three-year 'intensive' curricula. The World Health Organization has stated that to become a doctor of chiropractic a student must attend no less than 4200 hours of schooling in a chiropractic college (2).
Before a chiropractor can recieve a license to practice they must pass regional and/or National board exams to prove their competency. Successful graduation from an accredited chiropractic college and passing the appropriate board exams (state and/or national) will satisfy the eligibility requirements for a chiropractor to obtain a license to practice in most areas.
There is some variability between chiropractic colleges with regard to admission requirements; students are encouraged to research the specific requirements for the institution they wish to attend.
In Australia: To become a chiropractor in Australia, a student must complete an undergraduate degree in chiropractic science, followed by a two-year masters degree in chiropractic.
(1) McDonald et al.,How chiropractors think and practice: The survey of North American chiropractors.Seminars in Integrative Medicine;2004;2(3):92-98.
(2) WHO Guidelines on Basic Training and Safety in Chiropractic (2005). See related links.
"Cracking" your back is not so bad at all if you are a young and healthy individual. The concern tends to be that there are some risks associated, such as fracture, sprain, strain, etc. These risks are very low when an adjustment ("cracking") is performed by a skilled professional (eg: doctor of chiropractic), but when performed by yourself, or by another unskilled person, the risks increase. Even when performed by the unskilled, the risks tend to be relatively non-severe for young and healthy individuals.
It should be noted that recent research has suggested that the "cracking" sound that comes from an adjustment of a joint has no therpeutic benefit in itself. It seems that it is rather the high velocity and low amplitude stretch of proprioceptive muculature that surrounds the joint that induced the therapeutic effect. Thus, simply "cracking" your own back by twisting yourself, etc. will not result in the same benefits of a proper adjustment by a skilled professional.
If you "crack" your back too much, then YES it is. Do not attempt to crack your back by yourself, have your doctor, or a trained professional do it. If you crack your back too much, it can lead to other health problems such has "hypermobility", which is the most common back problem associated with cracking your back. When you think of hypermobility, the easiest way to understand exactly what it is, is too think of a rubber band. When the rubber band is stretched over and over again, it loses it's "elasticity" to bounce back to it's normal shape. Which is exactly what happens with your spine when you over do it on the "Cracking" technique. Think of your back as a rubber band. It has elasticity in it to go back to it's normal shape. But the more and more you crack your back, it stretches the vertebrae, and the spine gradually loses it's elasticity to "bounce back" to it's normal form, just like a rubber band that is over stretched. This health problem is known as "HYPERMOBILITY". The younger the age you are that you start to crack your back, the more at risk you are to get back pains at an earlier age then normal, such as instead of getting back pains when your let's say, 55 years old, you'll start to get them at age 45 instead, because of the hypermobility you basically brought upon yourself by starting to crack your back at such a young age.
The above answer is interesting, but unfortunately is a common and incorrect interpretation of "back cracking". When a professional (eg: doctor of chiropractic) adjusts (cracks) your back, he/she does not stretch your ligaments more than you would during a normal day with normal activities (by turning to look over your shoulder, exercising, etc.). In fact, most of the stretch occurs on active structures like muscles that cross the joints, and this is what causes part of the therapeutic effect. If you "crack" your own back you may be stretching the ligaments a bit further, as you dont know the limits of your ligaments, but this will not cause them to become "loose" unless you hold that stretch for a very prolonged period. Further, the younger you are, the easier it is for those ligaments to become "tight" again if you do stretch them too far for too long (eg: When you sit with a poor posture you force your muscles in your back to support you. When your muscles tire out your ligaments must take over the job of supporting you, they slowly stretch and become damaged, but they will heal, especially if you are young).
What people often refer to as "back cracking" is medically termed spinal manipulative therapy, or a spinal adjustment. Spinal manipulation is the specialty of doctors of chiropractic (DC), but is also increasingly being performed by doctors of osteopathy and physiotherapists, especially as research continues to show areas where spinal manipulation has value. Research has definitivly shown that spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of many causes of back pain, neck pain, some kinds of headaches, and some extremity joint conditions (eg: carpal tunnel). Spinal manipulation can also act as a form of short-term pain relief for painful conditions. There is also increasing evidence that is suggesting that spinal manipulation will help with sciatica, mid and upper back pain, dizziness, herniated disks, etc. Anecdotal evidence (weak evidence) suggests that spinal manipulation may be effective for SOME cases of infantile cholic, asthma, dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) and hypertension (see reference below).
It should be noted that "cracking" your own back will likely not have the same therapeutic benefits of an adjustment performed by a skilled professional. Recent research has suggested that the "cracking" sound that comes from an adjustment of a joint has no therpeutic benefit in itself. It is currently thought by researchers that the high velocity and low amplitude stretch of proprioceptive musculature that surrounds the joint is what induces at least some of the therapeutic effect. Thus, simply "cracking" your own back by twisting yourself, etc. will not result in the same benefits as a proper adjustment by a skilled professional. Further, despite the fact that it is not dangerous if you are a young and healthy individual, there are some risks associated, such as fracture, sprain, strain, etc. These risks are very low when an adjustment is performed by a skilled professional, but when performed by yourself, or by another unskilled person, the risks increase. Although, even when performed by the unskilled, the risks tend to be relatively non-severe for young and healthy individuals.
Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Leininger B, Triano J. "Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report". Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010;18(3).
If it's minor; good posture.
If it's major ... see a surgeon (or a neurologist if you're already paralyzed)
Chiropractics is an excellent way to fix muscle problems without using medications that could possibly add to complications, but are useless for real vertebral problems (notwithstanding their claims).
Backache is a very general term. For anyone having back pain, you should see a professional for a specific diagnosis and for more specific treatment. I'm biased, but my choice is a doctor of chiropractic.
Here are some things that can help a mild backache:
Although no treatments exist that are completely without risk, spinal manipulation, when performed by a trained health care professional such as a doctor of chiropractic, is one of the safest forms of therapy for the treatment of back pain, neck pain, headaches and other musculoskeletal conditions (1,2). Common side effects from spinal manipulation include soreness, sprain/strain, headaches and nausea (3). There also exist a very slight risk of fracture. Despite the hype in the media, there is currently no evidence to suggest that spinal manipulation causes any side-effects more severe than those listed above (4,5).
1) A Risk Assessment of Cervical Manipulation vs. NSAIDs for the Treatment of Neck Pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995; 18 (8): 530-536.
2) The benefits outweigh the risks for patients undergoing chiropractic care for neck pain: a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2007;30: 408-418.
3) How common are side effects of spinal manipulation and can these side effects be predicted? Manual Therapy. 2004. 9 (3), Pages 151-156.
4) Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care Results of a Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study. SPINE. 2008, 33 (4S), pp S176-S183.
Did you know that doctors of chiropractic provide you all about 200 million healthcare visits in the United States each year? During the course of your typical "chiropractic course of care", you and your chiropractor often develop excellent relationships that provide any number of "teachable moments" during your one on one encounters? What are the benefits? Did you know that phenomenal growth in the public and professional recognition of alternative and complementary healthcare approaches as a critical ingredient in health and wellness: the role of nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle; and the role of your attitude and responsibility for your own health have all gained consumer and scientific acknowledgement? This growing interest is the result of successes of alternative approaches and recognition of the limitations of "conventional medicine" as a complete approach to your "health care" needs. Although chiropractic is still thought of as "alternative", these approaches are a significant aspect of your "health care" system. Did you know that Americans make more visits to alternative practitioners than they do to primary care medical physicians (Eisenberg in 1997, 629 million visits to CAM providers versus 386 million visits to primary care physicians) and pay more out of pocket to see these providers than they do for all hospitalizations? Did you know that numerous studies have provided cost comparisons between medical and chiropractic services, with virtually all showing that chiropractic demonstrates greater efficacy and cost-effectiveness? Did you know that cranial sacral therapy is effective in head trauma (MVA, sports, and birth)? Did you know that chiropractic extremity adjustments may reduce your musculoskeletal, rib cage, trauma, heart or lung related body signals, asthma, upper respiratory infection, upper or lower gastrointestinal, open chest surgery, and transplant body signals, and provide release and relief of pressure choking off the nerves connected to your spine? Did you know that your "chiropractic health"investment is lower by a substantial margin with dividends higher, with the length of your treatment varying? A 1988 Florida study showed that the cost of a case managed by a doctor of chiropractic was $1204 compared to similar cases managed by a medical physician, which averaged $2213 and took 39 days vs. 58 days to return to work. A 1991 Utah study of 3062 cases for comparison of DC to MD services showed that DC managed cases returned to work 90% faster than MD managed cases. The average treatment cost per DC case was $526 compared with MD costs of $684. Did you know that research by Gary Gaumer, PhD in 2006 shows that out of the 8 comparative studies, 6 show higher levels of satisfaction with DC care, 1 shows a higher satisfaction with MD care, and 1 shows no difference? Did you know that Magna's study for the provincial government of Ontario, Canada concluded that doubling the use of chiropractic services from 10% to 20% could realize a savings of as much as $770 million annually in direct costs and $8.3 billion in indirect costs and is one of the best studies demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care? Did you know that this a follow-up study by Magnus and Angus concluded that "there is an overwhelming evidence indicated [release and relief of pressure choking off the nerves connected to your lower back] is more cost effective than medical management and that "there would be highly significant cost savings if more management of [the release and relief of pressure choking off the nerves connected to your lower back] was transferred from physicians to chiropractors? Did you know that practice members who consider themselves "to be responsible for their own health decisions" are more likely to be satisfied with care than other persons are? Did you know that the NCCAM (formerly the Office of Alternative Medicine), is issuing grants as part of a new commitment to research the effectiveness of alternative treatments? Did you know that the chiropractic profession is rapidly gaining acceptance? It now has a body of credible research literature that has expanded significantly? Several fine scientific journals (at least one that is indexed worldwide) exists and the profession has an increasing number of high quality textbooks. Did you know that early signs of incorporating a evidence based chiropractic practice approach to patient management is emerging? Did you know that an increasing number of chiropractic colleges have been awarded an evidence based practice within their curricula and patient clinics? A number of post graduate offerings are available and expanding. Over 80 medical schools, including Harvard, are beginning to teach chiropractic health practices, and a blue ribbon panel has recently recommended that this practice be extended into all medical school curricula. These changes extend to a growing awareness of chiropractic health, a shift that will create challenges and opportunities for chiropractors.
Definition of chiropractic according to the World Federation of Chiropractic:
A health profession concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and the effects of these disorders on the function of the nervous system and general health. There is an emphasis on manual treatments including spinal adjustment and other joint and soft-tissue manipulation.
More extensive Summary:
Doctors of Chiropractic are experts in the field of non-surgical spinal health care. In addition, they are doctors who specialize in the function of the joints and nervous system. Chiropractors treat most neuromuskuloskeletal conditions. Common conditions that chiropractors treat are back pain, neck pain, headache, leg/arm pain, peripheral joint problems (eg: impingments, strains, sprains), peripheral neuropothies (eg: carpal tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome), vertigo/dizziness, whiplash, etc. Chiropractors are also well trained in nutrition and exercise, and as such can offer a range of advice/services that may relate to these.
To treat the neuromusculoskeletal conditions, chiropractors use spinal manipulation, physiotherapeutic modalities (cold laser, ultrasound, shockwave, IFC, TENS), deep tissue massage (ART-like), exercise (for rehabilitation and prevention), dietary advice, lifestyle advice, etc.
Their primary treatment, and what they are best known for, spinal manipulation, is used to induce motion into restricted joints, calm spastic musculature, induce neural reflexes that can result in global short-term pain relief, etc.
Chiropractors differentiate themselves from physiotherapists by their ability to diagnose (they are doctors), use imaging (x-ray), incorporate dietary advice, their expertise in manipulation, etc. Chiropractors differentiate themselves from medical doctors by their hands-on approach, their use of exercise and dietary advice and their expertise in the neuromuskuloskeletal system. Moreover, a major distinguishing factor between medical doctors and doctors of chiropractic is that drugs are a first choice form of treatment for all conditions by medical doctors, whereas doctors of chiropractic believe drugs should be used only when manual therapy or self care (exercise) has not helped, or when the condition is not amenable to manual therapy (eg: cancer, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, etc).
A good chiropractor will cooperate with a patients medical doctors to ensure their patients get the best care for their specific condition. For example, consider a patient that needs medication (cancer patient) and who also has back pain. The cooperation between a medical doctor and chiropractor can reduce the total number of drugs the patients must take by treating the back pain manually rather than with medication. This way, the dugs are used to treat cancer only, and there are less drugs in total in the patients body...less risk of overdose, less risk of drug interactions, less side effects from drugs, but instead a patient receiving the best care possible from 2 cooperating health care professions!!
Tingling or pins and needles in the face and neck is likely caused by irritation of the cervical (C1-C4) nerves, Trigeminal nerve, or parts of the spinal cord, brainstem or brain responsible for the sensory component of the head and neck. It is impossible to determine the specific nerve without doing a proper neurological exam. A good chiropractor or neurologist should be able to perform the cranial/cervical nerve screening tests to determine exactly where the problem is.
Determining what the problem is with that specific nerve may be a bit more difficult. Sometimes orthopedic tests, imaging or bloodwork can identify the problem right away. Sometimes it is a matter of trial and error with therapies in order to determine a specific cause. Some of the problems that could cause tingling or pins and needles are:
spinal joint dysfunction, herniated disc, vascular disorders, infections, poisoning, diabetes, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, tumors, injuries, etc.
If a specific cause is not identified, a good course of action would be to try to treat the potentially simple causes first (eg: joint dysfunction or herniation) with conservative treatments (eg: manipulation). If conservative therapy to treat the problem is not effective, or the problem gets worse, then less conservative therapies (eg: medication/surgery) for potentially more complex problems (eg: infection or MS) would be indicated.
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You may be having body aches if you are sick, otherwise you should see a doctor or a chiropractor immediatly.
Yes, some men report that they get lower back pain.
This means that the intervertebral disk that sits between your second and third lumbar vertebrae (lower back) has a weakened wall. The weakened wall is allowing the jelly-like center of your disk to push the wall outward (bulge) ever so slightly toward your nerve roots traveling through your spinal canal at this level. Stenosis just means a narrowing of the canal in which your spinal cord (or cauda equina at this level) travels.
Current research has suggested that a bulging disk does not cause pain by compressing nerves, but more likely by sensitizing nerves through local inflammation factors released by damaged cells and cells of the immune system (cytokines). Thus, over time as the inflammation goes down the pain will also go away. Usually, even after the pain is gone the disk bulge or herniation will remain, sometimes contacting nerves or even the spinal cord. It has been suggested that as many as 30% of the population has one or more asymptomatic (non-painful) disk bulges (references 1-3). It is likely a normal part of aging, so unless you are in severe pain don't panic :)
If you are in pain, try a visit to a chiropractor. Spinal manipulation and pain relieving stretches that a doctor of chiropractic can recommend will often relieve the pain associated with a disk bulge with very little risk (references 4-6).
Research is suggesting that unless there are severe neurological issues, surgery is not always good option unless (reference 7) everything else has been tried, and nothing else has worked. Similarly, research suggests that imaging such as MRI is not a great indicator of the need for surgery or severness of a herniation, as as many as 30% of the general public with no back pain at all will have a "herniation" or disk bulge according to MRI (references 1-3). As such, it seems that sometimes what looks on MRI like a painful disk herniation may be a non-painful herniation and it is a different problem altogether that is actually causing the pain.
1) Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, Modic MT, Malkasian D, Ross JS. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med 1994;331:69 --73.
2) Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg1990;72:403-- 8.
3) Jarvik JJ, Hollingworth W, Heagerty P, Haynor DR, Deyo RA. The longitudinal assessment of Imaging and disability of the back (LAIDBack) Study: baseline data. Spine 2001;26:1158--66.
4) Oliphant D. Safety of spinal manipulation in the treatment of lumbar disk herniations: a systematic review and risk assessment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004;27(3):197-210.
5) Santilli V, Beghi E, Finucci S. Chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion: a randomized double-blind clinical trial of active and simulated spinal manipulations. Spine J 2006;6:131-137.
6) Liu J, Zhang S. Treatment of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc by pulling and turning manipulations. J Tradit Chin Med 2000;20:195-197.
7) Keller RB, Atlas SJ, Soule DN, Singer DE, Deyo RA. Relationship between rates and outcomes of operative treatment for lumbar disc herniation and spinal stenosis. J Bone Joint Surg 1999;81:752- 62.
I have one but you can't have it.
Osteopaths and physiotherapists both have similar work descriptions as chiropractors, but there are definitely also differences. They all use spinal manipulation, but chiropractors are the most well trained in this art. They all use exercise therapy/rehabilitation, but physiotherapists are the most well trained in this practice. They all approach the body holistically, but physiotherapists tend to do this the least. If you are dealing with a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) in the US (different from an osteopath), they are medically trained and can also perform surgeries and write prescriptions.
He went to chiropractic collage back in the 1930's according to an interview with him on Larry King Live.
Actualy its pretty much impossible, see its hard to get a job with a criminal record, But maybe you can try.
To date there is no evidence to suggest that spinal manipulation, done by a doctor of chiropractic or another health care professional, can cause a bulging disk in the neck or any other area of the spine. Of course, if an adjustment is attempted by an unskilled individual the risks of side-effects are greater, but do not include a bulging disk. A spinal adjustment performed by a skilled professional has very little risk of side effects at all, and the risks that do exist are minor, such as sprains, strains, muscle soreness, headache, nausea, and some risks for fracture.
The thing that you should also realize is that bulging discs are very common in the general population, even if you have no symptoms. Further, chiropractic care is a very helpful treatment for the areas of the spine where there exists a disc bulge of herniation.
They have done biomechanical studies to check the failure of the disc, the point at which it tears. They found that it takes tremendous force to tear the fibers in a disc, and this occurs at 10-13 degrees of rotation. Because of the muscle stretch reflexes and the supportive ligaments in the spine, it is impossible for one person to rotate the spine to the degree that is causes tears in the spine. Bulging discs are usually caused with poor biomechanics over time, and this poor biomechanics is the very thing that chiropractors fix.
$9-12 per hour.
Following a 4-year undergraduate university/college program, chiropractic students take an additional 4-year doctor of chiropractic program that is designed to make them experts at the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system.
The full course list (taken over 4 years) at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College is:
Anatomy, physiology, public health promotion, microbiology, pathology, biochemistry, clinical nutrition, neuroscience, neurophysiology, toxicopharmacology, immunology, orthopedics, physical and laboratory diagnosis, radiography, radiology, functional rehabilitation (physiotherapy), research methods, clinical education, manipulative techniques, chiropractic principles (philosophy), as well as specialized courses in geriatrics, pediatrics, and in 4th year - clinical residency.
Although the order in which courses are taught can differ from college to college, there are some fundamental courses that all chiropractic students take during the 4-year doctor of chiropractic program.
During the first 2 years, most chiropractic programs emphasize classroom and laboratory work in sciences such as anatomy, physiology, public health, microbiology, pathology, and biochemistry. The last 2 years focus on courses in manipulation and spinal adjustment and provide clinical experience in physical and laboratory diagnosis, neurology, orthopedics, geriatrics, physiotherapy, and nutrition.
Chiropractic colleges also offer postdoctoral training in orthopedics, neurology, sports injuries, nutrition, rehabilitation, radiology, industrial consulting, family practice, pediatrics, and applied chiropractic sciences. Once such training is complete, chiropractors may take specialty exams leading to "diplomate" status in a given specialty. Exams are administered by specialty chiropractic associations.
The abbreviation is DC - for Doctor of Chiropractic.
Until you are properly checked out by a liscened physician, you should not go to sleep. The reasoning behind this is, that if you suffered a concussion in the motor vehicle accident you could possibly be unable to wake up again.
I've had a lot of backache in my life, and been to a lot of chiropractors. Some are good, some no effect. I never had one who made me worse. I used to like school-of-hard-knocks chiropractors, but since my huge crash I go to a very gentle husband-and-wife team who keep me pain-free. They fixed my wrists, too.
Yes it can,and it can be explained on the basis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy
or what we call now a days as CRPS or complex regional pain syndrome.
The sympathetic system becomes over active as a result of nerve damage and it causes increased , severe sensitivity - pain, swelling, stiffness of the joints.
There are different stages of the disorder and the manifestations depend on what stage you are.
The treatment is in the form of sympathetic blockage either by oral drugs or by injections given by anesthetists of pain medicine doctors.
The Doctors to be consulted should be , orthopedic surgeon , pain specialist.
It really depends on who you work for. Each chiropractor sets the level and then will raise the pay accordingly. To start the average is between $11-$13/ per hour (in Canada) and then depending on how long you're there for (and how well you're doing) it can increase. There is usually a cap of about $15/per hour for most assistants, but if your clinic offers other services, there is always the change that as your responsibility increases, your pay will increase. Of course, there are; like in every job, the cheap bosses that will not pay beyond a certain point. This is not a career which you will ever make 70,000 a year, but it is a great job with a lot of things to learn. PLUS, chiropractors also tend to set up bonus systems for their employees so there is another chance to make more money on a monthly basis.
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