Cush was the father of Nimrod, who grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD." The center of his kingdom was Babylon, and there is some evidence to suggest Nimrod was Gilgamesh.
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Although the original Sumerian Gilgamesh poems are fairly one dimensional in their praise of the hero king, the later Epic of Gilgamesh is more critical.
Gilgamesh oppresses the citizens of Uruk so much that they appeal to the gods for help in tablet one. He ignores wise counsel to go and kill Humbaba and insults the goddess Ishtar after killing the Bull of Heaven. These actions lead directly to Enkidu's death. Finally he abandons his kingly duties to go on a fruitless search for immortality and is suitable chastened by the wise immortal he meets at the end of his journey.
The epic does express a degree of admiration for Giglamesh's exploits but ultimately it is his restoration of lost cultic knowledge, his building activities, his physical prowess, the hardships he suffers, and the legacy of his story that the epic admires most (introduction to tablet one).
He fears that his friend was weakening
Because he was known to have fought and subdued lions. It should also be noted that Nimrod, with whom he is associated, was a lion-subduer. As one etymology of the name entails, in Hebrew "nimr" [lion or leopard] and"rada," [to subdue] though the most popular etymology traces his name to mean "the rebel" from Hebrew "marad." Adding an "n" before the "m" makes it an infinitive construct, "Nimrod." From this same etymology comes Merodach, or Marduk, the famed god of the Babylonians.
Gilgamesh was in Humbaba's trance, so Enkidu made the guardian fall. Gilgamesh kills Humbaba with an axe, using it to chop off his head.
We don't know who wrote it, but it is believed to have been written around... 3000bc
The person credited with writing Gilgamesh is Shin-eqi-unninni somewhere between 2500-2000bc
Gilgamesh, was perhaps adopted, because he came under the lineage of his Uncle Cush and, at the age of fourteen, he began to be called Nimrod. Asshur and Nimrod conquered Assyria during the fifty years following the birth of Arphaxad (2665 BC).
The earliest fragments of Sumerian Gilgamesh poems date to around 2000BCE. These were individual poems, parts of which were later incorporated into the full epic. The earliest evidence we have for the combined epic dates to around 1800BCE - the "Old Babylonian" version. This version was edited and expanded by Sin-lequi-unninni in the middle Babylonian period (probably somewhere between 1300 - 1000BCE) to produce the so called "standard version" of the epic. It is commonly held that the full flood narrative was added to the story at this time, almost certainly based on the flood story from the Epic of Atrahasis (c1700BCE).
Apart from the middle Babylonian editor we have no idea who composed the original Sumerian poems or the Old Babylonian epic. It was evidently written in poetic form and designed to be sung as court entertainment.
In the Sumerian king lists, Gilgamesh falls somewhere along the borderline of kings that we have historical evidence for and earlier ones that we don't. The balance of probability is that he was a historical king of Uruk. If this is the case, he probably reigned around the 27th century BCE.
Gilgamesh does not travel to the underowlrd what so ever. I myself even had to google the answer for this while doing a question for my English class.
The gods and goddesses in the Epic of Gilgamesh appear to require silence from humans as the noise of mankind led to the flood that Utnapishtim was able to escape from by building an ark. Some of the gods undoubtably require sacrifices from humans. One goddess wants physical love from Gilgamesh and when he spurns her she is very angry. The interesting thing here is that the gods and goddesses don't really play a big role in the epic. They seem more peripheral to the main themes which are the friendship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu, the taming of Enkidu after making love to the sacred harlot but this leads to his loss of vitality and ultimately his decline, Gilgamesh's grief at Enkidu's death, and Gilgamesh grappling with the fears of his own mortality leading him to seek for Utnapishtim and the secret of immortality. The deities serve to advance the plot and are part of the overall religious context of the epic but the main themes are profoundly human themes, deeply religious questions in much the same way that the Buddha's question about suffering are deeply religious but neither actually need gods and goddesses, rather the human drama is enough and religion is not really about gods but is actually a core dimension of our humanity. That is what makes the epic of Gilgamesh so great.
The gods and goddesses require respect from the people. Enkidu insulted a goddess and was killed. Gilgamesh was very sad because he knew he was going to die too because only the human part of Enkidu allowed him to die.
he rush to the scene because he heard the sound of falling trees.
He lived about 2500 BCE, in what is today called Iraq-Kuwait. While he was a real historic character, 2/3 of what is "known" about him is believed to be legend, such as the "fact" that he reigned as leader for 126 years, etc.
Nature versus civilization
Gilgamesh shows Urshanabi the walls of Uruk to prove his accomplishments....
Perhaps the respected biblical scholar Dr. Gleason Archer notes about the Flood account answers this question best:
"Some comparative religionists have suggested that the Babylonian myth was earlier than the Hebrew, and that the compilers of Genesis 7 and 8 borrowed from it. But this is rendered most unlikely in view of the significant contrast between the two. Thus, the ark built by Utnapishtim [in the Babylonian account] was completely cubic, equipped with six decks for all the animals to be quartered in. A more impractical and unseaworthy craft could hardly be imagined. But Noah's ark was three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits wide, and thirty cubits deepÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬ an ideal set of measurements for an ocean liner... "Moreover, the stark contrast between the quarrelsome and greedy gods of the Babylonian pantheon and the majestic holiness of [the God of the Bible], the absolute Sovereign over the universe, furnishes the strongest basis for classifying the Gilgamesh account as a garbled, polytheistic derivative from the same original episode as that contained in Genesis 7-8. The Hebrew account is couched in terms of sober history and accurate recording that reflect a source derived from the persons who were actually involved in this adventure. The Gilgamesh Epic is far more mythical and vague" ( New International Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties, 1982, p. 84).
The best ideas of learned people have been proven wrong throughout history - consider the geocentric beliefs of the Middle Ages or the belief the Earth was flat. New equipment and discoveries have changed many of the scholarly beliefs. The one exception, however, seems to be the Bible. The more scientists/scholars discover, the more authenticated the writings of Scripture become.
Epic theater, also known as theater of alienation or theater of politics, is a theater movement arising in the early to mid-20th century, inextricably linked to the German playwright Bertolt Brecht. Though many of the concepts involved in epic theater had been around for years, even centuries, Brecht unified them, developed the style, and popularized it. It is sometimes referred to as Brechtian acting, although its principles apply equally to the writing and production of plays. Brecht later favored the term 'dialectic theater', to emphasize the element of argument and discussion.
Does the epic of Gilgamesh suggest that Mesopotamian society was uncivilized? I don't really think so. It was probably the most sophisticated, technologically advanced socitey of its day. Certainly Gilgamesh's behaviour at the start of the epic was a little barbaric, but the epic makes it clear that this behaviour was unacceptable. It also seems to suggest that dangerous journeys of conquest are not ideal, pandering more to the hubris of the king than the good of his people. Furthermore, the story of Enkidu describes civilization as a powerful and positive influence on the former wild man. If anyone is barbaric in the epic it is the chief gods for destroying humanity with a flood. Unlike the biblical equivalent, however, they are strongly repremanded and criticized for this action. Finally, the production of such a momentus literary work as the epic itself is the best argument for the sophistication and humanistic values of at least one educated subsegment of Mesopotamian society in the late second millennium BCE.
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It is suggested that he was the cup-bearer to Urzababa, the King in Kish at the time. Before this time there were no empires so if you were a king you just ruled one city. Some suggest he fled to Susa in the east (edge of modern day Iran) where he was able to lead an army (where did he get it? we don't know) and start from the eastern city of Susa and work his way west, taking all the southern Mesopotamian cities and uniting them under one government. Another version is that he just took the throne from in Kish and went from there.
He's two parts divine and one part human!
Parallel passages occur when a single event or major concept is given in two or more places in the various scriptural accounts. In the Greek Scriptures this happens very frequently in the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke). It also happens quite a bit in the Hebrew Scriptures. A ' biblical parallel ' is the act of comparing the passages or scriptures of one bible and cross referencing it with other bilbles to see how they match up or not. Try going to ' eBible.com Study Browser '. There you will be able to make a side by side comparison and parallel for instance, the King James Version with about 8 or 9 other bibles. Its the only site I know of that does this.
Uganda is an agricultural country (subsistence farming) in fact agriculture accounts for 90% of the population. Uganda has a population of about 23 million people out of which 15 million are women. Subsistence farming is mainly carried out in rural areas of the country on small family plots of land by the rural women (land tittles are in the names of their husbands). We normally refer to them as the basket winners or food producing computers. We call them the silent heroes whose efforts to look after the families have not been recognized at all yet in cultivating food they save lives and change lives! The little that they grow is put to home consumption and if there is any surplus at all it goes to the market to earn a little money in order for the women to be able to purchase other basics like salt, paraffin and also to take care of the children's numerous needs.
In Africa, Uganda was one of those countries that were hit hard by HIV/IADS since the early 80s. Since then the government came up with an openness policy to fight the pandemic. All stake holders have since worked together as a team these included; the government, NGOs, CBOs, Faith Based Organizations, individuals etc. Indeed since then success has been registered in terms of aw in Uganda still faces a lot of problems which have been made worse by this pandemic. She is torn between being player of so many roles and grappling emotionally and physically with the HIV/AIDS dilemma.
The women in Uganda, due cultural tendencies have not had a choice to stay alive. The African culture which gives men liberty to have more than one partner, men can wed in church but at the same time the Ugandan constitution allows traditional /cultural marriages meaning that having more than one wife is normal and not condemned.Secondly for the Moslem men, even where they cannot manage looking after the family, they continue to marry up to four women because the Koran allows it . This culture which empowers men to have as many partners as they can also empowers them to produce as many children as they want and in most cases they do not take care of them it is the women who will make sure that they eat, dress, get education and medication. It should be noted that in African culture and in particular Uganda many children and many wives are seen as a source of power and respect and thus even family planning is seen as an insult to the rural man. The women normally go secretly to the family planning centers and if they are unlucky and the husband finds out, then hell breaks loose, the man marries another woman who is willing to deliver more children and the women are afraid of that.
The above situation has lead to the death of so many innocent rural women due to HIV/AIDS whose orphaned children have been taken care of by their grand parents who are very old to do the digging in order to give them food and as a result the children have taken to the streets as baggers (street children)
Those women who have been fortunate to stay alive , most of whom are weak with lack of retroviral have had to stay on and till the land in order to look after their children and in most cases their husbands . Even in situations where women get to know their status, the men will still continue asking them for sex and refusal is taboo as punishments can be unlashed on them by their husbands. Such punishments include abandoning of the woman and her children, marrying other women or chasing them away from their homes.
In rural Uganda, the women work from dawn to sunset yet what they harvest cannot even allow them to have more than one meal a day, normally they have the evening meal of the day which is not even balanced because all the good food and vegetable that they grow, they have to sell to buy essentials. Their children go malnourished and as such even when the children go to school they are never attentive because the bodies are too weak.
The situation has been worse in the war torn areas of Northern Uganda, where the rebels of the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) have been very brutal to the rural women and the children. . Where women in the Internally Displaced Camps (IDP) have had to take up their role as the basket winners, look after the family and at the same time bear the abuse of a husband who will still take on another wife even under such situations. Women have contracted HIV/Aids both from their husbands and from being raped by the rebels. The women have been traumatized but life has to go on. Currently the government has tries to take families back to their homes so that they can lead normal lives but for the rural woman normal life means toiling away on the land from morning till when the cows come home (evening)
There is an urgent need to carefully re examine the fruitless , over burdened roles of the rural woman who is currently playing the roles of ; a miserable mother , a miserable cultivator/ bread winner ,a miserable wife without rights to a role of a proud mother , a knowledgeable wife who knows her rights, a meaningful income contributor and a saver.
This new product of a woman will go a long way in improving her life, that of her children the family and the community in general with self esteem and confidence.
Some charity organizations like the one I represent (Foundation for women and youth in development) FOWAYODE have thought of the following to help improve the lives of the rural women-
-First and fore most to sensitize them about their rights and build confidence in them in order for them to be able to face upcoming challenges
-we should come up with small income generating activities for the rural women on top of agriculture in order to subsides their income. These would include: poultry, piggery, goat rearing, snack making, tailoring, weaving, baking etc.
-sensitizing and encouraging the women to go for testing of HIV/AIDS in order for them to know their status
-sensitizing them on simple accounting skills and a saving culture. Encourage them to pull the little resources they have by saving it through the micro finance institutions in their localities.. When the savings have grown they can trade together as a group for example buying maize seeds and selling them to the World food programme and other buyer's etc
There is so much to be done to help the rural woman who is so disadvantaged because of the backward cultural tendencies and primitive agricultural methods which have been aggravated with the HIV/AIDS pandemic. We believe that a woman is the history, the present, the future and the backbone of any nation since they give birth to children, they nurture them and see them grow into citizens who take up roles for a nation's development and for that programmes should be formulated to protect them and also improve their lives for they have so many hats (mothers, wives and bread earners.)
Utnapishtim survived when he was told to build a boat, its length as great as its width.
It's to place an event or situation in a given period of time or era .
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