Sickle-Cell Disease

Sickle-cell disease is a genetic blood disorder wherein the red blood cells are irregularly shaped due to the blood’s lowered oxygen tension. This irregularity may result in chronic anemia, serious infections, painful conditions, damage to organs and death.

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Sickle-Cell Disease

Can a person with sickle cell anemia get a tattoo?

Yes, it would not prevent it, however, if they are being treated, they should discuss it with their physician to avoid problems with medication preventing clotting or similar issues.

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Can Sickle Cell Anemia spread?

No, Sickle Cell Anemia isn't contagious, is an inherited autosomal co-dominant genetic condition characterized by sickle (crescent) shaped red blood cells and chronic anemia caused by excessive destruction of red blood cells. It can only be inherited from parents.

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How can you tell if someone has sickle cell disease?

You ask them.

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Will a tattoo affect sickle cell disease?

No, tattoos will not effect the disease. Just be sure to take your regular antibiotics if needed to prevent any infections.

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Where is a Pedigree chart for sickle-cell anemia?

An example pedigree chart for sickle-cell anaemia can be found using the related link below.

Individuals shaded black have the disease, individuals that are not shaded are unaffected, and individuals that are carriers are shown with diagonal lines (they are often shown with a single dot in the centre of their shape).

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Long-term effect on sickle cell anemia?

Premature death. People with sickle cell anaemia rarely reach adulthood.

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Can an adult be diagnosed with sickle cell anemia?

yes it is possible

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Is sickle cell anemia recessive or dominant?

Sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive disease. Carriers have sickle cell trait, which confers resistance to malaria.

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What type of mutation causes sickle cell anemia- substitution- deletion- insertion- mutagen?

The type of mutation that causes a defect in the gene (causing sickle cell anaemia) is a substitution mutation.

A single nucleotide substitution (A to T) in the β-globin gene causes the amino acid valine to replace glutamic acid. This changes the resulting protein, causing a haemoglobin with an abnormal shape to be created.

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Sickle-cell anemia is caused by a mutation that results in?

D) production of malformed hemoglobin molecules

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Do white people get sickle cell disease?

1.It is particularly common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about 1 in every 500 African-American births and 1 in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About 2 million Americans, or 1 in 12 African Americans, carry the sickle cell trait.

The below text is partially incorrect:

According to pubmed (a government run medical website) only 2 white people have been diagnosed with sickle cell. It was caused by a random mutation in their genes. For a white person to get sickle cell they must have a 1 in a trillion genetic mutation because there is no genetic history of sickle cell in white people. No genetic history of sickle cell means that it can not be inherited, it can only come from a mutation. Black people have much higher odds of having sickle cell because there is a genetic history of sickle cell in Africans. This means that it can be inherited from the parents. Sickle cell originated in three independent blood lines in Africa and one blood line in India 70,000-150,000 years ago. If you have sickle cell it means you are a descendent of one of these blood lines.

2. i am white and having sickle cell trait and alot off people around me having sickle cell disease

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What is a sickle cell crisis?

When cells don't form a membrane and are only half developed and then pass thus genetic information onto other cells...i think

Sickle cell anemia is a condition in which the red blood cells are misformed. Instead of being round and concave somewhat like a donut but without a hole, a sickled red blood cell looks more like a crescent moon. The problem with sickle cell anemia is that, because of the deformity, it is not able to carry as much heme therefore decreasing the amount of oxygen each red blood cell can carry. When individuals get into sickle cell crisis, the cells of their body are greatly deprived of oxygenated blood. They are usually dehydrated and thus the sickled cell has even more difficulty passing through the venous and arterial systems. This condition is extremely painful for the individual and they will need medical attention immediately.

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Sickle-Cell Disease

What kind of liquor can sickle cell patients drink?

There is an increased possibility of a stroke or heart attack that may often result in death. It is best to ask your doctor for a personal reccommendation on consuming alcohol and the effects it may have on your health. To prevent further complications to the disease it is best to adopt a healthy lifestyle involving limited or no alcohol intake, healthy balanced diet and exercise. Smoking should be avoided at all cost, and it is essential to consume at least 8 glasses of water a day to prevent dehydration. If you do consume alcohol, drink 1 - 8oz glass of water for every 1oz of liquor or 4 oz glass of wine or 6oz of beer. This will limit the effects of dehydration which may cause stroke.

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How does sickle cell anaemia affect the body?

Basically, sickle cell anemia means that some of the red blood cells of the person with the disease are not the right shape, instead of being bowl shaped, they are half moon shaped. This means that they can't carry oxygen around the body as well as a person without the condition. As the sickle cells are not only the wrong shape, but also quite rigid, they can block the blood capillaries, so that tissues in the body become starved of oxygen (ischemic). The blockages can vary loads in severity/frequency etc, and they can end up causing a stroke or heart attack if blocking a blood vessel to the brain or heart. One of the organs that is really badly affected by this is the spleen. It has really narrow blood vessels leading to it, so can get starved of oxygen badly and frequently. Normally this means that people with sickle cell anemia do not have a working spleen by the end of childhood, so are at risk of infections. People with sickle cell anemia tend to have more red blood cells than people without the condition as their body over compensates for the red blood cells.

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Sickle-Cell Disease

Can you get social security for having sickle trait?

No, not unless you are ill.

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Why is the deleterious sickle cell allele still present in the gene pool of the US?

Sickle-Cell AnaemiaSickle cell anemia is a disease that is controlled by alleles S and s .three possible combinations are SS , Ss ans ss . The most important reason why this allele is present in whole world including America is heterozygous superiority which keeps this gene in population

Several major Universities whose main function is Technology, along with the Medical Schools associated with teaching in the Children's Hospitals have begun joining forces using nanotechnology to alter the genetics of the sickle cell trait. Among them is a collaborative effort between GA Institute of Technology, Emory University Medical School, and Children's Health Care Systems of Atlanta. Once this is accomplished, plans are already in the works to move on to another deadly disease initiated with inherited genes: Cystic Fibrosis. This is an excellent collaborative use of each genre's best abilities: cooperation vs competition.

I earlier times this may have been negatively associated with eugenics, however that connotation is now being transformed with the positive aspects of actually changing genetics at the microcellular level to rid populations of certain killer traits, rather than attempts at 'perfecting the human race,' as in the despicable times of Hitler. This is not a genocidal experiment, but one aimed at saving lives of painful and deathly diseases, remembering sickle cell trait is mostly among Blacks.

To get a clearer picture of why the allele is still present, just remember what the Hardy-Weinberg principle predicts:

both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant; that is, they are in equilibrium from generation to generation unless specific disturbing influences are introduced. Those disturbing influences include non random mating, mutations, selection, limited population size, "overlapping generations," random genetic drift, gene flow and meiotic drive.

Since the homozygous recessive (when the Anaemia is actually expressed) and heterozygous condition do not affect mating probabilities, the allele will naturally remain within the population.

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Can sickle cell skip a generation?

Yes it can. It can even skip several generations.

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How can Sickle cell anemia be adaptive?

Sickle cell anemia could be adaptive in the way that it offers protection against malaria. Sickle cell anemia is dominant genetic disorder whereas if you inherit it from both parents (AA alleles) then you die early in life because your blood cells are unable to carry the required amount of oxygen. However if you only inherit it from one parent (Aa alleles), then only part of your blood cells shows the characteristic sickle shape while the other part is fully functional. We have not yet discovered the reason behind this, but it plays a part in protecting against the malaria parasite.



Some literature that may help you research this topic more thoroughly (some are free access at www.pubmed.com):

1. McKenzie, E; Killeen, G; Beier, J; Bossert, W. 2001. Seasonality, Parasite Diversity, and Local Extinctions in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Ecology 82(10) pp: 2673-2681.

2. Dajer, Tony. Blackwater Fever. 1992. Discover Magazine pp: 47-52.

3. Burns, E; Pollack, S. 1988. P. falciparum infected Erythrocytes are capable of Endocytosis. In Vitro Celular & Developmental Biology. 24(5). pp: 481-486. 4. O'Donnell, A; Weatheralla, D; Taylorc, A; Reederb, J; Allenab, A. 2005. Muscle cell injury, haemolysis and dark urine in children with falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea 5. Suarez, C. 1985. Plasmodium Falciparum: Invasion and Development in highly Parasitized Cultures. 21(3). pp:161-164.

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Is sickle cell anemia the same as sickle cell diseases?

yes

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Malaria

What is the connection between sickle cell anemia and malaria?

There is connection between two, you can say it to be long connection between the two. You are naturally resistant to malaria, when you are having sickle cell trait. That means when you have mutation in single chromosome. That makes you fit to survive in the malaria endemic zone. So this gene is naturally selected in the malaria endemic zone. So you find sickle cell anaemia in malaria endemic zone only. The normal people will be killed by malaria in such a region. The biggest problem faced by the military in world war one and two was malaria and not the opposite forces. (So it is better to fight with malaria and not with each other!) The heavy price you for such protection against malaria is given in the form of sickle cell anaemia. When both the parents has got sickle cell trait, some of the children will the sickle cell anaemia. So the above mentioned gene will come from both the parents. The child suffer from the disease and rarely lives a long life. The patient of sickle cell anaemia is not resistant to malaria. When he gets malaria, the anaemia will get worse and may kill the patient.

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How is sickle cell anemia and down syndrome inherited?

Both are genetic Down syndrome is most usually caused by the woman being over the age of 35 at the time of conception therefore an amniocentesis is strongly recommended.

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Is sickle cell anemia curable?

Currently there is no cure for sickle cell anemia. However, the condition is manageable through medication, self monitoring and blood transfusions.

Because sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease, the only way to cure it is to fix the genetic template of the hematopoietic cells. This can be done either by completing sterilizing the bone marrow and repopulating it with healthy red blood cell precursors or by using gene therapy to introduce a healthy gene into the precursor cells.

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Letters Notes and Memos
Sickle-Cell Disease

How parents will write a leave application letter to her principal?

My son Raman studing LKG - A sec in our school. He was not able to came to attended the classes on 4th July 2012 due to ill. kind permission is requested to allow him.

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Definitions
Sickle-Cell Disease

What is the definition of cell?

A cell is a little group of tissues that work together to create an organ which goes to the organ system to the organism.
A cell is a fundamental unit of life that is a small, membrane-enclosed unit that can grow, respond to it's environment, convert energy from one form to another, and reproduce. (cells are extremely diverse).
DEFINITION: A cell is the smallest and most basic structured component of an organism. Cells are in all organisms.

MORE DETAIL: There are many different types of cells that are found within organisms. This is because there needs to be certain cells that provide certain functions for different parts of the body.
A cell is the structural function and biological unit of any organism.
a cell is a part of an organisem that helps the body survive a cell is the basic unit af life

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What is pernicious anemia?

This is anaemia (lowered blood haemoglobin) due to a lack of vitamin B12 absorbed from the intestinal tract, due to a lack of intrinsic factor usually. This can be due to auto antibodies against the cells that produce intrinsic factor, stomach ulcers crowding out the cells that produce intrinsic factor, a hereditary lack of intrinsic factor or the after effects of surgery, illness or fish tapeworm. This gives a macrocytic anaemia. Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that renders the person unable to absorb sufficient Vitamin B-12. Eventually the person becomes Vitamin B-12 deficient and must be treated. Prior to the availability of treatment persons died from the disease, hence the name pernicious. It is critical that treatment be obtained as soon as possible. You can find more information at the following website: www.pernicious-anaemia-society.org

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