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Ancient Wars

Parent Category: War and Military History
The Ancient period is generally accepted as being 600 BCE to 500 CE, before which was the Archaic period, and after which began the Medieval period. However as there is not an Archaic Wars category, it is acceptable to post pre-500 BCE military questions in this area.
The Hellenistic period was post-Alexander when his successors (histop generals) who, in the late 4th C BCE carved up his empire andstruggled against each other to expand their cut of the cake - thePtolemies in Egypt, the Seleucids in Syria, and various dynastiesin Macedonia and Asia Minor. Judea...
See the list at the attached website.
There were no 'countries' in today's sense of the word. Greece  comprised hundreds of independent city-states which from time to  time banded into defensive alliances.    The Peloponnesian war was between Athens and its allies and  Sparta and its allies. The city-states stretched from Sicily...
They didn't wage war on each other.
Yes, the 300 Spartan hoplites with their 2,000 light infantry continued to hold the pass to let their 4,000 Greek allies escape and died to preserve them.
Its Warsaw Pact allies. Hungary decided on independence from the Soviet Bloc, and the USSR organised the other countries in eastern Europe to put down the secession.
The Greeks saw the Persians off, so nothing changed.
The two sides were Athens and its allies(empire), and Sparta and  its allies from the Peloponnesian peninsula. Peloponnesian War is a  later name, coined by some lazy scholars.
Each other, the Nubians to the south, the desert peoples to the east and west, the Greek, Persians and other Asiatic peoples to the north.
In A.D. 410 the Visigoths leader Alaric and his solders captured the city of Rome. They burned records and looted the treasury. Rome's capture shocked the empire's people. It was the first time Rome had been conquered in 800 years.
It was a blocking action to bring on a navel action in the nearby strait in which the Greeks hopd to destroy the Persian naval threat. The naval battle failed so the Thermopylai pass was abandoned. The Spartan force of 2,400 (300 armoired infantry and 2,1oo light infantry) selflessly continued to...
  The Emporer Nero, allegedly.
Persian King Xerxes I and Spartan King Leonidas.
In the southern Peloponnese Peninsula.
He was in his palace at Persepolis in Persia, governing his empire.
Athens had a powerful navy. This navy was part of the combined navy of the alliance of southern Greek city-states which defeated the Persian navy (which was composrd of Phoenician, Asian-Greek and Egyptian ships) at Salamis.
After the Athenian and Plataean force defeated the Persian infantry  which broke and ran.
I'm not fo sho but i think it was the pikes
No , the two are distinct .
In 490 BCE Athens and its ally Plataia defeated a Persian punitive expedition at Hxxxxxx by attacking the Persian infantry when its cavalry support was absent. In 481 there was no battle as there were no Persians forces in mainland Greece. In 480 BCE the southern Greek alliance fleet defeted the...
The Greek hoplites used bronze-pointed spears, iron swords. Their light infantry used bows, javelins and rocks. Their cavalry used bows and javelins.   The Persians used a variety of similar weapons.   The warships used rams, javelins, bows and other assorted missiles.
Celts, Germans, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Huns, Vandals, Venetii .......
Augustus is ofter regarded as Rome's greatest Emperor combining the skills of both the politician and general inasmuch as he established the 'Pax Roman' where the Roman Empire experienced a long term of peace , developed the infrastructure of a road network and civil services . See related link...
Yes, it existed. What else .... ?
Athens lost its empire. Sparta became temporaly dominant until toppled by Thebes. Persia imposed peace to stop the disruption by ongoing petty wars between the Greek city-states. Macedonia began to establish dominance in the vacuum. disaster, one third of the athens population was dead because...
Themistocles. He persuaded the people to use a large strike ofsilver In the mines to pay for the fleet rather than dividing it upamongst themselves, foreseeing the increasing threat of a Persianinvasion in retaliation for the defeat inflicted at Marathon.
To hold the pass to precipitate a naval battle in the adjacent strait at Artemesion. They lost the sea battle, withdrew from the pass and refought the sea battle successfully at Salamis. it was important to destroy the Persian fleet at it both threatened the Greek cities which therefore kept their...
It was the city of Athens against a Persian expeditionary force  sent to bring it under control after it interfered in a war in Asia  Minor. The Athenians were lurking in the hills around the plain of  Marathon where the Persian cavalry couldn't get at them, waiting  for reinforcement fro Sparta...
They had turned their geographical disadvantages to their own favour by building the long walls from the city to their port. They could then defend themselves, supply themselves by sea and launch sea invasions against their enemies - all in their favour. This allowed them to keep going for 27 years...
Nothing in particular (he personally was a Mithras initiate). But he did allow Christians to take high office within the empire, from which they had previously been barred.
No weapon is secret when you use it in wars.
Seven Persian nobles deposed a king they considered to be an imposter and offered the throne to one of their number, Darius. Too good an offer to refuse.
Inter-city warfare continued on in Greece until Thebes became dominant, Persia imposed peace to stop the warfare spilling over into its empire, Macedonia rose to dominance in this vacuum.
Take a map of the Mediterranean Sea and look at it from Sicily through to Asia Minor.
First they joined together to defeat Julius Ceasar's assassins. Then they split the empire between them and eventually faced off against each other.
The Battle of Marathon was an exceptional achievement for the Greeks over the numerically superior Persians . To send news of this signal victory to Athens , Pheidippides was sent to inform them which required crossing a distance of approximately 25 miles - the approximate distance from Marathon to...
This is not known, but with 40 ships lost, perhaps 8,000.
It means 'a fine head of hair'. Obviously black humour - he was balding, a family characteristic.
There was a pass at Thermopylai (hot gates - a thermal springs area).
To impose rule over the Greek city-states to put and end to their interference in peace within the Persian empire.
Leonidas is important to Greek history because he symbolize the bravery and the courage of the whole Greece. His decision to stay and fight with his 300 soldiers against the thousands soldiers of Persia made him an important figure in the Greek history.
Athens lost its empire and ascendency in Greece, the Greek world was devastated, Sparta's confederacy gained temporary ascendancy but infighting continued until Persia imposed a peace to stop this fighting spilling over into its own empire.
The anti-Persian league which we call today the Delian League because its war chest was held on the island of Delos.
See the link below for a map outlining activity.
Julius Caesar when he invaded Gaul and Mark Antony in the battle of Actium.
The Persian empire was gone before the Roman empire became powerful.
King Xerxes of Persia was defeated at Salamis in 480 bc by theGreek navies.
After the battle, the Athenians realised that the Persians were  about to capture Athens which was undefended in their absence at  the battlefield. The Athenian army ran back the 26 miles to the  city to defend it, and this run by 18,000 Athenians was the model  for today's marathon run at...
The Peloponnesian League.
The Eastern Roman Empire survived, because they had developed a well organized system of government, a stable administration or civil service, a good army. Most importantly, it was far from the areas which suffered the Germanic invasions which precipitated the falls of the western part of the empire...
The Greek polis was a self-governing city - hundreds of them dotted right around the Mediterranean. They continued on for hundreds of years after the Peloponnesian War.
About 25 to 1. But as they were fighting in a narrow pass, the numbers opposing each other at any time were about the same.
The Battle of Thermopylae occurred , approximately , August or September 480BC .
By using a rather well-known track through th mountains around the flank, and driving off the Greek fleet from the sea flank.
Yes and also weakend financialy and military both Sparta and Athens.
They lost, and made peace in 449 BCE.
The Roman army progressively was comprised of Germanic peoples - Goths, Vandals, Huns etc so differentiation of relative strengths is difficult.
Conservative politician Thucydides son of Melesias was orstacised (exiled for 10 years) ending his struggle for political supremacy in Athens with Pericles.
Adrianople 378 CE.
By the majority vote of several hundred jurymen in a trial. He was charged with introducing strange gods and corrupting youth (meaning leading younger Athenians astray by teaching them to think for themselves). The strange gods bit doesn't gel, and presumably was added as impiety carried the death...
The Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt , the Seleucid Empire in the east , the Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor and Macedon .
Greek culture was not spread by the Peloponnesian War. That war involved the already-spread Greek world which existed from Spain through the Mediterranean to Asia Minor and the Black Sea. The aftermath of the war left the Greek world badly weakened, not strengthened. And it opened the way for the re...
i think persia was important becuse it showed that greeks are way past cilivilzation
Sparta became temporarily dominent, Persia regained influence in the area and Thebes ovetturned Spartan ascendancy.
Their kings of the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy were: Theodoric the Great 489-526Athalaric 526-534Theodahad 534-536Witiges 536-540Ildibad 540-541Eraric 541Totila 541-552Teia (552-553
There are several:To provide the squabbling Greek city states he had tentatively united with a common enemy to focus on;To fulfil his dreams and ambitions;To gain control of the fabled wealth and power of the Persian Emperor;To get revenge for Greek defeats at the hands of the Persians;To free Greek...
Athens, along with Eretria, supported rebellions by Ionian cities in Persian territory in Asia Minor. Persia determined to stop this by installing a puppet Athenian tyrant in Athens, and sent an expeditionary force in 490 to enforce this. The expedition was defeated at Marathon.
The Athenian army saw an opportunity when the Persians sent their cavalry to embark on ships, and rushed down to engage the inferior Persian infantry.
He attempted to incorporate the city-states of mainland Greece into his empire to put an end to their endless fighting which spilt over to his empire. He failed and the Greek city-states retained their freedom to continue their fratricidal warfare and disruption, culminating in the Peloponnesian...
Aeneas and his followers.
Work it out - 50 million people in the empire, lifespan 30 years, multiply by how many years do you want to cover.
1. It establishment. 2. Development of its system of governance. 3. Failure of its expansion plans to the east into India and to the west in Europe. 4. The death of Alexander without a clear heir. 5. Its disintegration into the Hellenistic Kingdoms.
Its origins were in the assassination of Tiberius Gracchus in 133 BCE.
He left no clear heir and his generals split it up amongst themselves, creating what we now call the Hellenistic Kingdoms, which fought amongst each other.
Crowded. They moved from their farms into the cities. Athens sent its families to board in other cities, abandoned their city and took to the sea to fight.
Through trade and their silver mines in Spain. They therefre had the money for a strong navy to protect their trade, and were able to hire a mercenary army to fight on land.
The were able to influence them to prepare for a subsequent full Persian invasion and band together to resist it in the knowledge that they could be beaten.
It gave Athenians great prestige. Some city-states became wary of Athenian power and intentions. Others were happy to her as an ally. Persia concentrated on buying over (northern) city-states to its side to erode those which were hostile to its increasing influence. Athens was able to influence...