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Particle Physics

~8500 answered questions
Parent Category: Cosmology
Relatively recent experimental results have confirmed what philosophers throughout history had theorized all along; that all matter is made up of elementary particles. Those curious about this cutting-edge field of physics known as particle physics should post their questions here, including those about fundamental particles, fundamental forces, Grand Unified Theories, and the extraordinary devices that have been or need to be engineered to research them.
The Bench PressGrab the bar with a comfortable grip, not too wide or narrow. Make sure you wrap your thumbs around the bar. An open-palmed grip is dangerous. Your elbows should be directly below your wrists.Get decent foot placement. Leg drive is an underused aspect of bench pressing. Your feet will…
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Are you certain that you mean "amps"? Maybe you mean 110 VOLTS. The voltage in most home circuits are 110 volts except for a few appliances like driers, well pumps, hot water heaters, etc. And even those appliances probably only use 30 amps or so. The whole house may only have the capacity for 100 a…
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A proton is a part of an atom. The other parts of an atom are the neutron, and electrons. It's an electrically charged particle. It is positive. It is located within the nucleus of the atom, which is about one ten thousandth of the diameter of the atom itself but contains virtually all of the atom's…
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Cosmic strings are "theoretical" subatomic particles that are about one billionth of a millimeter in diameter. They are also interconnected with the big bang theory, but not simply remnants of it.   String theory has been disproved.   Comsic strings are theoretical vibrating strings of…
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it sounds like the problem is your mass air flow sensor, very common problem, you might be wondering why it doesnt do it until it warms up, well your computer follows a present sensor readings until your vehicle gets to operating temp because when your vehicle is cold some of your sensors are not ac…
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No they can not if you have a letter from doctor
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String theory refers to any one of five specific theories that attempts to unify the four fundamental forces: electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and the most difficult of them all, gravity, via oscillatory dimensional analysis. In other words, it attempts to mathematically d…
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The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by Sir John Joseph Thomson (J.J. Thomson) and his team of British physicists.
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In the 5th cent. B.C. the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus proposed that matter was made up of tiny, indivisible particles they called atom, or in Greek "a-tomos". The reason why they assumed this is because nothing can come from nothing. Around 1803, John Dalton (1766-1844) developed the…
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Electron was discovered in 1897 by J.J. Thomson.
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Answer If I remember correctly the 64 had tail light lenses that were kind of triangle shaped looking down at them, looking straight at them they were higher in the middle, and the 66 were kind of curved, with the outside edge being higher. The tailgates are different as well the top of the 66 ga…
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It weighs 1.673 *10^ -27 kilograms. Here is some more information on protons. Protons are heavy particles made of three quarks. A proton is 1,836 times heavier than an electron. A proton is about 2*10^-15 meters across (2 femtometers). Protons carry a single positive electric charge.
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Antimatter Antimatter could be considered the opposite of "normal" matter. We know that the matter that is all around us and makes us up is built of atoms, and these atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. In antimatter, atoms would be constructed of anti-protons, anti-neutrons and ant…
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Protons and Neutrons Protons don't really relate to electricity. Electron do because electricity is the flow of electrons through a wire. Answer Protons don't really relate to electricity except in some nuclear physics applications. Electrons do because electricity, by definition, is the flow…
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The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons and the atomic number.
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Usually 7 Not all oxygen atoms have the same number of neutrons. However, the very large majority have 7 neutrons (some have slightly more or less than that). Number of neutrons = Atomic mass of an isotope - atomic number (number of protons) The most important stable isotope of oxygen is 16O (…
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It is called Antimatter. antimatter is exactly the opposite of matter. it can be made but the technology presently used today is not advanced enough for production to be cost effective, thus the reason for it costing 62.5 trillion dollars per gram. multiply that by one thousand and you get it pe…
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AtomsThe charge on a proton is +1. Its location is the nucleus, and its mass is 1.67262 x 10-27 kg. Protons have an effective size of about 1.2 x 10-15 m, and the nucleus is roughly the cube root of the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) times that typical proton size, usually still on the or…
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Neutrons A neutron is a subatomic particle; it is one of the building blocks of the atom. As such, it is found in the nucleus of an atom. The neutron has an atomic mass of about 1.00865 u, and a mass of about 1.675 x 10-27 kg. Its spin is +1/2 and that makes it a fermion. Additionally, it has no ele…
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Ionization EnergyIonization energy is the amount of energy required to remove one electron from an atom, molecule or ion. You can also measure the 2nd IE, which is the energy required to remove the second electron, and so on. IEs of atoms are strictly positive numbers as it always requires energy to…
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Electrons carry a negative electrical charge. In S.I. units, the electron's charge is -1.602 x 10-19 Coulomb (to four significant figures).
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By doing so, both end up having a noble gas configuration, with 8 valence electrons (known as an octet). They do this to become chemically stable. They become stable as they have filled their outer shell of electrons.Atoms of groups 1 elements have only 1 electron in their outer shells, which means …
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Tachyons are any theoretical particles that have an imaginary mass. Because all tachyons have an imaginary mass, the velocity of all tachyons must exceed the speed of light (contrasted with Bradyons like electrons, quarks, and composite particles which must always move slower than light). Most mode…
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Subatomic particles are smaller than atoms. Subatomic particles are found inside the nucleus of an atom and include protons, neutrons, quarks, and gluons. Protons carry a positive electrical charge while neutrons carry a neutral charge. Inside these protons and neutrons are quarks which are held tog…
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There are 13 protons in an atom of aluminum, regardless of the isotope. If it didn't have 13 protons, it wouldn't be aluminum, it would be something else. There are 14 neutrons in an atom of aluminum 27, its only stable isotope. See the Related Questions for how to count the number of protons, neutr…
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If the 3He target has its spin polarized along the axis of the neutron beam, you may consider that the protons' spin will be canceling out and the spin will be more-or-less carried by the one neutron. Thus it will prefer to absorb neutrons polarized in the opposite direction, ie negative helicity.
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In the nucleus of the atom, along with neutrons. The electrons are found around the nucleus. If the atom was the size of a baseball stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a baseball! Most of the space in an atom is taken up by the electron cloud which surrounds the nucleus. That is why atoms ar…
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Electrons are located in the outside of nucleus of atom, particularly on the energy level surrounding it. Of the electrons stable electrons are paired condition, unstable electron(s), valence electron(s), is(are) unpaired, which is(are) located outermost energy level and can lose or gain to form its…
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That's a complicated question, with an answer that needs both philosophy and science. There was no single experiment which suddenly showed the existence of atoms. The story starts with the ancient Greeks. Democritus and Leucippus were philosophers in the 5th century B.C. and they talked about the id…
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Answer The SEM has become more popular than the TEM as it can produce images of high resolution, greater clarity and three dimensional quality and requires less sample preparation.
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Answer Sometimes when we graph the relationship between two varying quantities of real life on a coordinate plane we get dots scattered on coordinate plane. For example graph average math score of students from grade 8. Let's consider their 8-week score. (1, 50) (2, 52), (3, 49), (4, 58), (5, …
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Light waves are bent as they travel through glass increasing the ability to see items at a much more magnified level. First, we have to light up the specimen. A mirror mounted under the microscope stand does the job. Light bounces off the mirror, passes through and around our specimen (mounted firm…
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Iodine has the atomic number of 53. Its common ionic form has it gaining one electron which gives the orbital configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6.
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Answer No. In a complete vacuum with nothing there, electromagnetic energy (the gamma ray from which pair production might arise) will proceed unaffected and at the speed of light. The question asks specifically about a vacuum and suggests that there is nothing there to in any way react with the …
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That isn't really true. What makes atoms more reactive is if their electronic configuration is nearly that of a noble gas -- in other words is either has just one or two electrons less or more than a noble gas.So elements with either 1, 2, 6 or 7 valence electrons tend to be especially reactive. …
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Three Subatomic Particles: 1) Neutrons- neutral (no) charge. 2) Protons- positive charge (+) . 3) Electrons- negative charge (-) .
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The number of valence electrons is just how many electrons an atom has in its outer shell. It's easy to figure out if you've got a periodic table. (See the link below this answer for a good periodic table). All the elements in each column have the same number of electrons in their outer shells. Al…
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The neutron absorption cross section of an atom is the size of the target presented by that atom to an incoming neutron. Let's look at a couple of things and we'll get to it. Ready? Let's go. There is a funny group of rules associated with the way an atomic nucleus reacts to an incoming neutron. It …
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Answer It really says that no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers. Effectively that means that one orbital can only hold 2 electrons at most. the first answer is absolutely correct but if used in the context dealing with a neutron star, this is a law of physics that prevents a neu…
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Mass Number Protons and neutrons are collectively called called nucleons. The number of nucleons (protons plus neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom is called the mass number. For example, Lithium has 3 protons and 4 neutrons in its nucleus. It's mass number is 7 (3+4). The mass number usually goes i…
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Sometime about the year 1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his father Hans started experimenting with these lenses. They put several lenses in a tube and made a very important discovery. The object near the end of the tube appeared to be greatly enlarged, much larger than any s…
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A neutron star is composed primarily of neutrons, according to theory. This extremely dense star is formed when a star explodes in what is called a (Type II, Type Ib, or Type Ic) supernova. A link to the Wikipedia article on the neutron star is provided.
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protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom.
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quarks and leptons, held together by gluons, W+ bosons, W- bosons, gravitons, and photons
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fuel filter has to be changed every 8000 miles or sooner if it plugsup sooner
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Negative mass No. There is really no such thing as negative mass. Even antimatter has mass, which is always a positive (that is, greater-than-zero) quantity. There is, however, the concept of effective mass or apparent mass, which can be negative. When an object is submerged in water, its appar…
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They become positively charged.
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possible answer for 5th dimension!!!!!!!According to me the fifth dimension is not found between space and time, because according to some theories (not still proven), before the big bang when nothingness rules, there were 2 planes which was in 10th dimension, if we follows that unproven theory, not…
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The electron shell is also called the principle energy level in chemistry and atomic physics. The shells starting closest to the nucleus names go from shell 1 or shell K, shell 2 or shell L,shell 3 or shell m, etc. Each shell contains a certain amount of electrons the first shell starts with two and…
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Protons, neutrons and electrons are located in the atom.The protons and neutrons are located in the atomic nucleus; the electrons are around the nucleus, arranged in shells.
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The mass of a proton is 2000 times the mass of an electron. Mass of electron: 9.10938 * 10-31 kg Mass of proton: 1.67262 * 10-27 kg Mass of neutron: 1.67493 * 10-27 kg Note that protons and neutrons weigh approximately the same (neutrons are slightly heavier), but electrons are MUCH lighter than…
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Positron cable availability As of 1 March of '09, you can still get this cable from bikeworldusa.com but only in white. It's a TP68, and it's $17.99 there. Several are being offered as new old stock (NOS) on eBay for about the same money.
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I LIKE PIGS IN A BLANKET I think ,because when hit Uranium-238 by a neutron, it becomes uranium-239, an unstable isotope which returns into neptunium-239, which then itself decays, with a half-life of 2.355 days, into plutonium-239. ------------------------ Differences in nucleus stability and nu…
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The electromagnetic force of the atom.
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if electrons are added to a neutral atom then it changes to a negatively charged ion (anion) and on the other hand if electrons are removed then the atom changes to positively charged ion (cation)
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Almost certainly not for a wire of any length. The electrons that support current flow do so by something approximating "musical chairs" or the like. When an electron "goes into the wire" at one end, one "leaves the wire" at the other end. That's how current flow works. In a conductor like copper, …
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The MeV means million electron volts. It's a measure of the energy the energy in the photon, which is a quantum (or specific quantity) of electromagnetic energy. This 1 megaelectron volt = 1.60217646 × 10-13 joules of energy.
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Usually it is within an atomic nucleus
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Protons, neutrons and electrons
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It seems that you have some kind of question which concerns the discovery of fundamental particles of an atom. Possibly you would like to know who made those discoveries, when they were made, how they were made, what particles were discovered, what the consequences of those discoveries were, or whet…
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There are several good examples on websites belonging to Scouts. They work really well too.
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Theoretical mass particle Answer The Higgs Boson is another theoretical particle thought to be responsible for the presence of mass in other particles that have mass. I believe the Higgs Boson is theorized to be itself massless. there are 3 known massless particles: the gauge boson, the …
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A particle that can move as fast or faster than light, it just can't move slower than light. This particle has not been proven to exist.it does exist but not in this universe it also been called god speed
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No. The charge on the electron is fixed at -1 (which is also equal to 1.602177 x 10-19 Coulombs).
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Both have six valance electrons. That is what the number at the top of their column means.
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1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6 fe 2+: remove the electrons from the highest orbital which 4S2
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A quark, it is 1/100 the size of an atom and is what makes up protons and neutrons. Also protons, neutrons, and electrons are smaller because they are what makes up atoms
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The opposite of matter. an anti-matter atom has positrons (inverse of electron), anti-protons, and anti-neutrons. Antimatter Antimatter is quite the opposite of 'normal' matter. It is made up of postirons that orbit around the nucleus in shells and have a positive charge. Antiproton (a proton with…
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Not really sure if this is a positive answer but my science teacher told me to look at the periodic table and look at the group #. For example, Lithium is in Group 1 so it has 1 valence elctron.
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A positron is a positively charged electron. It's an antielectron - antimatter! The positron has a charge of +1 (just the opposite of the -1 of the electron), and a spin of 1/2 as an electron does. The mass of this elementary particle is about 9.103826 x 10-31 kg. The actual charge on this particle …
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See Periodic Table Link See the Web Links to the left for a pdf file with a periodic table which shows the electronic configuration (in shorthand notation) for each element. You can also use the WebElements link and select each element to view its electronic configuration. Shorthand notation mar…
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James Chadwick discovered neutrons in 1932.
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Answer The negatively charged electrons are held about an atomic nucleus by the electromagnetic force between them and the positive charge of the nucleus. And the positive charge of the nucleus is generated by the protons in it.
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A neutral atom that loses an electron becomes an ion that is positively charged (also called a cation).When a calcium atom loses two electrons it becomes positively charged.
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as magnetic moments are created by the movement of electric charges Since the neutron is a neutral particle the magnetic moment is an indication of substructure i.e. the neutron is made of other electrically charged particles (quarks). There is a cloud of pi-mesons around the neutrons in result to t…
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Answer Absolutely not - Antimatter is a hypothetical form of matter that is as yet unsubstantiated. Answer It's possible but not probable. And antimatter is not hypothetical
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See the link below for the list of particle accelerators.
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The most stable configuration is when the entire shell is full (noble gas configuration). Next best is when a specific orbital (s, p, d, f, etc.) is completely full, even if the shell is not complete. Next best after that is when a specific orbital is exactly half full. All atoms would like to…
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They are found in electron clouds around the nucleus.
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Each hydrogen atom has 1 protons and the lone oxygen atom has 8 protons (because it is atomic number 8) making for a grand total of 10 protons in each H2O molecule.
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CERN is an organisational headquaters of scientists, based in Switzerland, which houses a large hadron collider (the LHC). By smashing particles together at great speed, it's hoped that the LHC will be able to recreate the conditions present at the beginning of the universe (the big bang). The scien…
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The proton mass is about 2,000 times greater than the electron mass.
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A subatomic particle is something smaller than an atom. These are further broken up into elementary and composite subatomic particles.Electrons are elementary, whereas protons and neutrons are composite and can still be further broken down.
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In the Standard Model, quarks are fundamental particles. As such, they are not made up other particles. They either exist as quarks, or not at all. Like all matter they can be converted into energy, but quarks are the building blocks of hadrons like the proton and neutron. Links can be found below …
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One normal water molecule has 2 protons plus the quantity of 8 protons and 8 neutrons. That it is a total of 18 nucleons. As all nucleons have 3 valence quarks, then there are 54 quarks in 1 normal water molecule.
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The British experimental physicist James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932. Of the three fundamental particles that make up atoms, the electron, the proton and the neutron, the neutron was the last to be discovered. It's lack of a charge made it more elusive than its companions. Links can be f…
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Answer Electrons are negatively charged. Protons are positively charged. The charge of an atom depends on what kind of atom it is and under what circumstances it is observed. Some atoms would have the same number of protons and electrons, and thus be neutrally charged. Still others have more el…
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Quarks are building blocks for subatomic particles. They are considered to be fundamental particles, and are thus not made up of other particles. Quarks bind together with gluons to make composite particles called hadrons. The most common examples of a hadron are neutrons and protons. Quarks are ass…
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Protons The number of protons in an atom determines the identity of the element. See these two related questions for more information: What is the atomic number and what does it tell you about the number of protons in an atom?] and [http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_do_you_find_the_number_of_proto…
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At different distances from the nucleus
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An electron at high energy entering into a scattering event will bring all that energy with it. All that energy will have to be "dealt with" in the outcome. One way that a big chunk of it can be "handled" is almost magical. A large portion of the energy can be transformed into an electron-positron p…
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The atomic nucleus contains neutrons and protons (apart from hydrogen-1 which only has 1 proton and no neutrons). The difference between them is that protons have a positive charge and neutrons have no charge. They also have slightly different masses.
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A particle is a small bit of a solid or drop of liquid.
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One hydrogen atom contains one proton and one electron.
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