Unanswered | Answered

Particle Physics

Parent Category: Cosmology
Relatively recent experimental results have confirmed what philosophers throughout history had theorized all along; that all matter is made up of elementary particles. Those curious about this cutting-edge field of physics known as particle physics should post their questions here, including those about fundamental particles, fundamental forces, Grand Unified Theories, and the extraordinary devices that have been or need to be engineered to research them.
1 AMU Neutron is the same electron is almost 0
Protons and neutrons are called hadrons. A hadron contains three  quarks. Quarks come in 6 flavors (types). These types are up, down,  top, bottom, strange, and charmed. (The names are completely  arbitrary.) A proton contains two up quarks and one down quark  while a neutron contains one up...
Electrons are a type of fundamental particle known as a Lepton.  Protons how ever are made up of quarks. A proton has a quark  structure of up, up, down (UUD). The up quark has a charge of +2/3  and the down has -1/3 which gives the proton its overall positive  charge. The up and down quark both...
yes we have various isotopes on the difference in the number of  neutrons
yes, cathode rays are streams of electrons
it depends on the element and isotope 
Quarks are considered to be fundamental particles, and as such they do not really have a classical "size". Their masses can be compared, however, and they are not the same for all types of quarks.
Light causing electrons to be released from the surface of a metal.
The number of protons in an atom is its atomic number.
A proton has a charge of +1 and an electron has a charge of -1.
Protons,Neutrons, and Electrons. Which are all inside the nucleusof the atom.
It really depends in which atom you're talking about. because a  hydrogen atom which it's atomic number is 1 has 1 electron, 1  neutron, and 1 proton; the helium atom, has an atomic number of 2,  the nitrogen atom of 7, and Unumquadium of 114, meaning that  Unumquadium has 342 subatomic...
The Wikipedia lists an estimate of 10 to the power 80 hydrogen  atoms for the observable Universe. The total number of particles  would be somewhere in that order, depending on what "particles" you  are thinking of.
elecron can move from atom to atom...yes
The nucleus which includes the protons and neutrons, and the  electron cloud which contains the electrons. If you want to get  into true quantum mechanics, then there are the quarks, the  leptons, the bosons, gluons, etc.
This process of decaying is called a beta decay. The produced proton remains in the nucleus and the electron is released from the atom.
TWO types of subatomic particles?? Gosh, the basics are the electrons, neutrons, and protons. Then you add muons, gluons, 6 quarks and so on, and you come up with many particles. And that's just for matter.If you consider anti-matter, you have positrons, anti-protons, anti neutrons, etc etc etc.
Tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
  Cesium has 55 electrons.
The electrons come from water.In the light dependent stage water is split into hydrogen ions (H+), electrons and oxygen.The electrons are passed on to chlorophyll, the H+ ions combine with NADP to form NADPH and the oxygen is released.
The number of protons in a nucleus depends on the element. Hydrogen has 1 proton, helium has 2 protons, and lithium has 3. All elements have different numbers of protons in the nucleus. If you look on a periodic table, each element has an atomic number. That number is the number of protons there is...
  A neutron. They're about the same size
usually it is the second to third layer of electrons. it depends on what atom ur talking about, some atoms (like magnesium) have 3 electron levels; when some atoms (like gold) may have over 7 levels of electrons. it sometimes has to do with the atomic number
these element has 2 electron in the valence shell and is magnesium  of group 2
Your question is not clear. A current is generated when a group of  electrons flow through a conductor, and this happens when there is  a potential difference between the 2 ends of the conductor.   If you want to know how can we start the flow of electrons it is by  creating a potential...
It has to do with entropy. The law of entropy states that the universe tends toward having the lowest possible energy at every point. Two oppositely charged particles' magnetic fields cancel out, so, to follow this tendency, they attract each other to have more of their fields overlapping, and so,...
Hydrogen peroxide is H2O2, so each hydrogen has 1 proton, and each  oxygen has 8 protons: (1 x 2) + (8 x 2) = 18 protons in each  molecule.
It depends on how much energy it has
Mass Number Protons and neutrons are collectively called called nucleons. The number of nucleons (protons plus neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom is called the mass number. For example, Lithium has 3 protons and 4 neutrons in its nucleus. It's mass number is 7 (3+4). The mass number usually goes...
Quarks are fundamental particles, and three of them make up the particle group we call the baryons. The two common baryons we encounter are the proton and the neutron, which are composite particles made of of three quarks each. The proton is composed of two up quarks and a down quark, and the...
Yes. According to Einstein, the mass of an electron can be converted into energy, which will then dissipate. The famous E=mc2.
The mass of a proton is 1.672 621777(74)x 10 to the power of -27, in grams.  
The chemical nature of the substance. The rare earths all have a similar 'outer shell', and differ only in their 'inner shells', hence the similarity of many of their properties.
Elements are defined by the number of protons in the element. Atoms with 4 protons are always Beryllium. 5 neutrons means that the atom has a mass number of 9. So the nuclide is Beryllium-9
A Gluon - the force-carrying particle of the strong nuclear force.
Neutrons is the heaviest particle, because it contain both electron and proton . We know mass of the proton is (1.672623 X 10-27 kg) 1840 times heavier than that of electron mass (9.109390 X 10-31 kg). On comparing proton and electron we get a new idea that neutron (the neutral particle) have both...
The basic idea is that elementary particles are not point like, like the Standard Model assumes, but are instead tiny strands of energy. If you want to know more about String Theory there is a very good documentary which you can look for free on the internet. It should be understandable to the...
J.J Thompson discovered the electron during his famous cathode ray  tube experiment in 1897, but it was actually Niels Bohr who  discovered the electron shell (by accident), performing an x-ray  experiment in 1909.     
250,000 times. This is 125 times the magnifying power of the light microscopes.
A neutron star is composed primarily of neutrons, according to theory. This extremely dense star is formed when a star explodes in what is called a (Type II, Type Ib, or Type Ic) supernova.   A link to the Wikipedia article on the neutron star is provided.
C-14The number 14 is the total number of protons and neutrons.Carbon is #6 in the periodic table because it has 6 protons .14 - 6 = 8 neutrons.C-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons
Protons all have positive charge, so they repel each other. It takes work to push two protons closer together, so you're putting energy into them (potential energy increases). If you let go, the potential energy is released when the protons fly apart; it becomes kinetic energy.
The atomic number of an element tells us that atom's number of protons. If the atom is neutral, its number of protons is going to equal its number of electrons. Thus, we need only find the element with the atomic number of 39, which is yttrium.
Helium has two electrons in the first shell.
ObviousShe met me on a Monday and my heart stood stillThe dueteron-on the dueteron!Somebody told me that her name was PhilThe dueteron-on the DueteronMust be 2 or 2 to the nth degree?
It really depends on which particle you're speaking about because a  proton has a different mass regarding the electron. and the proton  and the neutron have bigger masses than photons, neutrinos,  electrons, etc.
Depends how close the neutrino is to the black hole.
  protons and electrons are attracted to each other and act as magnets when close but if they touch it is cattastrofic for the atom. neutrons are neutral and sit in the middle of the protons and electrons to stop their electric charges from touching each other. electrons have no electrical...
Since the positron is the antiparticle of the electron, it follows  that the electron is the antiparticle of the positron.
Any of them. There is no subatomic particle which is restricted to the nucleus.However, many of them are exceedingly rare.
The Higgs boson was first theorized in the 60's, and now, at CERN, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has just reopened after some technical difficulties. This machine will collide particles up to 3.5 Tev. The hope is that in the debris, a Higgs boson will materialize, probably for a very, very short...
there are a maximum of 18 electrons on the level 3 or the third shell
-Down and anti-Down quark, -Up and anti-Up quark or -Strange and anti-Strange quark
Electron; Negative. Neutron; No charge, neutral.Proton; Positive.
Matter can be loosely defined as the substance that every structure contains. As physics suggests, every substance contains very minute particles called atoms which then contains non-fundamental particles such as protons and neutrons and fundamental particles known as electrons. Within protons and...
The positron is the antiparticle of the electron. So, it is positive. Antiparticles are always the opposite of their matter particle. They are of the same mass and of opposite charge. When a particle and antiparticle meet, they annihalate each other in a blast of energy in the form of photons, a...
There are several, but the important one is the neutron.
The particles that, when they touch certain cells in our eyes, are interpreted as light are called Photons.
Yes. The magnitude of electrical charge on a proton is the same as the magnitude of electrical charge on an electron. The charge on a proton is positive and the charge on an electron is neutral, so that a pair containing one of each of them has no net electrical charge.
A whole raft of people, and it's probably not quite finished yet.The first few particles were discovered by individuals, but recent discoveries are almost all team efforts.
Nothing. The electrons are not confined in the nucleus, they orbit around it at a considerable distance relative to the size of the nucleus.
even though antimatter is powerfull epesally with the amount of enenergy it can make if you stored it all in a battery it last thousands of years! but sorry to burst your bubble to a cleaner future but it uncontainibel energy (meaning it can't be contained ) becase it turns all matter into pure...
Among others, neutrons, photons, neutrinos, gravitons.
Electron Microscopes and see a lot clearer without the use of light. But they are VERY expensive.
the positive charge of the nucleus is constantly trying to pull the electrons in. However, the strong negative charge of the electrons, combined with their fast orbit holds them in place. also they are very light.
The chemical element with atomic number 57 is Lanthanum (La). It has 57 electrons in 6 shells. It is a Lanthanide, as it is what the rest of the Lanthanides are based on. It is naturally occuring and non-radioactive.
Electrons are made up of something, we simply don't know the nature of this matter. But electrons as fundamental particles are not divisible in other smaller particles.
Type your answer here... are valence electrons reactive or non reactive
  There are currently some really hard, tough and strong materials out there, but we have ways of damaging or breaking them without the use of antimatter.   It is possible that something of a "science fictional" nature could be envisioned, but in reality, not as far as we've been able to find...
Well, every atom wants to become stable, and the only way for this to be accomplished is by either gaining or losing electrons. And yes i do mean losing electrons. The atoms want 8 valence electrons to be stable, and they with either gain electrons or lose them to resemble a noble gas. For example,...
European Organisation for nuclear research is English for the French term "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire".Nowadays the official French name for CERN is "Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire".
I think it is because they do not carry a charge. They are neutrons therefore they are neutrons. The LHC can accelerate protons because they carry a positive charge, for example. The LHC uses magnetic fields to accelerate particles, which will have no effect on neutrally charged particles.
Please note that the "color charge" (red, green, blue, anti-red,  anti-green, anti-blue, white = neutral) of quarks is completely  unrelated to the colors we see. It's just a fancy name given to  them.   As far as I know, quantum chronodynamics doesn't analyze where  these color charges come...
Heres a simple way to remember thisOILRIGoxidation is loss, reduction is gain.so the acceptor is reduced and the donator is oxidised.