What was anti-semitism like before 1933?
Anti-Semitism had been widespread in much of Europe and in the New World, too, for a very long time indeed. However, one needs to bear in mind that there's a great difference between being anti-Jewish and trying to exterminate whole Jewish populations. In the last few decades of the 19th century (from about 1870 onwards) it became racial, whereas previously it had been directed against the members of the Jewish religion. Also, in the period between about 1880 and 1910 it became an "-ism", a political ideology. Using all kinds of conspiracy theories, it claimed to have a cure for mankind's political and social ills. In this respect it was unlike earlier "religious" hostility towards the Jews. Anti-Semitism increased in the period from about 1880-1914. It was particularly strong in France (Dreyfus Affair and related matters), in some parts of Austria-Hungary (Vienna, for example) and above all, in Tsarist Russia, where the secret police actively encouraged violence against Jews (pogroms). Large numbers of Russian Jews fled westwards, to the U.S., to Britain and to France, too (despite the problems there). From 1918 onwards much of the world was gripped by fears of "Bolshevism". There was a widespread perception that Jews were subversives and Communists. (This was based in part on the rather high proportion of people of Jewish origin in the very early leadership of the Soviet Union. In view of the appalling treatment of the Jews under the Tzars, there was nothing surprising about this). In Europe one reaction to Bolshevism was the rise of Fascism, but in many countries this wasn't specifically anti-Semitic. Many anti-Communist refugees from Russia in the early 1920s were rabidly anti-Semitic and spread their ideology in Western and Central Europe - and to some extent in the New World. In the 1920s anti-Semitism in Europe was particularly strong in Poland, Romania, France and along the Danube (in Austria, for example, and also Hungary). One popular theory is that anti-Semitism tended to appeal in particular to people and organizations that were having really serious problems adapting to the modern world. Until 1933 Germany was regarded as a country where anti-Semitism was not particularly strong, and Jews elsewhere thought in the period c. 1900-1932 that Germany was a good place to live. After all, Germany had a good reputation as a civilized country, and civilized countries don't practice legally enforced racism or persecute minorities - or so it was thought. The German Jews were caught by surprise by what happened when the Nazis came to power. There's evidence that the German population, at least in the early years of Nazi rule, wasn't particularly anti-Semitic. For example, the boycott of Jewish businesses, ordered by the Nazis for 1st April 1933 was largely a flop.
There was growing antisemitism in Europe before 1933. Especially in Poland, which had been a haven for Jews since the fifteenth century when they were expelled from many countries. It was because of this issue that many Jews left Poland for Germany, which led to a lot of discontent in Germany and provided Hitler with a platform to stand on politically.
Between about 1815 and 1933 relations between Germans and Jews were generally quite good. Certainly, Jews regarded Germany as a desirable country to live in and were caught completely unprepared by Nazi persecution. There had been an increase in antisemitism after the end of World War 1, but on the whole the German Jews didn't take it particularly seriously. The countries that worried Jews in the 1920s because of antisemitism were Poland, Hungary, Romania.
In Germany in the period before the Nazis came to power, antisemitism in Germany was not much more marked than in many other parts of Europe. Certainly, the German Jews did not feel particularly threatened and were caught completely off-guard when Hitler came to power. Practically, none of them had made any arrangements to leave the country. In the period c. 1918-1933 the countries associated with virulent antisemitism were: Poland, Hungary, Romania and France…
antisemitism is the longest hatred cause in history that still survives today. Among the most common manifestations of antisemitism throughout history were pogroms. The first such incident to be labeled a pogrom is believed to be anti-Jewish rioting in Odessa in 1821. That was in Russia. But this has been practice during millennial.
The usual disintinction is between (traditional) religious antisemitism and racial antisemitism. The latter arose after religious toleration was accepted in most European countries and religious antisemitism lost much of its force. Racial antisemitism arose from about 1870 onwards and operates with conspiracy theories.
That was the first incident of what would become the Holocaust. It was certainly not the first incident of anti-Semitism, which had existed in Europe for a thousand years prior to the Third Reich. closer to 1900 years (or 2400 years, depending whether you mean Christian antisemitism or just general antisemitism). ___ If the question means 'First incident ... in the Third Reich', again the answer is no. There were cases of Jews being beaten…
The social climate in Germany from 1933 to 1945 was one of gradually growing fear and antisemitism. At first, the German people were very pleased with Hitler and all he did to get them out of their devastating economic depression. Little by little, though, they realized that he was monstrous. By that point, however, it was too late to stop him, though many did try.
Mario Kessler has written: 'On anti-semitism and socialism' -- subject(s): History, Communism, Jews, Socialism and Judaism, Jewish socialists, Socialism, Communism and Judaism, Emancipation, Internationalism, Antisemitism, Socialism and antisemitism 'On anti-semitism and socialism: selected essays' -- subject(s): Social Sciences,Sociology, OUR Brockhaus selection 'Ein Funken Hoffnung' -- subject(s): Historiography, Communism, Antisemitism, Arab-Israeli conflict, History 'Exil und Nach-Exil: vertriebene Intellektuelle im 20. Jahrhundert' -- subject(s): Geschichte und Historische Hilfswissenschaften, OUR Brockhaus selection 'Deutsche Historiker im Exil (1933-1945)'