Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism is prejudice towards, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as a national, ethnic, religious or racial group. The term was coined in Germany in 1860 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass ("Jew-hatred") and does not refer to Non-Jewish Semites. Anti-Semitism takes many forms, ranging from hateful words uttered to individual Jews to organized violent attacks by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities.

2,237 Questions
History of Russia
History of Judaism
Anti-Semitism

What is an example of a pogrom?

Mainly the Holocaust lead by Adolf Hitler, however these are some more

  • In the Americas, there was a pogrom in Argentina in 1919, during the tragic week
  • In 1919, pogroms were reported in several cities in Poland
  • In 1927, there were pogroms in Oradea Romania

___________________

Pogrom refers to mob violence against Jews of the kind that was common in Tsarist Russia. The Holocaust was very different and was not carried out by mobs. A well known example is that at Kishinev in 1905.

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Christianity
Judaism
Jesus Christ
Anti-Semitism

Why did the germand hate the Jews?

All Germans did not hate the Jews; but those that did were inspired by Hitler and his doctrine to hate them.

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Holocaust
World War 2
Germany in WW2
Judaism
Adolf Hitler
Anti-Semitism

Why did Adolf Hitler target the Jews?

Answer 1

Hitler was racist towards Jews and other minorities. He focused the resentment of the German people toward those of different cultures, in order to achieve power. Some of the more important reasons that he hated them were the following:

1) Decay of the German State: During the 1800s, Jews and other minorities began to become more integrated in German National Life. They served in its government, its military divisions, and its industry. As was typical of Western Europe, the Jews had more of a hand in the higher echelons of government than their population percentage would account for. Hitler saw this increasing Jewish percentage in the government as a slow takeover of German policy and a corruption of the German people. They contrasted the great victories under Bismarck with the depressing failure of World War I and noted how a much larger percentage of soldiers in the latter war were Jewish. There was also the sentiment than in the early 20th century, values were beginning to ebb (this is similar to current politics in the United States) and the Jewish integration in the German apparatus (becoming teachers, lawyers, doctors, etc.) was to blame for this recession of values as opposed to modernity as a process.

2) Nationalism: Germany was brought together under the Nationalist conception that all peoples with German culture, history, and language should be united regardless of which principality currently held control. The German self-conception also had an ethnic component, holding that the perfect German was blond and blue eyed. Regardless of the fact that the majority of Germans were dark haired, Jews and Gypsies stuck out like sore thumbs because they overwhelmingly had darker hair. In addition, the idea of a German Jew was still rather new and both Jews and non-Jews tended to see the Jews in Germany as being part of a vast Jewish network and that these Jews just happened to be in Germany. The same perception existed for Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Communists. Hitler capitalized on this cosmopolitan sensibility by claiming that these people's allegiances were not to the German State, but to secret councils made up of these minorities that conspired against the German people.

3) Economy: Whether it was true or not, there was perception among Germans and Hitler in particular that Jews were wealthy individuals and had a higher per-capita income than the Germans. In many ways (because of the above two reasons) Germans felt that the Jews were "stealing" their money while they were poor and suffering.

4) Pseudo-Science: The late 19th and early 20th century was filled with radical new ideas concerning Social Darwinism, a movement that Hitler was a part of. It was believed by the Pseudo-Scientific community (which was rather in vogue) that different groups of people or races exhibited different emotional traits that were linked to physical differences. This led to the belief that Jews and Gypsies were corrupt and thieving by their irreversible nature and that they could not be "cured" and brought up as proper Europeans. This formalized Racism in Germany and made the situation much more dire for German minorities.

5) Heresy: Although not as much an issue in World War II as it may have been 500 years prior, Jews were still considered the heretics who murdered the LORD and Savior. This helped to justify Anti-Semitism as the Jewish comeuppance for their accepting of the Christ Bloodguilt.

because they didn't believe in his culture

Answer 2

Hitler targeted the Jews because he blamed them for losing Germany world war 1 because during that time Hitler was just a foot solider but clearly he loved Germany and hated the Jews

Answer 3

Jews were a convenient target because they had already been persecuted in Europe for a thousand years, and there was a well established tradition of hating Jews. When Hitler announced that all of German's problems had been caused by Jews, there were lots of people who found that lie very easy to believe.

Answer 4

He blamed everything on the Jews. He thought that they were unpure. He had thought that the perfect race had blue eyes and blonde hair. No one was pure.

Answer 5

Adolf Hitler was serving in a strict military when he was young, and to them surrender was the worst embarrassment. Anyway, in the end the German army Hitler was serving for asked a high end Jewish society for funds to help them keep fighting, since they were flat broke, but the Jewish society refused, because they thought Hitlers army had no chance to win.

Therefore, with no funds, the German army was forced to surrender, the worse embarrassment.

When the war ended, Hitler was furious with the Jews for not giving them money, and forcing the army to surrender.

With this fury against the mainly innocent religion and people, Hitler set out for revenge, and the rest is History.

Because, Adolf Hitler had a lot of hatred against the Jews.

Answer 6

After World War 1 there were all kinds of conspiracy theories circulating about the Jews. They were widely regarded as Communists and subversives. In Germany and Austria there was a widespread view (for which there was no evidence) that they had engineered the defeat of Germany. This was also a conspiracy theory but was taken seriously by hardline nationalists. because they didn't believe in his culture

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Judaism
Definitions
Anti-Semitism

What is redemptive antisemitism?

The term redemptive antisemitism is not widely used. It refers to the false ideology that ascribes all the world's problems to an imaginary international Jewish conspiracy.

The term is closely associated with the work of Saul Friedländer. Please see link.

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Federal Laws
Discrimination
Anti-Semitism

Laws against anti-semitism in workplace?

(in the US) The same federal laws that protect any other person against discrimination.

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Germany in WW2
Judaism
Israel
Adolf Hitler
Anti-Semitism

Why do so many people seem to hate Jews and Israel?

These are two separate, but interrelated questions. For information solely on "Why do people hate the Jews" and "Why do people hate Israel" see the links below. The Community Answer below will speak solely to the conflagration of hating Jews and Israel.

Related Questions:
Why do people hate the Jews?
Why do people hate Israel?
Did Hitler only hate Jews?

For so many people, both Jews and non-Jews, Israel is believed to be a Jewish State in a religious sense, even though when examined, this view makes little sense. Israel never describes itself as being a country where citizenship is conditioned on being Jewish, never requires any religious test or examination for public office or private work, has numerous laws which contravene (quite explicitly) Jewish religious principles or views, and has a generally secular population.

Regardless of these facts, the two are mixed together since many Jews see Israel and Jewish Nationalism (Zionism) as outgrowths of their ethno-religious identity. Many non-Jews recognize this and therefore see Israel's actions as connected to Jewish ideals and desires. Of course, such a thing is ridiculous to do and this is why nobody ever judged the actions of the world's one Hindu State (Nepal - which is now no longer Hindu) as representing the views of Hinduism, or China of representing Confucianism, or Thailand of Buddhism. Only recently have people been judging the Vatican (a country actually founded on religious grounds) as an outgrowth of the virtues of the Catholic Church. Many of the actions taken by Israel are problematic for a number of reasons (see the Israel question for more on this) and extrapolate those problems to the Jews themselves. Conversely, a person may feel little antagonism towards Israel, but holds Anti-Semitic views which eventually color his perception of Israel. Admittedly, the latter is much less common than the former.

In many Arab and Muslim countries, in addition to attacking Israel's policies, acts which may have merit, they circulate Anti-Semitic propaganda such as the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and similar texts in order to buttress their claim that Israel is evil. Such virulence can only lead to Anti-Semitism and goes directly against the Islamic tenets of treating the Jews with dignity as they are Ahl Al-Kitaab. However, the rulers and religious elites in these countries are perfectly fine with suspending such views in order to achieve a political objective.

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Holocaust
Germany in WW2
Ticks and Mites
Anti-Semitism

What was nazi anti semitism in the 1930s?

it was a supposedly rationalised prejudice.

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Holocaust
History of Germany
Judaism
Anti-Semitism

Was one of the reasons for Hitler's hatred for the Jews caused by the death of his mother while in the hands of a Jewish doctor?

Hitler hated the Jews for a lot of reasons. One was because he thought they had "back-stabbed" Germany during WW1.

Most unlikely. His mother died in 1907 and, according to Ian Kershaw's highly acclaimed biography, the first evidence of real antisemitism on Hitler's part dates from 1916.

I've read that Hitler was actually quite grateful to the Jewish doctor who treated his mother, additionally, he allowed the doctor to escape Nazi Germany unscathed later on. I think that if he was that angry at the doctor, he probably would have had him sent to a concentration camp.

See the related questions.

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Catholicism
Judaism
Anti-Semitism

Why do people believe that the Catholic Church and all Catholics hate Jews?

The Catholic Church was once a major contributor of Anti-Semitism. The most harmful propaganda blamed Jews for "killing Jesus" and it was spread throughout the world for over a thousand years. Until recently, children learned it in school and adults learned it at mass.

This was publicly retracted by the Catholic Church around the 1960's (apologies were issued, etc.) and the practice has since been banned. But many people still hold all Jews accountable for the death of Jesus and while it's no longer taught within the church, it's something that some families still pass onto their children.

Jews understand that not all Catholics still feel this way and that times are changing. But it's a slow change and it's simply going to take longer than 50 years to undo over 1900 years of hatred ... Sure enough, it's happening --at least among the Catholic Church as the Pope continues his open dialogue with Israel.

Unfortunately, many Protestant groups as well as a few other religions will likely continue to spread this belief.

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Holocaust
Judaism
Adolf Hitler
Anti-Semitism

Why did Adolf Hitler hate the Jews?

Hitler provided numerous rationales during that period as to why he believed that the Jews were worthy of hate. However, the only person qualified to answer this question fully and accurately, without speculation, (Hitler) killed himself on April 30, 1945. Various contributors have stated that the following were some of the reasons that Hitler claimed to hate the Jews:

1) Superiority of the German People: Hitler believed that the Germans as a "race" of Nordic of peoples were superior in all ways to all non-German people. Since the Jews were not a Nordic people, Hitler reviled them (as he reviled the Romani, Slavs, and other ethnic minorities).

2) Decay of the German State: During the 1800s, Jews began to become more integrated in German National Life. They served in its government, its military divisions, and its industry. As was typical of Western Europe, the Jews had more of a hand in the higher echelons of government than their population percentage would account for. The Nazis saw this increasing Jewish percentage in the government as a slow takeover of German policy and a corruption of the German people. They contrasted the great victories under Bismarck with the depressing failure of World War I and noted how a much larger percentage of soldiers in the latter war were Jewish. There was also the sentiment than in the early 20th century, values were beginning to ebb (this is similar to current politics in the United States) and the Jewish integration in the German apparatus (becoming teachers, lawyers, doctors, etc.) was to blame for this recession of values as opposed to modernity as a process.

3) Nationalism: Germany was brought together under the Nationalist conception that all peoples with German culture, history, and language should be united regardless of which principality currently held control. The German self-conception also had an ethnic component, holding that the perfect German was blond and blue eyed. Regardless of the fact that the majority of Germans were dark haired, Jews stuck out like a sore thumb because they overwhelmingly had darker hair. In addition, the idea of a German Jew was still rather new and both Jews and non-Jews tended to see the Jews in Germany as being part of a vast Jewish network and that these Jews just happened to be in Germany. The Nazis capitalized on this cosmopolitan sensibility by claiming that Jews' allegiances were not to the German State, but to secret Jewish Councils organizing world events.

4) Economy: Whether it was true or not, there was perception among Germans and the Nazis in particular that Jews were wealthy individuals and had a higher per-capita income than the Germans. In many ways (because of the above two reasons) Germans felt that the Jews were "stealing" their money while they were poor and suffering. Adolf Hitler blamed the Jewish population for the social and economic problems of the era. A popular anti-Semitic belief was that Jewish families were shrewd and sought to control the wealth of a community at the expense of other members in the community. This being the case he thought that the world would be a better place if the Jews were no longer in charge of finance.

5) Pseudo-Science: The late 19th and early 20th century was filled with radical new ideas concerning Social Darwinism. It was believed by the Pseudo-Scientific community (which was rather in vogue) that different groups of people or races exhibited different emotional traits that were linked to physical differences. This led to the belief that Jews were corrupt and thieving by their irreversible nature and that they could not be "cured" and brought up as proper Europeans. This formalized Racial Anti-Semitism in Germany and made the situation much more dire for German Jews.

6) Heresy/Christian Anti-Semitism: Although not as much an issue in World War II as it may have been 500 years prior, Jews were still considered the heretics who murdered the LORD and Savior. This helped to justify Anti-Semitism as the Jewish comeuppance for their accepting of the "Christ Bloodguilt". Jews were called Christ-killers by the Nazis, as they had by most Christian churches for centuries, and that was behind a lot of the hatred. This existed regardless of the fact that the Bible names the Jews as God's Chosen people first.

7) Hitler's Ambition: Adolf Hitler was very ambitious. His dream was to see Germany at the top. After the First World War he became more and more ambitious. He blamed the Jews for the misery and suffering of Germans. Moreover, he held Jews responsible for the loss of World War I. He claimed that they held high position and were very rich. This was one of reason for his hatred for the Jews.

8) Populism: Adolf Hitler's "hatred" of the Jews was one of the tools he used to convince the people of Germany that he knew the source of their economic problems and that he was the person who could correct the situation. He chose to use the long standing antisemitism in Germany to gain the people's support.

9) Anti-Semitic Childhood: When Hitler was studying Art in Munich as a teenager he was rejected from the academy he wished to attend and for some reason, he blamed it on the city's Jewish population. He was also brought up in an anti-Semitic family (at least some believe).

10) Foreigners: Hitler argued that the German Jews were not 'native' members of the country and should not be able to enjoy the benefits of citizenship. Their motives would be suspect as their loyalty was to something other than Germany. (Of course, this argument has been used against all minorities and is equally fatuous as concerns the Jews.)

11) Communism: Hitler alleged that the Jews were the primary supporters of Communists and thus also considered them in bed with his political opposition. (It should be noted that there is NO credible evidence the Jews were the main supporters of Communism, and this is yet another stereotype used by bigots for decades.)

Answer 2

He moved to Vienna when he was young and made a living by selling pieces or art. In Vienna there was a tradition of anti-semitism. Hitler saw Jewish people living lives of luxury while he lived a life of poverty. Hitler believed, due to various different influences, that the followers of Judaism were the cause of his every downfall. He was rejected from the Viennese art college by a Jewish man, he believe the Jewish were to blame for Germany's downfall in WWI. Hitler was against the Jews because he needed someone to blame for his every failure. Psychological reason or childhood trauma could be involved, but maybe he was just an evil man.

Answer 3

Hitler targeted the Jews because he blamed them for losing Germany world war 1 because during that time Hitler was just a foot solider but clearly he loved Germany and hated the Jews

Answer 4

Jews were a convenient target because they had already been persecuted in Europe for a thousand years, and there was a well established tradition of hating Jews. When Hitler announced that all of German's problems had been caused by Jews, there were lots of people who found that lie very easy to believe.

Answer 5

He blamed everything on the Jews. He thought that they were unpure. He had thought that the perfect race had blue eyes and blonde hair. No one was pure.

Answer 6

Adolf Hitler was serving in a strict military when he was young, and to them surrender was the worst embarrassment. Anyway, in the end the German army Hitler was serving for asked a high end Jewish society for funds to help them keep fighting, since they were flat broke, but the Jewish society refused, because they thought Hitlers army had no chance to win.

Therefore, with no funds, the German army was forced to surrender, the worse embarrassment.

When the war ended, Hitler was furious with the Jews for not giving them money, and forcing the army to surrender.

With this fury against the mainly innocent religion and people, Hitler set out for revenge, and the rest is History.

Because, Adolf Hitler had a lot of hatred against the Jews.

Answer 7

After World War 1 there were all kinds of conspiracy theories circulating about the Jews. They were widely regarded as Communists and subversives. In Germany and Austria there was a widespread view (for which there was no evidence) that they had engineered the defeat of Germany. This was also a conspiracy theory but was taken seriously by hardline nationalists.

There are many reasons. One was because he thought that they were taking the jobs of the Germans.
Hitler hated Jews ever since he was a young boy because when Adolf was young his mom had breast cancer and the doctor Adolf's mom went to was Jewish. This doctor gave Adolf's mom some medication that would give here a 50% chance of living. So when Hitlers mom died Adolf blamed her death on the Jewish doctor. So he Killed all those Jews to get revenge for his mothers death.

However ...Hitler, aged 17, wrote the doctor a letter thanking him for having done his best for his mother. What's more, when Austria was annexed to Germany in 1938 Hitler ordered that the doctor should be allowed to leave without harassment. That doesn't sound like a desire for revenge.

Beware 'Hitlerology' - that is, urban legends that seem to offer simple, homely explanations ...

The first evidence of real antisemitism in Hitler dates from about 1916 when Hitler was aged 27.

The person who wrote the first answer deleted this:

The evidence suggests that his real hatred began towards the end of World War 1. His early letters from the Western Front in World War 1 contain no antisemitic comments and in places he even had some praise for Jews.

No, but he began to really dislike Jews when a Jew denied him acceptance to an art school (Vienna), and when his mother died in the presence of a Jewish doctor == ==
Hitler hated the Jewish people because he thought that they were mentally and physically disabled and he wanted to make Germany the best country in the world. He wanted only those persons who looked like pure blooded Germans , who had blue eyes, strong, physically and mentally fit.

He blamed the Jewish community for the ills that he saw growing up in his native Austria. Jews were mostly in charge of the newspapers, theatre and prostitution. Which he saw as lowering the moral standards. This initial hatred grew as he got older, he hated the idea that they thought they were God's chosen people, to such an extent, that he wanted their complete eradication.

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Anti-Semitism

What is anti-semitism?

It is hostility towards or discrimination against Jews.

Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as Judeophobia) is prejudice against and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. While the term's etymology might suggest that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic peoples, since its creation in c. 1879 it has been used exclusively to refer to hostility towards Jews. The meaning of a word is its use, not its etymology. (This applies particularly to invented words like this). There are no known cases of the use of the word antisemitism in the sense of anti-Arab.

Antisemitism is also a political ideology that ascribes all the misfortunes of a country or of even of the whole world to an imaginary "Jewish conspiracy". As such, it is a conspiracy theory.

Antisemitism is racist (rather than religious) hatred of Jews. Some scholars draw a distinction between anti-Judaism (hostility to the Jewish religion and it followers) and antisemitism (which is the much more recent political and racial conspiracy theory). Obviously, the latter (or more recent) draws on the former (earlier).

People who criticize Jewish people or the Jewish religion are called anti-Semites.

123124125
Judaism
Famous People
Disney
Walt Disney
Anti-Semitism

Did Walt Disney hate Jews?

No, Walt did not hate Jews at all. This is a rumor that sprouted from the time that many animators went on strike and made a significant amount of rumors up about Walt to try and secure their new union's deal. Also, during World War 2, the Disney Studios was literally forced by the U.S. military to produce short propaganda films. One of these was called "Da Fuhrer's Face" which showed Donald Duck working as a Nazi. However, it was portrayed as horrible and that the Nazi's were the "bad guys" in this particular film.

So no. Walt did not hate Jews. In fact, he trusted and opened up to the Sherman Brothers. They were the resident songwriters at the Studio. They were 2nd generation Russian-Jewish immigrants and Robert Sherman even practiced Judaism while working with Walt at the Studio. Many a time Walt would show his emotions to the Shermans, something he never did to his other employees.

Again, Walt had nothing against Jews. It's just a rumor that should be put to rest, as it has no validity whatsoever.

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Religion & Spirituality
Judaism
Anti-Semitism

What are the effects of antisemitism?

It dishonors and denigrates those who openly display their ignorance and hate, and

deprives both the haters and the hated of any mutually beneficial relationship.

123124125
Holocaust
Germany in WW2
Judaism
Adolf Hitler
Anti-Semitism

Did Adolf Hitler only hate Jews?

Hitler basically hated the Jews because they were the largest non-German ethnic minority in Central Europe at that time.

Hitler wanted a pure Germany (and Europe) without any "parasites".

At that time, there were only few Muslims and Africans living in Germany (unlike today).

But you can be sure that Hitler would have built exactly the same gas chambers when (instead of Jews) millions of Turks, Arabs, Indians and Africans had lived in Germany at that time.

Hitler's basic ideology was not solely anti-semitism, but racism in its most radical extent. The millions of Indian and Arab "fans" of Hitler should always be aware that they would also be on Hitler's "bug spray list" if they had lived in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s.

Other answers:

  • No, he just hated Jews more than other non-Aryan peoples because Jews were the only foreigners in Germany at that time.
  • Hitler did not only hate Jews. He also hated Gypsies and also people with handicaps. All the "non-Aryan minorities" who lived in Germany at that time were regarded as "parasites" or even as enemies.
  • No, Hitler didn't only hate the Jews; he hated the gypsies, handy capped, homosexuals, Jehovah's Wittnesses and any one who didn't have a use in his plans for Germany.
  • Hitler did hate other people, but he saw the Jews as his biggest enemy. He came to this belief for two important reasons. First anti-semitism was widespread in Germany, so he was influenced by his surroundings. Second, He found (much like populistic politicians nowadays) that scapegoating one group (i.e. the Jews) won him popularity with the German public. So his anti-semitism also had practical reasons.
  • Furthermore, what should not be lost out of sight, is that Germans were very happy to blame the holocaust on one evil dead man (Hitler), although historical research seems to contradict this. The holocaust started with the "wild holocaust", whereby einsatzgruppen (ordinary Germans), started shooting Jewish civilians en masse, against explicit orders to do so. In fact, even after Himmler forbade the killing of Jews, this went on because most Germans refused to obey these orders. So, virulent anti-semitism can be denoted as a common trait back in Germany in the days, and in that sense Hitler was just an 'average' German.
  • No one can know for sure the thoughts of Hitler. For sure, Hitler didn't plant the seed of hatred in the mind of Germans. The hatred was present for many years, and was exacerbated by the effects of the treaty of Versailles. Whether Hitler had a true hatred of Jews, or was just using the German's hatred of Jews as a tool in his quest for power, is very debatable. Perhaps the better question is, "did the GERMANS hate only Jews?"
  • Hitler's propaganda helped seed of hatred grow within the Germans. Central to the his propaganda was a promotion of racial purity, just as in Italy. This campaign was successful: the German people began to feel that racial purity was necessary for the survival of their nation. Whether or not there was a hatred of those outside the German race, or if it was just simply actions based not on hate, but by false logic, is another matter up for debate.

    The exterminations that took place certainly were not only conducted on Jews. Gypsies were exterminated; retarded people, mentally ill, and homosexuals were routinely exterminated. Generally, all people that were considered inferior were exterminated. Polish people were among the first to be exterminated.

    So, while it cannot be said for sure that there was a true "hate", it is certain that whatever it was, it was not focused only on the Jews; the fact that they received the vast majority of the attention of the holocaust is attributable mainly to their greater presence in Germany.

    Not only did Hitler hate Jews, Gypsies, and handi-caps, he hated Catholics (although he couldn't really act on this due to the large numbers of Catholics within his ranks) and Slavs (as the tens of millions of Russian deaths during the war and horrid conditions in Russian POW camps can attest to) as well.

106107108
Judaism
Anti-Semitism

Why does elmo hate jews?

Elmo does not hate Jews. Elmo loves everyone the same and anted everyone to love each other.

001
Islam
Judaism
Anti-Semitism
Jihad

Why do Jihadists want to exterminate the Jews?

Definition of Jihadism
First, let us formulate a definition of what Jihadists are so we can proceed to talking about the same issue. Islamism is the political belief that Shari'a (Islamic Law as codified by Islamic Jurists called Faqihs) should be implemented as the national law in all places, but especially in places with a Muslim-majority. (Note that this is different from Islam, which is a religion - making arguments about the nature of God and how man should worship Him.) A Jihadist is an Islamist who specifically believes that the method of implementing the Shari'a is through violence and warfare against those governments (and their civilians) that do not implement it. ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) is probably the most notable Jihadist organization, but there are numerous others like Hamas, Hezbollah, the Taliban, Al-Shabaab, the al-Nusra Front, al-Qaeda, etc.

Jihadist Desire to Exterminate Jews
While it is notable that Jihadists wish to exterminate ALL who do not agree with their beliefs, including more Moderate Muslims, never mind Non-Muslims, there is a specific fascination and hatred of the Jews in Jihadist circles which is unique and unbridled compared to their hatred of everyone else and this difference is worth both noting and explaining.

1) Anti-Semitism: There are six major reasons that people and countries harbor Anti-Semitic views and often these exist in contradictions (i.e. one group will hate them for one side of this reason and another group at a different place and time will hate them for the exact opposite reason): (1) Perceptions of Jewish Economic Power, (2) Perceptions of Jewish Ethnocentrism/Chosen-ness, (3) Religious motivations for Jew-hatred (both in Christianity and Islam), (4) Otherness, (5) Genetic/Racial Inferiority, and (6) Perceptions of Disloyalty. It is worth noting that the seventh most common reason, Ease of Scapegoating, only makes sense if at least one of the other six is in play, otherwise we could simply scapegoat the unicyclists for the world's ills. These issues and views are not unique to Jihadist Muslims but embraced, quite openly by Jihadists.

1A) Jewish Economic Power: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews control the banks. Of course, this is not true as most banks are not chaired or owned or controlled by Jews; many banks operate independently or are controlled by Non-Jews. For example the Big Four US Banks are all run by Non-Jews: Jaime Dimon (JP Morgan Chase), Chad Holliday (Bank of America), Michael O'Neill (Citigroup), and John Stumpf (Wells Fargo).

1B) Jewish Chosen-ness: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews believe themselves to be a superior ethnicity in the vein of the ubermensch or "White Pride". This is contrary to the Jewish understanding is that the Jewish people were charged with a distinct mission/task that the rest of the world was not assigned and this is to elevate the spiritual character of the world. The Anti-Semites then argue that because Jews believe themselves superior to Non-Jews that Jews take advantage of Non-Jews and feel no remorse for it.

1C) Religious Anti-Semitism: While Christianity and Islam are not inherently Anti-Semitism, their doctrines are easily to meld to an Anti-Semitic world vision and historically have been melded in such ways. Islam has several Anti-Semitic thrusts. In addition to the crucifixion of Jesus the Messiah (which is not deicide in Islam since Jesus is not God in Islamic theology and because Jesus eluded the attempt to crucify him), Muslims have made the argument that Jews are the killers of the Prophets plural, even though Jesus was the only one of the 35 prophets in the Qur'an who Jews attempted to kill (per Islamic teachings). Additionally, Muhammad and the early Muslims had negative political and military relationships with Arabian Jews which led to Anti-Semitism having a greater prominence in the early Islamic tradition.

1D) Otherness: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews are somehow different from other people and are, therefore, incapable of properly assimilating into the dominant culture. The argument went that their culture and beliefs were too odd for civil society and the Jews needed to be removed due to this customs incongruence. In the Islamic World, since Jewish Emancipation came hand-in-hand with Imperialism, the Jews who assimilated were deemed to be imperialist infiltrators.

1E) Racial Inferiority: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews are somehow genetically inferior or lesser than other humans. Interestingly, in Arab and African-American communities who practice this form of Anti-Semitism by arguing that Jews are a European offshoot of Khazaria and not as racially developed as Semites or Africans.

1F) Disloyalty:
The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews harbor more loyalty to each other (or, since 1948 to Israel) than to their fellow countrymen. Military defeats have been framed on Jews, such as the Ottoman defeat in the Egyptian-Ottoman War in 1831-1833, even though Jews did not even fight in this war. The evidence, however, is to the contrary. In nearly every case where Jews have been permitted to join the militaries of their host countries, they have enlisted in excess of their percentage. Throughout the Middle Ages, Jews were more loyal to the sovereign, especially since the sovereign would protect the Jews from rabid Anti-Semitic hordes of peasants.

2) Islamism: Islamism wants to create a government that falls within their stringent and puritanical view of Islamic moral standards. In the Islamist conception, only Muslims should be in power in the State and any non-Muslim minorities should have a secondary role if they should have one at all, whereas Jews are too "uppity" in having created a state where they are in the dominant position. Second, Israel is situated in territory which used to be governed by Muslims for nearly 1300 years (with a century-long break under the Crusader States). As a result, Israel is considered a usurpation of historical Islamic authority whereas European countries (for example) never had Islamic authority before. Islamists have talked about reintroducing the jizya tax, a symbol of humiliation for Non-Muslims in both the Gaza Strip and in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). At present, since no Jews live in either area, the primarily target of these laws would be Christians, but they do intend to subject the Jews to at least the jizya, if not outright execution and genocide, if they had the chance.

3) Islamic Supremacism: Jihadism calls for a continued conquest of Non-Islamic Countries to be ruled by Muslims and to become part of a worldwide Islamic Empire. These groups believe in using violence to as well as politics to overpower and frighten Non-Muslims into accepting their school of thinking. As a Jews are Non-Muslims, they are naturally inferior to Muslims in the Jihadist conception.

4) Qur'anic Injunctions: Of course, different Muslims interpret the Qur'an differently, but there are certainly Qur'anic verses that can be read by those seeking to be intolerant, like Jihadists, of good grounds to do so. Q: 3:19 claims that the only religion that is acceptable to God is Islam. Q: 3:110 claims that Muslims are the best people in all history. Q: 8:55 claims that those who disbelieve are the worst of animals. Q: 9:29 argues for the repression and inequality of Jews and Christians before Muslims. -- There are numerous other verses that promote the view that intolerance and inequality between Muslims and Non-Muslims is Divinely Supported, creating difficulty in rejecting it. Additionally, the Qur'an has numerous verses that are specifically Anti-Semitic such as the famous "monkeys and pigs" verse, Q: 5:60.

5) Community Reinforcement: The Muslim Community generally has internal reinforcement of the notions that the Jews are eternal enemies of Muslims, are descended from apes and pigs, kill Muslims for enjoyment, and many other forms of commonplace Anti-Semitic rhetoric. There are numerous rallies where Muslims declare their unending support to the eradication of the Jewish people and will occasionally praise Hitler's "achievements" in this regard. There are some center-line Muslims (in addition to more liberal Muslims) who oppose this like Yusuf Hamza and Tariq Ramadan, but polls among Muslim communities show deeply-ingrained Anti-Semitic attitudes and a lack of knowledge about actual Jewish customs, beliefs, and history. Jihadists capitalize upon this to create a degree of legitimacy for their Anti-Semitism.

6) Systemic "Religionism":
In the US South in the 1980s, segregation was no longer legal, but the imprint of segregation was still felt in the south. Miscegenation between Blacks and Whites was not really accepted and Whites generally had a negative attitude toward Blacks, even though they were legally equal. This is called Systemic Racism. It is is much the same situation in most Islamic Countries, but with religion instead of race. Historically, Jews, Christians, Sikhs, and Hindus under Islamic governments were second-class citizens and so the transition to making them truly equal partners suffers from this history. Conversely, very few Muslims (prior to the last 50 years) lived in minority-Muslim countries, preventing the development of an Islam without Systemic Religionism. Jihadists argue that this Religious Discrimination is desirable and should be reimplemented.

7) Israel's Existence: Jihadists believe explicitly that Jews do not have the right to self-governance since they are considered to be wicked people cursed by God. As a result, the existence of a country where Jews do govern themselves (and even some Muslims) is a grievance of theirs.

8) Palestinian Indigenous Rights: The indigenous Palestinians and their descendants are aggrieved that people from abroad would come to the land that their parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents had lived on and worked for as long as they could remember and buy that land from the Ottomans without consulting them. Moreover, these people had a particular agenda to establish a state on the land they called their own. Understandably, the Palestinians, and those who support them, are opposed to the Zionist project and the Jews who realized it for these emotional and political considerations. Additionally, the Israeli Military Occupation of the West Bank Territories and the Blockade of Gaza represents a true legal and humanitarian crisis for Supporters of an Independent Palestine and the Palestinian People. To many in the world community, the Palestinians must have the right to go back to their homes (although it is doubtful that the Arabs would have permitted that right to the Jews should the Arabs have been victorious in the Arab-Israeli War of 1948-9).

9) Fifth Column:
Jews, especially, but also Christians and Hindus are seen by Jihadists as fifth columns in Islamic countries supporting foreign powers. Jews are usually accused of being "Zionists", a term which is never properly defined, and supporting Israel. Christians are usually seen as supporting the West against the Islamic countries. Hindus are often seen as spies from India against Pakistan. This makes these minorities untrustworthy to the Jihadists even when they clearly disavow any association with the country/ies to which they supposedly have allegiance instead of the Islamic State.


10) Facelessness: Most people around the world, and especially in the Islamic World, have never met a Jew and only see Jews through the media portrayals of Israeli military actions or Jewish politicians in Western countries. As a result, "the Jews" are a people upon whom any claim of impropriety can be laid without a counterfactual relationship to see a Jew's humanity.

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What are the causes of anti-Semitism?

There are a number of such reasons.

1) Anti-Semitism: There are six major reasons that people and countries harbor Anti-Semitic views and often these exist in contradictions (i.e. one group will hate them for one side of this reason and another group at a different place and time will hate them for the exact opposite reason): (1) Perceptions of Jewish Economic Power, (2) Perceptions of Jewish Ethnocentrism/Chosen-ness, (3) Religious motivations for Jew-hatred (both in Christianity and Islam), (4) Otherness, (5) Genetic/Racial Inferiority, and (6) Perceptions of Disloyalty. It is worth noting that the seventh most common reason, Ease of Scapegoating, only makes sense if at least one of the other six is in play, otherwise we could simply scapegoat the unicyclists for the world's ills.

1A) Jewish Economic Power: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews control the banks. Of course, this is not true as most banks are not chaired or owned or controlled by Jews; many banks operate independently or are controlled by Non-Jews. For example the Big Four US Banks are all run by Non-Jews: Jaime Dimon (JP Morgan Chase), Chad Holliday (Bank of America), Michael O'Neill (Citigroup), and John Stumpf (Wells Fargo). The reverse of this is that the Jews of 17th-19th century Poland and Russia were dirt poor, had no influence and yet they were hated, often explicitly because they were poor and therefore "contaminating" the country with their "poor-disease".

1B) Jewish Chosen-ness: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews believe themselves to be a superior ethnicity in the vein of the übermensch or "White Pride". This is contrary to the Jewish understanding is that the Jewish people were charged with a distinct mission/task that the rest of the world was not assigned and this is to elevate the spiritual character of the world. The Anti-Semites then argue that because Jews believe themselves superior to Non-Jews that Jews take advantage of Non-Jews and feel no remorse for it. The reverse of this is that in Western Europe in the late 19th Century, Jews, by and large, chose to assimilate and disregard their chosen-ness. The response is that Anti-Semites argued that the Jews were now going "undercover" and attempting to "infiltrate" European society. Additionally, when Christians or Muslims claim that they are the chosen elect-of-God, the chosen-ness issue does not seem to effect them.

1C) Religious Anti-Semitism: While Christianity and Islam are not inherently Anti-Semitism, their doctrines are easily to meld to an Anti-Semitic world vision and historically have been melded in such ways. Christianity's main thrust of Anti-Semitism comes from the crucifixion of Jesus, i.e. deicide. Christians also focused on the passages of the Old Testament which argue that Jews were in contravention to Divine Edicts and passages in the New Testament where Jesus condemns the actions of the Pharisees.

Islam has several Anti-Semitic thrusts. In addition to the Christ-killing (which is not deicide in Islam since Jesus is not God in Islamic theology and because Jesus eluded the attempt to crucify him), Muslims have made the argument that Jews are the killers of the Prophets plural, even though Jesus was the only one of the 35 prophets in the Qur'an who Jews attempted to kill (per Islamic teachings). Additionally, Muhammad and the early Muslims had negative political and military relationships with Arabian Jews which led to Anti-Semitism having a greater prominence in the early Islamic tradition.

1D) Otherness: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews are somehow different from other people and are, therefore, incapable of properly assimilating into the dominant culture. The argument went that their culture and beliefs were too odd for civil society and the Jews needed to be removed due to this customs incongruence. The reverse of this was that when Napoleon and other rulers emancipated the Jews (let them come out of the ghettos and interact as normal citizens). Anti-Semites responded that the Jews were now poisoning modern European society by direct interactions with it. In the Islamic World, since Jewish Emancipation came hand-in-hand with Imperialism, the Jews who assimilated were deemed to be imperialist infiltrators.

1E) Racial Inferiority: The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews are somehow genetically inferior or lesser than other humans.. Composer Richard Wagner, a noted Anti-Semite argued that Jews have no souls and were incapable of producing or enjoying "true music". Hitler argued that they were deficient emotionally as well as mentally. In the European context, this racism was directed at Jews, arguing that as Semites (Middle Eastern people) they were not as well-developed as Whites. Interestingly, we see the reverse in Arab and African-American communities who practice this form of Anti-Semitism by arguing that Jews are a European offshoot of Khazaria and not as racially developed as Semites or Africans.

1F) Disloyalty:
The common Anti-Semitic canard here is that Jews harbor more loyalty to each other (or, since 1948 to Israel) than to their fellow countrymen. Military defeats have been framed on Jews, such as the Trial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. The evidence, however, is to the contrary. In nearly every case where Jews have been permitted to join the militaries of their host countries, they have enlisted in excess of their percentage. Throughout the Middle Ages, Jews were more loyal to the sovereign, especially since the sovereign would protect the Jews from rabid Anti-Semitic hordes of peasants.

2) Facelessness: Most people around the world, and especially in the Islamic World, have never met a Jew and only see Jews through the media portrayals of Israeli military actions or Jewish politicians in Western countries. As a result, "the Jews" are a people upon whom any claim of impropriety can be laid without a counterfactual relationship to see a Jew's humanity.

3) Israel's International Legal Violations: Israel has engaged in a number of policies in violation of international law, such as the unification of Jerusalem, the settlements in the West Bank, the annexation of the Golan Heights, etc.. Israel is not reticent for performing such acts and claims that it violates those laws because they are prejudicial to its rights and interests. If other countries did the same, (Iran is a great example), they are sternly reprimanded by the international community and forced to toe the line. The argument is often that because the Jews have control of international politics, that they are able to commit these violations with impunity while other countries cannot.

4) Anti-Colonialism: While Arab Nationalism was an anti-colonial movement, the general principles of the anti-colonialism led to a rejection of States based on European values in non-European locations with a large number of non-European (ethnically speaking) inhabitants. This sentiment was felt most strongly towards (South) Rhodesia, South Africa, and what would become Israel. Anti-colonialists believe that Asians and Africans had the right to Self-Determination pursuant to their cultures. However, Rhodesian and South African institutions could and did eventually convert to being African nations (in the true sense of the term) because their racist infrastructure could be reformed. Zionism is by default a government by the Jews and would cease to be Zionist if the Jews were taken out of the leadership position. Thus Zionism catches the ire of anti-colonialists.

5) Palestinian Indigenous Rights: The indigenous Palestinians and their descendants are aggrieved that people from abroad would come to the land that their parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents had lived on and worked for as long as they could remember and buy that land from the Ottomans without consulting them. Moreover, these people had a particular agenda to establish a state on the land they called their own. Understandably, the Palestinians, and those who support them, are opposed to the Zionist project and the Jews who realized it for these emotional and political considerations. Additionally, the Israeli Military Occupation of the West Bank Territories and the Blockade of Gaza represents a true legal and humanitarian crisis for Supporters of an Independent Palestine and the Palestinian People. To many in the world community, the Palestinians must have the right to go back to their homes (although it is doubtful that the Arabs would have permitted that right to the Jews should the Arabs have been victorious in the Arab-Israeli War of 1948-9).

6) Arab Nationalism: Arab Nationalism as a movement crystallized in the 1930s and came to the political fore in the 1960s. Arab Nationalism is a movement that seeks to create an Arab State or multiple Arab States based on common cultural and historical markers. This movement began to make a tether between Arab cultural identity and Islamic religious identity. This was especially keen in places with large non-Muslim communities because those communities typically worked closely with the European colonizers seen to be repressing the Arab identity. Zionism, which is a movement based on a European cultural identity and a Jewish religious identity was antithetical to the Arab Nationalist movement ideologically and claims territory that Arab Nationalists also claim putting them at odds politically.

7) Islamism: Islamism, the political philosophy that Shari'a or Islamic Religious Law should be the grounds upon which a state is ruled (as opposed to Islam, which is the religion), want to create a government that falls within their stringent and puritanical view of Islamic moral standards. In the Islamist conception, only Muslims should be in power in the State and any non-Muslim minorities should have a secondary role if they should have one at all, whereas Jews are too "uppity" in having created a state where they are in the dominant position. Second, Israel is situated in territory which used to be governed by Muslims for nearly 1300 years (with a century-long break under the Crusader States). As a result, Israel is considered a usurpation of historical Islamic authority whereas European countries (for example) never had Islamic authority before. Islamists have talked about reintroducing the jizya tax, a symbol of humiliation for Non-Muslims in both the Gaza Strip and in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). At present, since no Jews live in either area, the primarily target of these laws would be Christians, but they do intend to subject the Jews to at least the jizya, if not outright execution and genocide, if they had the chance.

8) Anti-Nationalism:
In today's world, as things like globalization, cultural diffusion, and mixed ethnicities in major districts become more prominent, the Jewish support for the Zionist model of a Nation-State dedicated to one race or religion seems anachronistic. Germany, founded on the same model, now has the issue of integrating Turks (and their children) into the German state, but since Germans always lived in Germany and constituted a majority there, as opposed to being a reorganized Diaspora, nobody suggests that Germans should "return" to a more cosmopolitan type of existence. This is, however, oftentimes suggested by Anti-Nationalists and Post-Nationalists concerning the Jews and their State.

Conversely, Nationalists, especially in Europe, accuse the Jews of undermining their aims by helping with the integration of foreign and immigrant populations in their native countries. In the case of Europe, they usually trumpet out one or two Leftist ministers who happen to also be Jews as "proof" of the claim that Jews are undermining their countries.

9) Non-Jewish Holy Sites: Since the Holy Land does not only have Jewish Holy Sites, but also has Christian and Muslim Holy Sites, there is opposition in these communities to Jews having a physical monopoly and control of these holy sites. Particularly, many Muslims cannot visit Israel to see the Dome of the Rock or al-Aqsa Mosque since their countries of citizenship do not recognize Israel. Rather than blaming their own governments, it is far easier to blame the "insurrectionist Jews" who "stole the land" from Muslims and now "prevent" their coming to see it.

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How did pogroms affect life for Jews in Russia?

It made life dangerous and extremely difficult for them. Many emigrated to the US and Western Europe and further afield.

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Adolf Hitler
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Why did Adolf Hitler make the Nazis kill the Jews?

Look for yourself. Hitler even filmed himself and some of his generals worshipping the Devil! This film is still around.

Nazis are well know Devil worshippers! All they feel is Hate for others! Only each of them comes first!

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How did anti-Semitism cause the Holocaust?

Anti-Semitism was one factor leading to the Holocaust.

____

Surely, it was the starting-point or 'springboard' for all the other factors ...

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Germany was not the most anti-Semitic country in Europe, certainly the Nazis brought a new brand of anti-Semitism, but this was artificial, it was political, people did not hate the Jews because they were Jewish, they hated the Jews because they were told to, by the politicians, they believed that public opinion and ideology said that they should.

If you dismiss the Holocaust as being the fruits of a people with an irrational prejudice you risk not seeing how it was ordinary people like you and me or anyone reading this were convinced to follow a path that they were told was the right thing to do.

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If it hadn't been anti-Semitism which brought power to Hitler's regime, they'd simply have found another target; incited hatred against another cultural group.

As at all times in history, political ambition is well-served by isolating existing public fear and prejudice, and building upon that until a political entity can present itself as a savior of the people in the face of the perceived threat. Absolutely anything can be made to appear dangerous, given the right marketing techniques.

It always works; the need to protect their community is built into the nature of all communal creatures; uneasiness, followed by fear and finally defense and aggression are natural reactions to a perceived threat, and history, right up to the present day, clearly demonstrates people - with sufficient encouragement - will eventually seize upon any excuse to demonize and destroy those factors that they are told, and have been convinced, threaten their own existence.

The sole intention is for the political entity leading the movement to become powerful. Once it worked easily; today people of the world are becoming ever closer to one another, given far more opportunity to observe those they are told to fear as well as those they're told are friends. As a result, a greater percentage of people than at any time in recorded history will now question fear-tactics employed by those seeking to gain, retain, or increase power.

The evil that Hitler and other leaders achieved in turning good citizens against one another still works today, but not as easily. Have a look at the fearful tales spread about Jews leading up to WW2, and compare them with the tales we hear today about others we are induced to hate. The similarity is such that the gullibility of some would be laughable if it weren't so terrifying.

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When people have someone to hate and blame, they forget about their problems, and Germany had plenty of economic issues after WWI. Hitler rode this discontent to power and in the process killed many political dissidents and about 6 million Jews.

Comment

Obviously, without antisemitism there would have been no Holocaust, but the above doesn't explain genocide. There had been literally hundreds of pogroms (violent riots against Jews) in Tsarist Russia. Very few of these resulted in more than 20-25 deaths. One also needs to bear in mind that when the genocide started (in 1941) Germany had overcome its post-WW1 economic problems. See the related questions.

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Authors, Poets, and Playwrights
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Why did Ezra Pound hate Jews?

Ezra Pound hated Jews because he believed they controlled financial markets and banks. He thought they were responsible for wars due to the exercise of such economic power. Such views were not uncommon in the early to mid 20th Century. His brilliant poetry notwithstanding, Pound's racist views toward Jews and his support for the Axis during WWII in radio broadcasts led to his arrest for high treason at the end of the war. He wrote the Pisan Cantos in the Gorilla Cage under the brutal sun during his imprisonment. Many consider this the best section of the Cantos and he was awarded the Bollingen Prize while awaiting trial for treason. He never was tried as he was found unfit to stand trial due to insanity. He was sent to St. Elizabeth's Insane Asylum for 12 years where he held court and instructed some of the greatest young poets of the 50's like Charles Olson and reactionary pundits like Eustice Mullins. He was finally released and returned to Italy to live his final years in Venice, virtually silent. His paranoid and racist sentiments toward the Jews were his undoing. His influence on poetry was immense.

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Why have Jews been discriminated against?

There are an immense number of reasons, ranging from politics to economics to religious practices to social tendencies to confusion to imperial conquests to retribution (perceived or actual).

The Jews had many traits that made them easy targets for discrimination.

1. They were spread out or were nomads as a community always making them a minority.

2. Their religion is specific to their culture (despite being essentially the same as christianity) made them different.

3. They looked different with specific facial markers, skin colour and clothes which made them easy to spot.

4. The Jews were often successful in business which meant they were richer than most which made people jealous.

Answer

i think its because Hitler hated anyone different and the important thing to remember is that it wasn't only the Jews that were discriminated against, disabled (mentally and physically) people and many other religions were killed to If they did not agree with Hitler.

Answer

They are apparently responsible for Jesus' death, and their laws permitted them to charge interest on loans - which they did - while Christians could not. This engendered a lot of jealousy and hate for them in the general population. Their ways (such as not allowing people to 'become' Jews; this is part of Jewish custom that a Jew must have a Jewish mother) also created an atmosphere of mistrust. People wondered what they were doing and what they were planning. Paranoia, envy, hate and a fairly easy excuse, for the time anyway, combined to make the unfortunate Jews the target of many persecutions throughtout history; examples of such time are obviously the Holocaust and the period of the Black Death.

Answer:

The previous answer contains multiple errors. According to the New Testament, the Jews were not responsible for the death of Jesus, but many Christians perceived them as responsible. Also, anyone is allowed to become a Jew. Jews welcome converts, they just don't seek them out. Historically, it was the oppressors of the Jews who forbade conversion to Judaism. Also, Jews were moneylenders because this was one of the few occupations they were allowed to hold, and they did not charge exorbitant rates. They simply charged interest while the Christians were forbidden to charge interest. This created animosity.

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Why have Jews been hated for centuries?

Historians have listed six explanations as to why some people hate the Jews:
1) Economic: Some people hate Jews because "they possess too much wealth and power."
2) Chosen People: Some hate the Jews because Jews claim that they are the chosen people (Exodus ch.19 and other passages).
3) Scapegoat: Jews seem to be a convenient group to single out and blame for the troubles of society.
4) Deicide: Some hate the Jews "because they killed Jesus."
5) Outsiders: Some hate the Jews "because they are different than us." (Xenophobia.)
6) Racial Theory: Some hate the Jews "because they are an inferior race."

As we examine the explanations, we must ask: Are they causes for anti-Semitism or excuses for it? The difference being, that if one takes away the cause, then anti-Semitism should no longer exist. If one can show a contradiction to the explanation, it demonstrates that the "cause" is not a reason, it is just an excuse.Let's look at some of the contradictions:


Economic -- The Jews of 17th- 19th century Poland and Russia were dirt poor and had no influence, and yet they were hated.


Chosen People -- a) In the late 19th century, most Jews of Germany denied "Chosenness;" and they assimilated. Yet the holocaust started there.

b) Christians and Moslems also profess to being the "Chosen people," but the world and the anti-Semites tolerate them.


Scapegoat -- Any group must already be hated to be an effective scapegoat. The Scapegoat theory does not cause anti-Semitism. Rather, anti-Semitism is what makes the Jews a convenient target. Hitler's ranting and ravings would not be taken seriously if he said, "It's the bicycle riders and the midgets who are destroying our society."


Deicide -- a) the Christian Bible says the Romans killed Jesus, with Jews mentioned as accomplices. (The claims that Jews directly killed Jesus came several hundred years later). Why are the alleged accomplices persecuted, but there hasn't been an anti-Roman movement through history?

b) Jesus himself said, "Forgive them [i.e., the Jews], for they know not what they do." And the Second Vatican Council in 1963 officially exonerated the Jews as the killers of Jesus. Neither of these events lessened anti-Semitism.


Outsiders -- With the Enlightenment in the late 18th century, many Jews rushed to assimilate. Anti-Semitism should have stopped. Instead, for example, the Nazis proclaimed in essence: We hate you, not because you're different, but because you're trying to become like us! We cannot allow you to "infect" the Aryan race with your "inferior genes."


Racial Theory -- The overriding problem with this theory is that it is self-contradictory: Jews are not a race. Anyone can become a Jew - and members of every race, creed and color in the world have done so at one time or another.

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What is the word for prejudice and discrimination against Jews?

The word is anti-Semitism, or better antisemitism(as there is no such thing as 'semitism' that Jew baiters are 'anti').

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When did anti-semitism start?

Answer 1

Sadly it can be traced to the New Testament. In church schools much was made of the Passion of the Christ- by his own people- which in lay terms translates to The Jews Killed Christ! Of course he had to die to fulfill his mission (the Sacrifice of the Cross), but the actual portrayal still looks horribly bad. In some cases Church schools went far beyond the Biblical narrative and came up with obviously fictionalized stories that Jewish merchants were child-killers, such (dead serious nonsense) as the so-called Blood Libel (not to be confused with the more positive concept of a Blood Oath!) The prohibitory angles of persecution even extended, heavy duty, to any attempted marriage between a Catholic and a Jew. This was treated far more severely than an attempted marriage between a Catholic and a Lutheran, or Episcopalian. Catholic-Jewish families were all but banned. A noted exception was the wedding between RCA executive David Sarnoff, Jr. and the opera singer Anna Moffo. This was not quite the Wall Of Sound!

Answer 2

Antisemitism goes well back into the history of Europe. In the early Christian Church, Jews were often considered evil for having rejected and allegedly helping to crucify Jesus. This was aggravated by the fact that Jews - due to religious proscriptions against Christians lending money to other Christians - often became moneylenders in Christian lands, and so were resented as seemingly exploitative outsiders. This became more pronounced through the 19th century, since Jews migrated into mainstream financial positions (bankers, financiers, etc.) but maintained an insular community separate from the surrounding Christians. By the time of the rise of the National Socialist party in Germany in the early 20th century, Jews were seen as a prominent minority in the capitalist class, making them easy targets for the Nazi party's appeal to the perceived Germanic heritage (Aryanism) and appeal to the putatively oppressed working class (Socialism).

Answer 3

Of course, most Jews were not bankers ... Many, especially in Eastern Europe were poor or even destitute (and had to be supported by fellow Jews).

The Nazis and others saw the Jews as "Judeo-Bolshevists", as the biological bearers of Communism, scheming for world domination.

Antisemitism as an ideology that tries to explain all the world's problems in terms of alleged Jewish conspiracies dates from the 1870s and 1880s. It really should be seen as distinct from anti-Judaism: it is a secularized successor and has almost nothing to do with religion.

See the links and related question.

Answer 4

Antisemitism began almost as soon as Judaism began, for any group that exists, there will be others who disagree with it.

Christian antisemitism, as we see in the Holocaust started within the first hundred years of Christianity. Though many of the same reasons for Nazi antisemitism existed, it was never mobilised into such extreme action as under the Nazis.
Antisemitism is a starting place for trying to understand the tragedy which would befall countless numbers of people during the Holocaust.

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