Blood Transfusions

A blood transfusion is when blood or blood-based products are transferred from one person to another. This is often done because of major blood loss from something such as an accident or childbirth, but sometimes because of a disease such as anemia or sickle-cell disease.

2,559 Questions
Blood Transfusions

Can you donate plasma or blood if you smoke marijuana?

Actual, that's wrong! Marijuana is NOT on the list of drugs the FDA/CDC requires asked. It IS a legal prescription is several states, and those who take it that way are NOT barred from donating blood. There are very few drugs, legal or not, on the list that defers a donor. METHOD of administration is more important (i.e. sharing needles, injecting ANYTHING not prescribed or administered by a medical professional, etc.)

However, DO NOT show up to donate high! Seriously, you need to be sober and not on anything not medically necessary for survival when you give blood. For your sake and the recipient. And remember, you're down 10% of your blood...your tolerance afterwards will be LOW! And hydrate before and after, you'll thank me.

All blood collection facilities would treat marijuana use the same as alcohol: If donor staff can detect the smell of marijuana or alcohol, the person would not be allowed to donate at that time. This has nothing to do with intoxicants in the blood component; the amount present would have no effect on the patient. The alcohol or THC could, when combined with the loss of fluid volume and red cell mass, increase the risk of post-donation reactions such as dizziness, fainting, nausea, etc.

Jehovah's Witnesses
Blood Transfusions

Would a nurse that is Jehovah's witnesses bound for blood transfusion?

Jehovah's Witnesses do not refuse the transfusion process, just the use of blood.

There are other non-blood substitutes that can be transfused into a Jehovah's Witness patient, such as ringers lactate, saline, or other blood volume expanders.

The reason that we refuse blood is because of God's command which is repeated in several places in the Bible regarding blood. The Bible often states not to "eat" blood. We understand that to mean not take blood into the body at all. Romans 15:28,29 simply says to abstain from blood. Again we understand that in the same way that if a doctor told you to abstain from alcohol, he would mean simply not take it into your body at all through any means, whether through the mouth or intravenous.

Because of our stand on this issue, we have experienced many benefits. For example, my own father had triple bypass surgery a few years ago using non-blood medical management. He recovered faster than normally expected by patients having this type of surgery, and was back home several days before the prognosis would normally be.

The medical profession has made great strides in non-blood medicine, largely due to the refusal of Jehovah's Witnesses to accept blood. A growing number of hospitals are going "bloodless" because they are finding the the treatment is better. Patients are recovering faster with less chance for infection.

It is a conscience matter whether a Jehovah's Witness nurse administered a blood transfusion.

Watchtower 15th November 1964 page 681 says:

''Some doctors who are Jehovah's witnesses have administered blood transfusions to persons of the world upon request. However, they do not do so in the case of one of Jehovah's dedicated witnesses. In harmony with Deuteronomy 14:21, the administering of blood upon request to worldly persons is left to the Christian doctor's own conscience. This is similar to the situation facing a Christian butcher or grocer who must decide whether he can conscientiously sell blood sausage to a worldly person.'' and as another note neither Drs or Nurses can legally be forced to give such transfusions if it violates the Bible trained conscience cite Kenney vs Ambulatory care center of Miami.


Another interesting discussion of this issue is here:

*** w75 4/1 pp. 215-216 pars. 8-11 Are You Guided by a Sensitive Christian Conscience? ***

For example, there are employment problems involving blood. The Bible states plainly that God's servants should not feed on blood. (Gen. 9:3, 4; Acts 15:19, 20) Hence, Jehovah's Christian witnesses do not eat food containing blood, such as blood sausage, or accept blood transfusions. But what if, on your job you were asked to handle blood or blood products occasionally? Would your conscience permit that? A Witness in Colorado worked in a hospital as the chief medical technician running tests of various types on body tissue and fluid. Among the many things he was expected to test were blood samples. Sometimes it was simply to check a patient's blood for the level of sugar or cholesterol. But at other times it was to cross match for transfusion purposes. Could he do that?

9 This Christian gave careful thought to the matter. It could be seen that it would not be right for a Christian to work exclusively for a blood bank, where everything was devoted to an end that was in violation of God's law. But that was not his situation; he ran tests of many kinds. Also, if one were a doctor responsible for the decision, one could not order a blood transfusion for a patient, any more than a Christian store owner could order and stock idols or cigarettes. However, this technician realized that in connection with blood he was merely running a test, even as a nurse might have taken the sample, a messenger might have delivered it to the laboratory and someone else might administer a transfusion or other medication on a doctor's orders. He reflected on the principle at Deuteronomy 14:21. According to that text a Jew finding a carcass of an animal that died of itself could clear it away by selling it to a foreigner who was not under the Law's restrictions about animal flesh not drained of its blood. So the technician's conscience at that time allowed him to run blood tests, including those of blood for transfusions to patients who did not care about God's law on blood.

10 Is that how your conscience would have reacted? If not, for the sake of discussion, ask yourself whether your conscience would permit you as an employee to bring the blood sample to the laboratory for testing. Or, taking yet another step farther away from the actual transfusion, could you as a truck driver deliver the testing equipment to the hospital? Or would your conscience let you make glass from which such equipment might be produced? It is clear that not all these things reasonably can be viewed as direct contributions to violating God's law on blood. But where does one "draw the line"? Here is where conscience comes into play. While the Christian must avoid things that are unmistakably in conflict with God's law, he is called upon to use his conscience in settling many matters. Would your conscience serve you well in such situations? Is it sensitive?

11 In this particular case, after many years of running tests, the technician began to be troubled by his conscience. It was not as if someone else should or could tell him that he was doing wrong. Nor was he looking for someone else to make his decisions for him. But he began to think: "Is it consistent to talk of neighbor love, and yet contribute, in part, to my neighbor's breaking of God's law?" (Matt. 22:39; Acts 21:25) Appreciating his Christian duty to support his family, he discussed the matter with his wife. (1 Tim. 5:8) Together they agreed that, if his conscience was troubled, it would be better to make a change. He left his $15,000-a-year job and began doing cleaning work, though he started off earning just $3,600 a year.

Blood Transfusions
Blood Vessels

How many liters of blood is in the human body?

Approximately 4.7 to 5.6 litres. This varies from person to person based on height, weight etc.

about 4 litres in a female and 5 litres in a male
There are around 6 Litres in the body
5 litres
Blood Transfusions

What is the possible cause of death in a blood transfusion?

Deaths associated with the transfusion of blood products have been directly linked to the following:

-acute or delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions,

-transfusion associated cardiac overload (TACO),

-transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI),

-transfusion associated infections (viral, bacterial, parasitic)

-anaphylactic reaction (usually in an IgA-deficient recipient)

Salary and Pay Rates
Public Health and Safety
Blood Transfusions
Blood Donation

Where in Houston can you get paid to donate plasma?

Grifols Biomat USA

Advertisement in hand says that new donors get $70 for two donations in the first week and return donors get $50/week.


1223 W. 43rd Street, Houston TX 77018

Mon, Wed 8am-6pm / Tue, Thur, Friday 8am - 4pm

Saturday 8am - 3pm

Bring Drivers License, SS Card, Proof of Address

It takes about 3 hours to do it the first time, because you have to take a short physical and urine test. After that, depending on the wait time, it takes about an hour. The prices are now down to $30 for the first 4 times (as long as they are within a 2 week period) and then it goes down to $25 per donation. However, right now they are doing a "retention bonus" where you get an extra $5 for your 5th donation, and an extra $10 for the 6th donation.

Blood Transfusions

What is a unit of blood For example in the bag at the hospital is it a pint a liter that makes up a unit or...?

According to Canadian Blood Services, a unit of blood is approximately 450 ml. The amount of blood in one person is five litres or 10.5 pints. On average, 4.6 units of blood are required per patient.

Blood Transfusions

Can Straterra cause blood in the urine?

Atomoxetine is "corosive" to any mucous membrane. In the powder form it can cause permanent tissue damage to the eyes. Gastrointestinal side effects are most common. Sexual dysfunction and urinary retention were issues in the adult studies. Demand that your physician report this adverse event to Lilly!

Liability Insurance
Blood Types
Blood Transfusions
Blood Donation

What is the highest sum insured given till date under a D and O policy?

Are you sure you don't mean an ''E'' and O policy? If so you will need to search court cases for that answer, and still many settlements are confidential.

Medication and Drugs
Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Blood Transfusions

Can you give blood if you're taking medication for bipolar disorder?

Yes. Most of the drugs used in psychoactive disorders have relatively short half-lives, so even trace amounts would quickly get metabolized and eliminated by the new host. In any case, the Red Cross has guidelines for donors on certain medications (see link below).

Blood Types
Blood Transfusions

Can a b negative blood type receive positive blood transfusions?

An Rh negative recipient may receive Rh positive cellular blood products IF the recipient does not have preexisting Anti-D antibodies present in their plasma, is not a female of child bearing age/capable of becoming pregnant and/or there is an emergent need for blood components (trauma, etc.) and Rh negative products are not available. If Rh positive products are administered to an Rh negative recipient, Rh positive components may continue to be administered until anti-D antibodies are detected on pre-transfusion screening tests. If Rh positive platelets are administered to an Rh negative recipient, Rh Immune Globulin (e.g., RHoGam) may be administered to prevent sensitization in the recipient.

Blood Transfusions

Can schizophrenia be transmitted from blood transfusion?

No. Schizophrenia is a mental illness, not a physical one. It is at least theoretically possible that it could be hereditary, but definitely not contagious.

Jehovah's Witnesses
Blood Transfusions

Why will Jehovah's Witnesses not receive blood transfusions?

Many places in the Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament) humans are told not to eat blood, God forbids eating meat without first draining the blood, and Acts 15:20,29 states that we are to "....abstain from blood....."

If your doctor tells you that you are to abstain from alcohol or dairy products, lest you should die, would you consider injecting alcohol or dairy products into your veins? Of course not. You would avoid those products all together in all forms. Therefore, JW's do not accept blood in ANY form - whether in meat or anti-venoms, or transfusions of their own or anyone else's blood. To "abstain from" literally means to "voluntarily hold oneself back from." The subject of Jehovah's Witnesses and blood transfusions has been a subject of much misunderstanding on the part of non-witnesses.

JW's do not accept blood transfusions based on the Bible's command to "abstain from blood."(Acts 15:29) However, we DO accept transfusions of NON-blood substitutes.

Hospitals around the world are recognizing that non-blood medical treatment is safer than using human blood. More and more hospitals are becoming entirely "bloodless" because of the many HEALTH RISKS from using real blood, such as, tissue rejection and infection from hepatitis, aids, and hundreds of other blood borne diseases. "A growing number of hospitals are offering alternative 'bloodless' surgery," reported The Wall Street Journal. "Originally developed to accommodate Jehovah's Witnesses," states the journal, "the practice has gone mainstream, with many hospitals promoting their bloodless-surgery programs to the general public."

Even people who are not JW's are claiming to be such just to keep from receiving blood transfusions, claims The Winnipeg Sun of Canada. That newspaper says, "A growing number of hospital patients afraid of catching AIDS or developing other blood related problems are posing as Jehovah's Witnesses," states the article. "Church elders have discovered more than a dozen impostors while doing their hospital rounds." One woman said she pretended to be a Witness so that she would not have to fight with the doctors over the treatment. "The reason I refuse blood is not religious," she said. "When you take someone else's blood there's no guarantee that you'll be any healthier. It could make you sick or even dead." One impostor was discovered by a chaplain who saw the man sitting in bed smoking a cigar. The man sheepishly admitted that he wasn't a Witness. "I just don't want a blood transfusion," he said. "I'm a doctor."

Along with hospitals, now thousands of doctors worldwide are practicing non-blood medical treatment, not just for Witness patients, but as their preferred method for ALL patients.

The dangers from blood transfusions are so great that the reference work Dailey's Notes on Blood says: "Some physicians maintain that allogenic blood [blood from another human] is a DANGEROUS DRUG and that its use would be banned if it were evaluated by the same standards as other drugs."

Our position though, is governed by the Bible and our resolve to obey our creator who tells us to "abstain from blood." Our position is not "complicated". Simply put, we do not accept whole blood or any of it's four main parts, plasma, white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. But, there are hundreds of blood fractions that an individual's conscience may allow them to accept. An individual may view small fractions of blood components as not being blood, in the same way that a fraction of a cake such as sugar, is not the cake itself. I personally do not find that complicated, and I know of no other Witness who finds that complicated either.

The reference to Genesis 9:4 where it says not to 'eat the blood' leads some feel that this simply means not to take blood into the mouth. If you were told not to eat sugar (possibly due to diabetes) would you then assume that you would be okay if you were to inject it directly into your veins? That would not be reasonable. Further, the command to the Christian congregation was to "abstain from blood," as Acts 15:29 clearly states.

ANSWER From Another Jehovah's Witness:Quite simply, because Jehovah God and Jesus' 'faithful and discreet slave' class tells us not to, and therefore we are obeying Jesus' direct commands as explained in our journals.

Watchtower 1959 1st May p269

''To hold to the headship of Christ, it is therefore necessary to obey the organization that he is personally directing. Doing what the organization says is to do what he says. Resisting the organization is to resist him.''

If the Society had 'new light' based on Biblical research and intense prayers, and stated that we could have blood transfusions if we so chose, then we follow their direction. The chances of that are about as slim as IF it was ever possible to discover that it's OK to steal; to commit adultery; then we would publish the new information, and we'd all go out and steal, and commit adultery. I would suppose that would never happen; emphasis on the word 'never'.

This is amply demonstrated in our beliefs on organ transplants. At one time we used to refuse organ transplants as they were considered to be cannibalism. (WT 67 15th Nov). Then in 1980, 15th March WT, Jesus and Jehovah saw fit to direct us that it was now ok to have an organ transplant, if one so chose.

Also, some witnesses' consciences may allow them to accept blood fractions, as long as these have been separated completely from any of the four main blood components.

Genesis 9:4

But flesh with its life, its blood, you shall not eat*.

Leviticus 17:14

For as to the life of all flesh, its blood is with its life: therefore I said to the children of Israel, "You shall not eat* the blood of any kind of flesh; for the life of all flesh is its blood. Whoever eats it shall be cut off (die)."

Acts 15:19-20

"Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God, but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood.

(World English Bible - public domain)

* Note: Officially, transfusion is considered being 'fed' blood, which is why the commandment not to eat blood is thought to be relevant.

God's people worldwide show respect for blood. Jehovah (God's name) speaks about blood in Genesis 4:10 after Cain had killed Abel and thought that he would get away with it. In all reality Jehovah saw the whole thing. Jehovah says in that scripture, "Your brother's blood is crying out to me from the ground." When he said blood he was referring to Abel's life. This meant that Abel's life, or blood, was crying out for Jehovah to set things straight as it were.

Another instance was shown in Noah's day after the Flood. Did you know that before the Flood people only ate fruits, vegetables, grains and nuts? Well they did until the Flood came in about 2370 BC and shortly after the water had drained from the earth Jehovah had told Noah and his family, "Every moving animal that is alive may serve as food for you." This meant that they could not eat animals before 2370 BC. However, Jehovah was not done speaking. He went on to say "Only flesh with its soul [or, life] -it's blood- you must not eat. (Genesis 1:29, 9:3,4) In fact they were told that they could eat the meat of an animal but they had to pour the blood back into the ground, symbolically returning the animal's "life" to Jehovah.

Later in the Bible, Acts 15:28,29 and 21:25 tells us to keep abstaining from blood. In God's eyes, doing this is just as important as our avoiding idolatry and sexual immorality. And abstaining from blood means not taking it into our bodies AT ALL. Similar to if your doctor said you would die if you did not cut out alcohol from your life. Would you reply, 'well I can still have it injected and not drink it'?

I advise you to obtain a book (free of charge) which we publish that explains all of this information and more in greater detail. It's called "What Does the Bible Really Teach?"

You may obtain one in almost any language at your local congregation, or call and ask a Witness to bring one to you. All you have to do is ask and they can get you one.


First, let's be clear. Jehovah's Witnesses do NOT refuse the transfusion process, just the use of blood.

There are numerous non-blood substitutes that can be transfused into a patient, such as Ringers lactate, saline solution, or other blood volume expanders. Doctors will tell you - the amount or quantity of liquid cursing through one's veins is actually more important in saving one's life than adding blood cells.

The reason that we refuse blood is because of God's command which is repeated in several places in the scriptures. The Bible often states not to "eat" blood. We understand that means not take blood into the body at all. Acts 15:28,29 simply says to abstain from blood. Again we understand that in the same way that if a doctor told you to abstain from alcohol, he would mean simply not take it into your body at all through ANY means, whether through the mouth or intravenously.

Because of our stand on this issue, we have experienced many benefits. For example, my own father had triple bypass surgery a few years ago using non-blood medical management. He recovered faster than normally expected by patients having this type of surgery, and was back home several days before the prognosis would normally be.

The medical profession has made great strides in non-blood medicine, largely due to the refusal of Jehovah's Witnesses to accept blood. A growing number of hospitals are going "bloodless" because they are finding the the treatment is better. Patients are recovering faster with less chance for infection.

The part of the 'faithful and discreet' slave that make up our Organization's Governing Body help us to understand the Bible's command not to have blood transfusions, and thus obey Jehovah, as explained in the following quote:

Watchtower 1959 1st May p269

''To hold to the headship of Christ, it is therefore necessary to obey the organization that he is personally directing. Doing what the organization says is to do what he says. Resisting the organization is to resist him.''

So, in conclusion, Jehovah's Witnesses accept all kinds of different medical treatment but adroitly refuse blood transfusions because, according to the Bible, blood is sacred and absolutely not to be put into a human's body in any way.

Opinion:The command is clear in Acts chapter 15 verse 28 and 29 to "abstain from blood" so, although we accept non-blood alternative treatments, we refuse to be transfused with blood... Compare Genesis 9:3, 4; Leviticus 17:10-14.

This does not mean we are making a foolish or uninformed decision. We want quality medical care and for doctors to do whatever they can do to save us and care for for us. We want them to provide us with the best alternative treatments to blood transfusions, and there are many quality alternatives, which as it turns out are both safer AND often far more beneficial in other ways than treatment with blood.

Since the Bible makes no clear statement about the use of minor blood fractions or the immediate re-infusion (in a closed circuit) of a patient's own blood during surgery, a medical process known as blood salvaging, the use of such treatments is a matter of personal choice.

The answer below this containing the misapplied quote from the Watchtower 1959 1st May p269 is erroneous. Although we are to follow the instructions of the faithful and discreet slave, because that is who Jesus left to preside over his "household" according to Matthew 24:45-47, we do not do so blindly, nor in opposition to plain Scripture. Acts 15:28, 29 says "Abstain ... from blood" and nothing the faithful and discreet slave class says changes that. The faithful slave will NOT teach against the Bible. If certain ones of them did begin saying things that are out of harmony with Scripture, then they are part of the ones Jesus spoke of in Matthew 24:48-51. Notice, Jesus appointed one Slave, but the actions of that slave determine whether he is faithful or wicked.

Another AnswerMany JWs have needlessly died because the governing body considers blood transfusions to be "eating blood." Of course, their view on this has recently changed to allow some uses of blood fractions. But the governing body is careful to explain its new understandings on blood to its followers. Another OpinionThe exact stance taken by Watchtower has varied over the years. Transfusion (and also organ donation) were even branded as a form of cannibalism at one time in the past. They relaxed their position in 2000. Although whole blood, and the components thereof (red & white cells, plasma, platelets) are still considered forbidden, followers are advised to use their own discretion when accepting or rejecting treatments which make use of fractional parts of these components (such as hemoglobin, interferon, or albumin).

Indeed, many Jehovah's Witnesses choose not to follow Watchtower's interpretation of the above scriptures, and will in fact accept transfusions.

No, They are dead-set against it. this is extremely high risk as people have died from not having blood transfusions. They quote Bible passages out of context- as let"s face it Blood transfusions only became a medical practice- of a practical, everyday sort- in the twentieth century. the first Blood Bank was opened in l937 Specially modified buses rigged for donations of blood called Bloodmobiles came much later.

The Absolute point:

Most people in professed Christian faiths continually re-oath themselves over and over again on the issue of Jesus Sacrificial Blood, while they consider other sources of life saving measures or other sources of blood inconsequential in accepting these. A Jehovah's Witness holds the Blood of Christ so much in high esteem, they will not under any circumstances usurp that Oath. Meaning they will do the utmost to preserve lives including the one attached to keeping this Oath without marring it with other sources physical or otherwise of blood. You can call it "A lifelong commitment to keep ceremonially clean in the sight of God." Acts 20:26

It would be hard to do so accepting blood which are full of personal ills, not that they view that they are perfect, but rather as showing to God their will to continue on living as clean as possible. Some would argue since perfection is not an issue what would be the point? Giving in and giving up on the issue of cleanliness, is not an option for a Jehovah's Witness, he or she will continue to fight for it showing God the most high level of the will to live that that person has.

Side Note: The class of the opinion poles that spread and generate falsehoods and innuendos about the Jehovah's Witnesses are due to it's fickle attitudes tied to prejudice. Matthew 11:16-19 That said, it is strange to me that actual known dangerous cults some are and were using blood, now today the reverse holds true when they accuse Jehovah's Witnesses as a dangerous cult while these Jehovah's Witnesses fervently AVOID using blood in their lifestyle.


the bible plainly states to abstain from blood.

also many doctors are started to use alternative to blood because of the harm that it causes. this article is not even from a JW source:

More than half of blood transfusions may do more harm than good, with some patients facing a six-fold greater risk of dying following surgery because of transfusions, doctors warn today.

Fears over the safety of blood transfusions have prompted some physicians to recommend they are used only as a last resort, with hospitals urged to be more selective over which patients receive blood. According to a report in New Scientist today, the National Institutes of Health, the US government's largest medical funder, has launched a review into the safety of the procedure. Bruce Spiess, a cardiac anaesthetist at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, America, told the magazine: "Probably 40%-60% of blood transfusions are not good for the patients."

John Wallwork, professor of cardiothoracic surgery at Papworth hospital in Cambridge, said: "We are concerned about blood transfusions for a variety of reasons. We don't want to use blood unless we have to. In heart surgery around half receive blood transfusions, but often they are patients who are sicker or bleed significantly during the operation. It's always a case of balancing the risks."
Answer 1:

Firstly, the 'faithful and discreet' slave are the seven men in Brooklyn that make up Jehovah's Witnesses' Governing Body. This Governing Body of seven men tell Witnesses not to give blood, based on their understanding of Acts 15 and individual Jehovah's Witnesses believe they are obeying Jesus' direct commands as explained in the following quotes:

Watchtower 1959 1st May p269

''To hold to the headship of Christ, it is therefore necessary to obey the organization that he is personally directing. Doing what the organization says is to do what he says. Resisting the organization is to resist him.''

Watchtower 2009 15th Feb p27

''Since Jehovah God and Jesus Christ completely trust the faithful and discreet slave, should we not do the same?''

Although Jehovah's Witnesses do not give or donate blood, some Witnesses' consciences will allow them to accept transfusions of blood that non-Witnesses have donated as long as it has been split into smaller parts that they call fractions.

Answer 2:

If you want up to date and ACCURATE information it is good to ask one who is one of Jehovah's Witnesses rather than asking somene who may be out of touch, not up to date and biased. Jehovah's Winesses have a free public website that will answer any and all questions you may have about them. Check out the site and in particular at the bottom under LEARN; Answers to Bible Questions

Blood Types
Blood Transfusions

Red blood cells with high oxygen concentrations are bright red because of the presence of what?

this better to say blood with high CO2 concentration is dark and blood with high CO (Carbon monoxide toxemia) is bright, so O2 saturated blood is just NORMAL.

Blood Transfusions

What is the LPNs role in administration of blood transfusions?

It depends on the state/facility. Most LPNs are not allowed to perform blood transfusions, that is a task that cannot be delegated to ancillary staff, or those that are not registered nurses.

Blood Transfusions

What is mainly made up of water food nutrients and waste matirals?

it is the plasma

Blood Transfusions

What does adverse transfusion event mean?

"Adverse" means harmful or unfavorable, and transfusion probably refers to blood transfusion--so a negative reaction to a blood transfusion? The term is very vague; without context it's hard to say exactly what this would mean.

Lyrics and Sheet Music
Multiple Births
Blood Transfusions

Who were the Tishman twins?

There is a reference to the Tishman twins in an old folk song, "Shake Hands With Your Uncle Max" by Allan Sherman. It goes: Shake hands with your Uncle Max, my boy
And here is your sister Shirl
And here is your cousin Isabel
That's Irving's oldest girl
And you remember the Tishman twins
Gerald and Jerome
We all came out to greet you
And to wish you welcome home Although there maybe some twin siblings named Tishman somewhere in the world, Gerald and Jerome appear to be fictional.

Blood Types
Blood Transfusions

What does plus and - stand for in blood group?

positive and negative stands for either Rhesus Positive or Rhesus negative which means that a persons Red blood cells (RBC) either have D antigens on their cell surface membranes or not. a person who is Rhesus negative will have D Antibodies in the blood plasma and can only be given Rhesus negative blood types in a blood transfusion. Rhesus positive blood types can be given either D+ or D- in a blood transfusion as they have no D antibodies in their blood plasma. hope this helps

Blood Types
Blood Transfusions

Is o negative an unusual blood type?

In the United States, approximately 42% of the population is type O and 15% is Rh negative. Based on these estimates, 6% would be Type O, Rh negative. Since O negative is used extensively in emergency situations and for neonatal transfusions, it is always in short supply.

Blood Types
Blood Transfusions
Blood Donation

Do sponges have blood?

Sponges do not have blood. They do not have a circulatory system either.

Blood Transfusions
The Difference Between

What is the difference of blood infusion vs transfusion?

Transfusion is the infusion of blood. Many other things can be infused, IV solutions and medications but are these things are simply said to be infused.

Blood Transfusions

What is different between blood substitute and blood transfusion?

Blood substitute refers to an alternative to a blood transfusion which can mean one of a number of things.

The number one alternative being used right now is to use a machine that collects the blood as you bleed out during surgery, cleans the blood and then puts it back into the body.

This reduces the chance of a reaction to your heart, the chance of stroke or the extremely common infection that sets in after a blood transfusion. It also eliminates any problems related to the blood sitting for too long which reduces the bloods ability to carry protein or oxygen.

Blood from other people carry other problems because of the antigens associated with blood can attack any blood that is not the exact same. There are 29 current blood types (not 4 like most people think).

The other problem that this eliminates is disease. We can only test for diseases that we are currently aware of but so many are being discovered all the time that we are unable to test for those.

Blood Transfusions

How much blood loss should there be after a miscarriage?

An average amount like your period. Anything more should be discussed with your dr.

A good rule of thumb is soaking a maxi pad an hour for more than three hours is a sign of too much blood loss. If it were me, after 2 soaked pads I'd be getting checked out. Please remember not to use tampons for this blood flow. Your body needs to expel matter to prevent infection.

Academic Writing
Cooking Techniques
Plural Nouns
Blood Transfusions

What is the procedure for skimming gravy?

For gravy, any skin that forms on top can simply be removed with a large spoon, but usually gravy will not need skimming unless you let it sit for a while. Skimming is usually done for stocks, and the easiest way to accomplish this is with a ladle. Simply lower the ladle just until it breaks the surface - since the fat and foam float on top, they will be the first things to fall into the ladle.

Blood Transfusions

Why is pnss used during blood transfusion?

PNSS is an isotonic solution that has the same tonicity as blood so there will be no hemolysis of RBC


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