Lung cancer is often associated with smoking, and the incidence and mortality rates are influenced by tobacco use. Other common causes of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. include colorectal cancer, breast cancer (among women), and prostate cancer (among men).
Yes, breast cancer can metastasize to the liver. Metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to other parts of the body. In the case of breast cancer, the liver is one of the common sites where metastasis may occur.
When breast cancer metastasizes to the liver, it means that cancer cells from the breast have traveled through the bloodstream or lymphatic system and formed secondary tumors in the liver. Liver metastasis may affect the functioning of the liver and can lead to various symptoms such as:
Abdominal pain or discomfort: Due to the enlargement of the liver.
Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by liver dysfunction.
Unexplained weight loss: Resulting from the impact on overall health.
Fatigue: Due to the strain on the liver and the body.
It's important for individuals with breast cancer to undergo regular monitoring and screenings to detect any signs of metastasis. Early detection allows for more effective management and treatment strategies.
Treatment for metastatic breast cancer involving the liver often involves a combination of systemic therapies, such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and, in some cases, surgical interventions. The specific treatment plan will depend on the characteristics of the breast cancer, the extent of metastasis, and individual factors.
The size of a breast cancer lump can vary widely. Breast cancers can present as small, pea-sized lumps, or they can be larger masses. The size of the lump is typically measured in centimeters (cm) and is an important factor in determining the stage of breast cancer.
In general, breast cancer is classified into stages based on the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The American Cancer Society uses the following general size categories:
Stage 0 (in situ): The cancer is limited to the inner lining of the breast duct and has not invaded nearby tissues. At this stage, the tumor is often very small.
Stage I: The tumor is 2 cm or smaller and has not spread outside the breast.
Stage II: The tumor is either smaller than 2 cm and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm, or it is between 2 and 5 cm and has not spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage III: The tumor is larger than 5 cm and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes, or it is any size and has spread extensively to the lymph nodes.
Stage IV: The cancer has spread to other organs of the body.
It's important to note that breast cancer can vary significantly, and these are general categories. Some breast cancers may be detected at a very early stage, while others may be diagnosed at a more advanced stage.
By your self by rubbing them and if you have a lump then you go to the doctor.
of course whales get cancer! any animal with cells has the potential to get cancer.
I don't know, but I have the same thing - my doc says lypoma but what I read says lypomas are soft and rubbery - this thing is hard - but it is movable. I noticed a thick feeling deep in my forearm (the fleshy underside, not the top of my forearm) one morning, thought I'd gotten bitten really good by a mosquito in the night - but no itching, no mark on my skin, hours later had this really big lump - so it came up fast. I've had it for almost two weeks. I taped it with surgical tape because it is heavy for my wimpy girl arm and was making the area ache. The support from the tape makes it feel better. Ice hasn't helped, I tried heat the first night which seemed to irritate it - but I was using serious heat from a rice bag for quite awhile. So, I'm no help in answering your question. Was told that a hard hit to the area could, six months later or so, cause a growth like this to come up, also was told no one knows, that under skin growths are very common...
No. Meat in small doses is good for cancer patients with blood type O and B, but s types A and AB should research themselves. My stepdaughter who is type O and suffers with breast cancer read on the Internet that meat is absolutely 'No-no' for one who has cancer became vegan. There was no animal product in her diet for 2 years. Her cancer from less than 0.5X0,5 cm became a massive whole breast mess, spreads to her bones, lung, ribs. Now she is undergoing radio+chemotherapy, eat meat in small amounts, minute portions of dairy products occasionally, Vit B complex, milk thistle and she feels much better, not bed ridden anymore
5.07 Fl oz. or about a lttle more than one half cup liquid measurement.
This would depend on what year it was issued and the condition of the stamp.
For example a used stamp in average condition from 1998 is worth between 6 and 19 cents to a collector but could not be used for postage.
An unused stamp in average condition from 1998 would be worth face value; in the case of a forever stamp (without a face value printed), it would be worth whatever the current postage rate has been raised too (as of January 2013, it would be worth 46 cents) and could be used for postage at that value.
absolutely not, these cancer cells can attack both men and women
I don't know the answer to the question, but the previous answer, "absolutely not, these cancer cells can attack both men and women" does not answer it. Sex-linked traits/genes can appear in both men and women.
The goal of screening exams for early breast cancer detection is to find cancers before they start to cause symptoms. Screening refers to tests and exams used to find a disease, such as cancer, in people who do not have any symptoms. Early detection means using an approach that allows earlier diagnosis of breast cancer than otherwise might have occurred.
Breast cancers that are found because they are causing symptoms tend to be larger and are more likely to have already spread beyond the breast. In contrast, breast cancers found during screening exams are more likely to be smaller and still confined to the breast. The size of a breast cancer and how far it has spread are some of the most important factors in predicting the prognosis (outlook) of a woman with this disease.
Most doctors feel that early detection tests for breast cancer save many thousands of lives each year, and that many more lives could be saved if even more women and their health care providers took advantage of these tests. Following the American Cancer Society's guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer improves the chances that breast cancer can be diagnosed at an early stage and treated successfully.
What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx (voice box), bladder, kidney, and several other organs.
But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Most women who have one or more breast cancer risk factors never develop the disease, while many women with breast cancer have no apparent risk factors (other than being a woman and growing older). Even when a woman with risk factors develops breast cancer, it is hard to know just how much these factors may have contributed to her cancer.
There are different kinds of risk factors. Some factors, like a person's age or race, can't be changed. Others are linked to cancer-causing factors in the environment. Still others are related to personal behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and diet. Some factors influence risk more than others, and your risk for breast cancer can change over time, due to factors such as aging or lifestyle changes.
Risk factors you cannot change
Simply being a woman is the main risk factor for developing breast cancer. Although women have many more breast cells than men, the main reason they develop more breast cancer is because their breast cells are constantly exposed to the growth-promoting effects of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Men can develop breast cancer, but this disease is about 100 times more common among women than men.
Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. About 1 out of 8 invasive breast cancers are found in women younger than 45, while about 2 out of 3 invasive breast cancers are found in women age 55 or older.
Genetic risk factors
About 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary, resulting directly from gene defects (called mutations) inherited from a parent.
BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In normal cells, these genes help prevent cancer by making proteins that help keep the cells from growing abnormally. If you have inherited a mutated copy of either gene from a parent, you have a high risk of developing breast cancer during your lifetime.
The risk may be as high as 80% for members of some families with BRCA mutations. These cancers tend to occur in younger women and are more often bilateral (in both breasts) than cancers in women who are not born with one of these gene mutations. Women with these inherited mutations also have an increased risk for developing other cancers, particularly ovarian cancer.
Although in the U.S., BRCA mutations are found most often in Jewish women of Ashkenazi (Eastern Europe) origin, they can occur in any racial or ethnic group.
Changes in other genes: Other gene mutations can also lead to inherited breast cancers. These genes mutations are much rarer and often do not increase the risk of breast cancer as much as the BRCA genes. They are not frequent causes of inherited breast cancer.
Genetic testing: Genetic testing can be done to look for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (or less commonly in other genes such as PTEN or p53). Although testing may be helpful in some situations, the pros and cons need to be considered carefully.
If you are considering genetic testing, it is strongly recommended that first you talk to a genetic counselor, nurse, or doctor qualified to explain and interpret the results of these tests. It is very important to understand what genetic testing can and can't tell you, and to carefully weigh the benefits and risks of genetic testing before these tests are done. Testing is expensive and may not be covered by some health insurance plans.
For more information, see the American Cancer Society document, Genetic Testing: What You Need to Know. You may also want to visit the National Cancer Institute Web site (www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/Genetic-Testing-for-Breast-and-Ovarian-Cancer-Risk).
Family history of breast cancer
Women whose close blood relatives have breast cancer have a higher risk for this disease.
Having a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer almost doubles a woman's risk. Having 2 first-degree relatives increases her risk about 5-fold.
Although the exact risk is not known, women with a family history of breast cancer in a father or brother also have an increased risk of breast cancer. Overall, about 20% to 30% of women with breast cancer have a family member with this disease. This means that most (70% to 80%) women who get breast cancer do not have a family history of this disease.
Personal history of breast cancer
A woman with cancer in one breast has a 3- to 4-fold increased risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. This is different from a recurrence (return) of the first cancer.
Race and ethnicity
White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than are African-American women. However, African-American women are more likely to die of this cancer. At least part of this seems to be because African-American women tend to have more aggressive tumors, although the reasons for this are not known. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.
Dense breast tissue
Women with denser breast tissue (as seen on a mammogram) have more glandular tissue and less fatty tissue, and have a higher risk of breast cancer. Unfortunately, dense breast tissue can also make it harder for doctors to spot problems on mammograms.
Certain benign breast conditions
Women diagnosed with certain benign breast conditions may have an increased risk of breast cancer. Some of these conditions are more closely linked to breast cancer risk than others. Doctors often divide benign breast conditions into 3 general groups, depending on how they affect this risk.
Non-proliferative lesions: These conditions are not associated with overgrowth of breast tissue. They do not seem to affect breast cancer risk, or if they do it is to a very small extent. They include:
Proliferative lesions without atypia: These conditions show excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue. They seem to raise a woman's risk of breast cancer slightly (1 ½ to 2 times normal). They include:
Proliferative lesions with atypia: In these conditions, there is excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue, and the cells no longer appear normal. They have a stronger effect on breast cancer risk, raising it 4 to 5 times higher than normal. They include:
Women with a family history of breast cancer and either hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia have an even higher risk of developing a breast cancer.
For more information on these conditions, see the separate American Cancer Society document, Non-cancerous Breast Conditions.
Lobular carcinoma in situ
Women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 7 -to 11-fold increased risk of developing cancer in either breast.
Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating at an early age (before age 12) and/or went through menopause at a later age (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. This may be related to a higher lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Previous chest radiation
Women who as children or young adults had radiation therapy to the chest area as treatment for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) are at significantly increased risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient's age when they got the radiation. If chemotherapy was also given, it may have stopped ovarian hormone production for some time, lowering the risk.. The risk of developing breast cancer from chest radiation is highest if the radiation was given during adolescence, when the breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure
From the 1940s through the early 1970s some pregnant women were given an estrogen-like drug called DES because it was thought to lower their chances of losing the baby (miscarriage). These women have a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy may also have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. For more information on DES see the separate American Cancer Society document, DES Exposure: Questions and Answers.
Not having children, or having them later in life
Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk. Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk. Pregnancy reduces a woman's total number of lifetime menstrual cycles, which may be the reason for this effect.
Recent oral contraceptive use
Studies have found that women using oral contraceptives (birth control pills) have a slightly greater risk of breast cancer than women who have never used them. Over time, this risk seems to go back to normal once the pills are stopped. Women who stopped using oral contraceptives more than 10 years ago do not appear to have any increased breast cancer risk. When thinking about using oral contraceptives, women should discuss their other risk factors for breast cancer with their health care team.
Post-menopausal hormone therapy (PHT)
Post-menopausal hormone therapy, also known as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), has been used for many years to help relieve symptoms of menopause and to help prevent osteoporosis (thinning of the bones). Earlier studies suggested it might have other health benefits as well, but those benefits have not been found in more recent, better designed studies.
There are 2 main types of PHT. For women who still have a uterus (womb), doctors generally prescribe estrogen and progesterone (known as combined PHT). Because estrogen alone can increase the risk of cancer of the uterus, progesterone is added to help prevent this. For women who've had a hysterectomy (those who no longer have a uterus), estrogen alone can be prescribed. This is commonly known as estrogen replacement therapy (ERT).
Combined PHT: Use of combined post-menopausal hormone therapy increases the risk of getting breast cancer. It may also increase the chances of dying from breast cancer. This increase in risk can be seen with as little as 2 years of use. Large studies have found that there is an increased risk of breast cancer related to the use of combined PHT. Combined PHT also increases the likelihood that the cancer may be found at a more advanced stage, possibly because it reduces the effectiveness of mammograms.
The increased risk from combined PHT appears to apply only to current and recent users. A woman's breast cancer risk seems to return to that of the general population within 5 years of stopping combined PHT.
ERT: The use of estrogen alone after menopause does not appear to increase the risk of developing breast cancer significantly, if at all. But when used long term (for more than 10 years), ERT has been found to increase the risk of ovarian and breast cancer in some studies.
At this time there appear to be few strong reasons to use post-menopausal hormone therapy (combined PHT or ERT), other than possibly for the short-term relief of menopausal symptoms. Along with the increased risk of breast cancer, combined PHT also appears to increase the risk of heart disease, blood clots, and strokes. It does lower the risk of colorectal cancer and osteoporosis, but this must be weighed against the possible harms, and it should be noted that there are other effective ways to prevent osteoporosis. Although ERT does not seem to have much effect on breast cancer risk, it does increase the risk of stroke. The increased risk of hormone replacement therapy is the same for "bioidentical" and "natural" hormones as it is for synthetic hormones.
The decision to use PHT should be made by a woman and her doctor after weighing the possible risks and benefits (including the severity of her menopausal symptoms), and considering her other risk factors for heart disease, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. If a woman and her doctor decide to try PHT for symptoms of menopause, it is usually best to use it at the lowest dose that works for her and for as short a time as possible.
Some studies suggest that breast-feeding may slightly lower breast cancer risk, especially if it is continued for 1½ to 2 years. But this has been a difficult area to study, especially in countries such as the United States, where breast-feeding for this long is uncommon.
The explanation for this possible effect may be that breast-feeding reduces a woman's total number of lifetime menstrual cycles (the same as starting menstrual periods at a later age or going through early menopause).
Consumption of alcohol is clearly linked to an increased risk of developing breast cancer. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. Compared with non-drinkers, women who consume 1 alcoholic drink a day have a very small increase in risk. Those who have 2 to 5 drinks daily have about 1½ times the risk of women who drink no alcohol. Excessive alcohol use is also known to increase the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and liver. The American Cancer Society recommends that women limit their alcohol consumption to no more than 1 drink a day.
Being overweight or obese
Being overweight or obese has been found to increase breast cancer risk, especially for women after menopause. Before menopause your ovaries produce most of your estrogen, and fat tissue produces a small amount of estrogen. After menopause (when the ovaries stop making estrogen), most of a woman's estrogen comes from fat tissue. Having more fat tissue after menopause can increase your chance of getting breast cancer by raising estrogen levels.
The connection between weight and breast cancer risk is complex, however. For example, risk appears to be increased for women who gained weight as an adult but may not be increased among those who have been overweight since childhood. Also, excess fat in the waist area may affect risk more than the same amount of fat in the hips and thighs. Researchers believe that fat cells in various parts of the body have subtle differences that may explain this.
The American Cancer Society recommends you maintain a healthy weight throughout your life by balancing your food intake with physical activity and avoiding excessive weight gain.
Lack of physical activity
Evidence is growing that physical activity in the form of exercise reduces breast cancer risk. The main question is how much exercise is needed. In one study from the Women's Health Initiative, as little as 1¼ to 2½ hours per week of brisk walking reduced a woman's risk by 18%. Walking 10 hours a week reduced the risk a little more.
To reduce your risk of breast cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends 45 to 60 minutes of intentional physical activity 5 or more days a week.
Factors with uncertain, controversial, or unproven effect on breast cancer risk
Studies of fat in the diet have not clearly shown that this is a breast cancer risk factor.
Most studies have found that breast cancer is less common in countries where the typical diet is low in total fat, low in polyunsaturated fat, and low in saturated fat. On the other hand, many studies of women in the United States have not found breast cancer risk to be related to dietary fat intake. Researchers are still not sure how to explain this apparent disagreement. Studies comparing diet and breast cancer risk in different countries are complicated by other differences (such as activity level, intake of other nutrients, and genetic factors) that might also alter breast cancer risk.
More research is needed to better understand the effect of the types of fat eaten on breast cancer risk. But it is clear that calories do count, and fat is a major source of these. High-fat diets can lead to being overweight or obese, which is a breast cancer risk factor. A diet high in fat has also been shown to influence the risk of developing several other types of cancer, and intake of certain types of fat is clearly related to heart disease risk.
The American Cancer Society recommends eating a healthy diet with an emphasis on plant sources. This includes eating 5 or more servings of vegetables and fruits each day, choosing whole grains over those that are processed (refined), and limiting consumption of processed and red meats.
Internet e-mail rumors have suggested that chemicals in underarm antiperspirants are absorbed through the skin, interfere with lymph circulation, and cause toxins to build up in the breast, eventually leading to breast cancer. There is very little laboratory or population-based evidence to support this rumor.
One small study has found trace levels of parabens (used as preservatives in antiperspirants and other products), which have weak estrogen-like properties, in a small sample of breast cancer tumors. However, the study did not look at whether parabens caused the tumors. This was a preliminary finding, and more research is needed to determine what effect, if any, parabens may have on breast cancer risk. On the other hand, a large population-based study found no increase in breast cancer in women who used underarm antiperspirants and/or shaved their underarms.
Internet e-mail rumors and at least one book have suggested that bras cause breast cancer by obstructing lymph flow. There is no good scientific or clinical basis for this claim. Women who do not wear bras regularly are more likely to be thinner, which would probably contribute to any perceived difference in risk.
Several studies have provided very strong data that neither induced abortions nor spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) have an overall effect on the risk of breast cancer. For more detailed information, see the separate American Cancer Society document, Is Having an Abortion Linked to Breast Cancer?
Several studies have found that breast implants do not increase breast cancer risk, although silicone breast implants can cause scar tissue to form in the breast. Implants make it harder to see breast tissue on standard mammograms, but additional x-ray pictures called implant displacement views can be used to examine the breast tissue more completely.
Chemicals in the environment
A great deal of research has been reported and more is being done to understand possible environmental influences on breast cancer risk.
Of special interest are compounds in the environment that have been found in lab studies to have estrogen-like properties, which could in theory affect breast cancer risk. For example, substances found in some plastics, certain cosmetics and personal care products, pesticides, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) seem to have such properties.
Although this issue understandably invokes a great deal of public concern, at this time research does not show a clear link between breast cancer risk and exposure to these substances. Unfortunately, studying such effects in humans is difficult. More research is needed to better define the possible health effects of these and similar substances.
Most studies have found no link between cigarette smoking and breast cancer. Although some studies have suggested smoking increases the risk of breast cancer, this remains controversial.
An active focus of research is whether secondhand smoke increases the risk of breast cancer. Both mainstream and secondhand smoke contain chemicals that, in high concentrations, cause breast cancer in rodents. Chemicals in tobacco smoke reach breast tissue and are found in breast milk.
The evidence on secondhand smoke and breast cancer risk in human studies is controversial, at least in part because smokers have not been shown to be at increased risk. One possible explanation for this is that tobacco smoke may have different effects on breast cancer risk in smokers compared to those who are just exposed to secondhand smoke.
A report from the California Environmental Protection Agency in 2005 concluded that the evidence about secondhand smoke and breast cancer is "consistent with a causal association" in younger, mainly pre-menopausal women. The 2006 US Surgeon General's report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, concluded that there is "suggestive but not sufficient" evidence of a link at this point. In any case, this possible link to breast cancer is yet another reason to avoid secondhand smoke.
Several studies have suggested that women who work at night, such as nurses on night shift, may have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. This is a fairly recent finding, and more studies are looking at this issue. Some researchers think the effect may be due to changes in levels of melatonin, a hormone whose production is affected by the body's exposure to light, but other hormones are also being studied.
American Cancer Society recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms
Women age 40 and older should have a mammogram every year and should continue to do so for as long as they are in good health.
Women in their 20s and 30s should have a clinical breast exam (CBE) as part of a periodic (regular) health exam by a health professional preferably every 3 years. Starting at age 40, women should have a CBE by a health professional every year.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is an option for women starting in their 20s. Women should be told about the benefits and limitations of BSE. Women should report any breast changes to their health professional right away.
Women at high risk (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderately increased risk (15% to 20% lifetime risk) should talk with their doctors about the benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening to their yearly mammogram. Yearly MRI screening is not recommended for women whose lifetime risk of breast cancer is less than 15%.
Women at high risk include those who:
Women at moderately increased risk include those who:
If MRI is used, it should be in addition to, not instead of, a screening mammogram. This is because although an MRI is a more sensitive test (it's more likely to detect cancer than a mammogram), it may still miss some cancers that a mammogram would detect.
For most women at high risk, screening with MRI and mammograms should begin at age 30 years and continue for as long as a woman is in good health. But because the evidence is limited regarding the best age at which to start screening, this decision should be based on shared decision-making between patients and their health care providers, taking into account personal circumstances and preferences.
Several risk assessment tools, with names such as the Gail model, the Claus model, and the Tyrer-Cuzick model, are available to help health professionals estimate a woman's breast cancer risk. These tools give approximate, rather than precise, estimates of breast cancer risk based on different combinations of risk factors and different data sets. As a result, they may give different risk estimates for the same woman. Their results should be discussed by a woman and her doctor when being used to decide whether to start MRI screening.
It is recommended that women who get a screening MRI do so at a facility that can do an MRI-guided breast biopsy at the same time if needed. Otherwise, the woman will have to have a second MRI exam at another facility when she has the biopsy.
There is no evidence right now that MRI will be an effective screening tool for women at average risk. While MRI is more sensitive than mammograms, it also has a higher false-positive rate (it is more likely to find something that turns out not to be cancer). This would lead to unneeded biopsies and other tests in many of the women screened.
The American Cancer Society believes the use of mammograms, MRI (in women at high risk), clinical breast exams, and finding and reporting breast changes early, according to the recommendations outlined above, offers women the best chance to reduce their risk of dying from breast cancer. This approach is clearly better than any one exam or test alone. Without question, a physical exam of the breast without a mammogram would miss the opportunity to detect many breast cancers that are too small for a woman or her doctor to feel but can be seen on mammograms. Mammograms are a sensitive screening method, but a small percentage of breast cancers do not show up on mammograms but can be felt by a woman or her doctors. For women at high risk of breast cancer, such as those with BRCA gene mutations or a strong family history, both MRI and mammogram exams of the breast are recommended.
A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. A diagnostic mammogram is used to diagnose breast disease in women who have breast symptoms or an abnormal result on a screening mammogram. Screening mammograms are used to look for breast disease in women who are asymptomatic; that is, those who appear to have no breast problems. Screening mammograms usually take 2 views (x-ray pictures taken from different angles) of each breast. Women who are breast-feeding can still get mammograms, although these are probably not quite as accurate because the breast tissue tends to be dense.
For some women, such as those with breast implants (for augmentation or as reconstruction after mastectomy), additional pictures may be needed to include as much breast tissue as possible. Breast implants make it harder to see breast tissue on standard mammograms, but additional x-ray pictures with implant displacement and compression views can be used to more completely examine the breast tissue. If you have implants, it is important that you have your mammograms done by someone skilled in the techniques used for women with implants.
Although breast x-rays have been performed for more than 70 years, modern mammography has only existed since 1969. That was the first year x-ray units dedicated to breast imaging were available. Modern mammogram equipment designed for breast x-rays uses very low levels of radiation, usually about a 0.1 to 0.2 rad dose per x-ray (a rad is a measure of radiation dose).
Strict guidelines ensure that mammogram equipment is safe and uses the lowest dose of radiation possible. Many people are concerned about the exposure to x-rays, but the level of radiation used in modern mammograms does not significantly increase the risk for breast cancer.
To put dose into perspective, a woman who receives radiation as a treatment for breast cancer will receive several thousand rads. If she had yearly mammograms beginning at age 40 and continuing until she was 90, she will have received 20 to 40 rads. As another example, flying from New York to California on a commercial jet exposes a woman to roughly the same amount of radiation as one mammogram.
For a mammogram, the breast is compressed between 2 plates to flatten and spread the tissue. Although this may be uncomfortable for a moment, it is necessary to produce a good, readable mammogram. The compression only lasts a few seconds. The entire procedure for a screening mammogram takes about 20 minutes.
The difficulty of treating and "getting rid of" breast cancer can vary widely depending on several factors, including the stage at which it is diagnosed, the specific type of breast cancer, and individual factors such as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Here are some key factors that influence the treatment and outcomes of breast cancer:
Stage of Diagnosis: Breast cancer is typically categorized into stages, ranging from stage 0 (early, localized cancer) to stage IV (advanced cancer that has spread to distant organs). The earlier breast cancer is detected (in stages 0 to II), the more likely it is to be treated successfully. Early-stage breast cancer is often curable with appropriate treatment.
Type of Breast Cancer: There are different types of breast cancer, including invasive ductal carcinoma (the most common), invasive lobular carcinoma, and various subtypes. The type of breast cancer can influence treatment decisions and outcomes.
Hormone Receptor Status: The presence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status can guide treatment choices. Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer may respond differently to targeted therapies.
Treatment Modalities: Breast cancer treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, depending on the individual case. The choice of treatments depends on the specific characteristics of the cancer.
Response to Treatment: Some breast cancers respond well to treatment and may shrink or disappear completely, while others may be more resistant to therapy. Response to treatment varies from person to person.
Genetic and Molecular Factors: Genetic mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, can increase the risk of breast cancer and influence treatment decisions.
Overall Health: A patient's overall health, including any underlying medical conditions, can impact their ability to tolerate and respond to treatment.
Timeliness of Diagnosis and Treatment: Timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment are crucial for improving outcomes. Delayed diagnosis or treatment can make treatment more challenging.
Follow-Up and Monitoring: After initial treatment, breast cancer patients often require long-term follow-up and monitoring to detect and manage any potential recurrences or side effects.
It's important to emphasize that advances in breast cancer research and treatment have significantly improved the outlook for many breast cancer patients. With early detection and access to appropriate therapies, many individuals with breast cancer can achieve long-term survival and even remission.
Breast cancer is a highly treatable disease, especially when detected at an early stage. Regular breast cancer screenings and awareness of breast health are essential for early detection and successful treatment. Consulting with a healthcare provider and oncology team can provide personalized guidance and treatment options based on individual circumstances.
Secondary breast cancer, also known as metastatic breast cancer, occurs when breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, typically the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Unlike early-stage breast cancer, which is often treated with curative intent, the goal of treatment for metastatic breast cancer is typically to manage the disease, control symptoms, and improve the patient's quality of life. While it may not be curable in the traditional sense, it can be treated and managed effectively to extend survival and provide relief from symptoms.
Here are some key treatment approaches for secondary breast cancer:
Hormone Therapy: If the breast cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy can be used to block the hormones (estrogen and progesterone) that fuel the cancer's growth.
Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies, such as HER2-targeted drugs like trastuzumab (Herceptin), are used for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be prescribed to slow the progression of the cancer, reduce symptoms, and improve the patient's quality of life.
Immunotherapy: Some immunotherapy drugs are being studied for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to alleviate symptoms and manage pain in cases of metastatic breast cancer that has spread to the bones or other areas.
Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be recommended to address specific complications or relieve symptoms. For example, surgery may be performed to stabilize bones affected by cancer metastasis (bone metastases).
Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials can provide access to new and experimental treatments that may be more effective in managing metastatic breast cancer.
Palliative Care: Palliative care focuses on improving the patient's quality of life by managing symptoms, providing pain relief, and offering emotional and psychological support. It is an essential component of care for metastatic breast cancer patients.
Lifestyle and Supportive Care: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing side effects of treatment, and seeking emotional support through counseling or support groups can contribute to the overall well-being of patients with metastatic breast cancer.
It's important to note that treatment plans for metastatic breast cancer are highly individualized. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the type of breast cancer, the extent of metastasis, the patient's overall health, and their treatment goals. Patients with metastatic breast cancer often receive ongoing care and may transition between different treatments as needed.
While metastatic breast cancer may not be curable in the traditional sense, advancements in treatment have led to improved outcomes and longer survival for many patients. The focus of treatment is on extending life, managing symptoms, and maintaining the best possible quality of life for individuals living with metastatic breast cancer. Regular communication with a healthcare team and access to supportive care services are crucial aspects of managing this condition.
The treatment and potential "cure" for breast cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of cancer, the type of breast cancer, its hormone receptor status, and the individual patient's health and preferences. While a complete cure for all cases of breast cancer is not guaranteed, many women with breast cancer can achieve long-term remission or even be considered cancer-free after successful treatment. Treatment options for breast cancer typically include:
Surgery: Surgery is often the first step in treating breast cancer. The main surgical options are:
Lumpectomy: Also known as breast-conserving surgery, this involves the removal of the tumor and a surrounding margin of healthy tissue.
Mastectomy: This surgery involves the removal of the entire breast. Some women may choose to have a double mastectomy (both breasts removed) if they are at high risk or for personal reasons.
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: During surgery, nearby lymph nodes are often checked to determine if the cancer has spread to them.
Radiation Therapy: After breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy is often recommended to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the breast. It may also be used after a mastectomy in certain cases.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to target and kill cancer cells throughout the body. It is often administered after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence, and in some cases, it may be given before surgery to shrink tumors.
Hormone Therapy: Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers are treated with hormone therapy. This involves medications that block the hormones (estrogen or progesterone) that fuel the cancer's growth.
Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies are drugs that specifically target certain proteins or genes involved in cancer growth. These therapies are used for specific types of breast cancer, such as HER2-positive breast cancer.
Immunotherapy: In some cases, immunotherapy drugs are used to boost the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells.
Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy: Adjuvant therapy is given after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Neoadjuvant therapy is given before surgery to shrink tumors and make them easier to remove.
Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials offers access to experimental treatments and therapies that may be more effective in treating breast cancer.
It's important to note that the success of treatment and the likelihood of a "cure" vary from person to person. Some individuals may achieve complete remission, meaning no evidence of cancer is found after treatment. Others may live with breast cancer as a chronic condition, managing it with ongoing treatment and care. In some cases, breast cancer may recur, and additional treatments may be needed.
Regular follow-up care and screenings are crucial for monitoring for any signs of cancer recurrence and managing potential long-term side effects of treatment. Breast cancer treatment has made significant advancements in recent years, leading to improved survival rates and quality of life for many women diagnosed with the disease. Individualized treatment plans, close collaboration with healthcare providers, and early detection through screening remain key components of breast cancer care and management.
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Breast cancer survivors can be at risk of developing other types of cancer, just like anyone else, but the risk varies depending on several factors. It's essential to note that having had breast cancer does not necessarily increase the risk of all types of cancer equally. Here are some common types of cancer that women may have a slightly increased risk of after breast cancer:
Second Primary Breast Cancer: Women who have had breast cancer are at a slightly higher risk of developing a second primary breast cancer in either the same breast or the opposite breast.
Ovarian Cancer: There is a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer among women who have had breast cancer, particularly if they have a family history of breast and ovarian cancers or carry certain genetic mutations (e.g., BRCA1 or BRCA2).
Endometrial Cancer: Some studies suggest that breast cancer survivors may have a slightly elevated risk of endometrial (uterine) cancer, especially if they have received tamoxifen therapy, a common treatment for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
Lung Cancer: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women, and it can occur independently of breast cancer. Women who have a history of smoking or exposure to environmental risk factors may be at increased risk.
Colorectal Cancer: There may be a slightly higher risk of colorectal (colon and rectal) cancer among breast cancer survivors, particularly if they have a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors.
Thyroid Cancer: Some studies suggest a possible association between breast cancer and thyroid cancer, although the overall risk is relatively low.
It's important to emphasize that the increased risk of these cancers is often relatively small compared to the risk factors associated with genetic mutations or strong family histories of cancer. Additionally, advances in cancer treatment and survivorship care have improved long-term outcomes for breast cancer survivors.
Breast cancer survivors should continue to prioritize routine cancer screenings, such as mammograms for breast cancer and screenings for other types of cancer based on their age, risk factors, and medical history. Additionally, lifestyle factors such as maintaining a healthy weight, regular physical activity, and not smoking can contribute to overall cancer risk reduction.
Women who have had breast cancer should work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized survivorship care plan that includes cancer surveillance and strategies for reducing the risk of other health issues. Regular follow-up appointments and open communication with healthcare teams are essential for ongoing cancer prevention and detection efforts.
Stage 3 breast cancer is considered locally advanced breast cancer, meaning it has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes but has not yet metastasized to distant organs. The treatment and prognosis for stage 3 breast cancer can vary depending on several factors, including the specific characteristics of the cancer, the individual's overall health, and the treatments received.
While stage 3 breast cancer is typically more advanced and may be more challenging to treat than earlier stages, it is not necessarily incurable. Many individuals with stage 3 breast cancer can achieve remission or long-term control of the disease with appropriate treatment. Treatment options for stage 3 breast cancer often include a combination of:
Surgery: This may involve a mastectomy (removal of the breast) or lumpectomy (removal of the tumor and some surrounding tissue).
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is commonly used to shrink tumors before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) or after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence (adjuvant chemotherapy).
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy is often used after surgery to target any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.
Hormone therapy: If the cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy drugs may be used to block the effects of estrogen and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.
Targeted therapy: Some types of stage 3 breast cancer, particularly those that overexpress HER2, may be treated with targeted therapies like trastuzumab (Herceptin).
Immunotherapy: In some cases, immunotherapy drugs may be considered as part of the treatment regimen.
Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials can provide access to new and promising treatments for stage 3 breast cancer.
The success of treatment for stage 3 breast cancer can vary from person to person. Some individuals may achieve complete remission, while others may experience long-term control of the disease. However, it's important to note that not all cases are curable, and the goal of treatment may shift to prolonging life and managing symptoms when a cure is not possible.
Early detection and prompt, comprehensive treatment are essential for the best possible outcomes. It's crucial for individuals diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer to work closely with a medical oncologist and healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and to discuss their prognosis and treatment options in detail. Additionally, seeking emotional support and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also be important aspects of coping with stage 3 breast cancer.
when a significant abnormality is found by physical examination or an imaging test. Examples of an abnormality can include a breast lump felt during physical self-examination or tissue changes
The presence of tiny lamps or cysts in the breasts are commonly known as major sign of breast cancer more often than not. Other symptoms are itchy, sore, and redenned breasts, upper back pain, and nipple changes.
You have to organize an event that crowds of people will buy tickets for and attend.
* Is there a local singer or group or band who would perform at an event * Is there a comedian? * Can some organization donate the use of a hall or theater?
* Are there any local sports stars who might come? * contact your local newspaper and see if a reporter will write a story * contact your local businesses and see if anyone will sponsor the event. They might provide food or drinks, or advertising, or transport.
I have said "I am here for you any time you feel like talking. Is there anything I can do?" It was appreciated very much and she did need me to talk to many times. Just be there and be a friend. You don't have to have any answers, just a shoulder to cry on.
It honestly depends on what condition you are diagnosed with for example you could go for a screening, find out that you have a small cancer tissue- for example- then go for another screening and find out you have cancer tissues in both breasts. Everybody is diffrent. Be more specific the next time you ask a question about breast cancer :)
Well, instead of the obvious reason (death), the Jews were blamed. Everyone accused the Jews of poisoning the wells and being the cause of the Black Death. This, of course, was not true, but in the medieval times, if anything bad happened, everyone pointed their fingers at the Jews.
Also, any type of art was changed into a depressing mood. It was mainly paintings of skeletons, the overall theme being death. People tried to laugh about the Black Death, making silly rhymes and riddles, this being where "Ring around the Rosie" came in. This rhyme was made during the time of the Black Death, but I wouldn't necessarily call this a bad thing since it is so popular today.
Hope this helped!! :)
It has just been discovered that women who've smoked just 100 or more cigarettes during their lives incur significantly increased breast cancer risk. This provides scientific support for the long-held suspicion of a connection between smoking and breast cancer. Read more about it by following the link below.