Germany in WW2
The Germans were a member of the Axis forces and the primary belligerent in the European Theater of war.
How many people did Hitler have killed in World War II?
From my understanding, Hitler's influence caused the death of approximately 15 to 17 million people during World War II. If one excludes death in combat as "have killed" (i.e. don't count the soldiers fighting the Nazi regime, or civilians "collateral damage" such as from aerial bombings), and only counts the places where Germans directly killed (or forced others to kill people), then here are some approximate numbers: About 6 million Jews and between 250,000 and 1 million Roma (Gypsies) explicitly hunted and exterminated in the Holocaust About 2 million non-Jewish Poles Around another 1 million eastern Slavic peoples in the Balkans and Eastern Europe (excluding those killed - especially Serbs - by various Croatian allies in Yugoslavia) and not counting Poles or Soviet citizens Anywhere between 2 and 5 million Soviet civilians in the occupied sections of the U.S.S.R. - many were simply executed, but most were starved or worked to death Somewhere between 3 and 5 million Soviet P.O.W.s where starved to death or simply died of exposure due to neglect and ill-treatment by the Nazi authorities Around 1 million total various German "undesirables" - homosexuals, mentally ill, deaf, blind, blacks, Jehovah's Witnesses, Freemasons, Catholics, German Communists, Labor leaders, and anti-Nazi activists. The mentally ill and disabled were euthanized, and the rest died in various concentration (not extermination) camps, mostly from brutal treatment and starvation/disease Roughly another 500,000 various non-Jew, non-Slav peoples from the Western European occupied countries. Mostly various left-wing sympathizers or politicians (e.g. Labor and Communist party organizers, etc.) plus Resistance fighters and collaborators That totals between 15 and 21 million people which the policies dictated by Hitler directly resulted in death.
Asked in Germany in WW2, Propaganda
Why was Nazi propaganda effective in indoctrinating working class people in Germany?
Hitler wasn't particularly effective in indoctrinating the working class. Although he named his party the National Socialist Party in order to appeal to the working man, it was in the Middle class that he gained the most support. Using fear of communism, national pride and the loss of economic status caused by the hyper inflation of the 1920's, he convinced people that he could restore Germany to its former position and then to greater glory. This not only appealed to the Middle Class but also to the influential aristocratic military class which had been stripped of their titles after World War I. It was the people who had the most to lose that supported Hitler, because if they hadn't then there would almost certainly have been an attempt at a communist coup.
Asked in Holocaust, Germany in WW2, Definitions
What is the definition of holocaust?
The most common meaning nowadays of the Holocaust (with an article and a capital h) is the Nazi genocide of the Jews. Sometimes other victims who were murdered by the Nazis on the basis of their group identity are included, in particular, the gypsies (Roma). Around 1980 it replaced the term 'Final Solution [of the Jewish Question]', which was the Nazis' own term. Before the late 1970s the word was most commonly used (without a capital H) in the expression nuclear holocaust, which referred to the feared nuclear war between East and West. Answer The word Holocaust means great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life by fire. Answer It comes from the Greek word "holokaustos", which means "burned whole". It has been used in English for a long time in the sense of disaster involving many deaths (especially by fire). In its Middle English form, derived from Greek, it was used to mean a burnt offering. This later broadened to any major destruction due to fire, and broadened further to mean any mass destruction. When used in capitalized form, it is specifically referring to the mass destruction of Jewish and other people by the Nazis in World War Two. ____ It comes from a Greek word which means a sacrifice totally burned by fire. It has been widely used in English in the sense of 'great destruction (usually by fire)'. For example, in the 1950s and 1960s there was widespread fear of a nuclear holocaust. Since the late 1970s the word holocaust has been widely used in historical writing in the sense of genocide. The Holocaust (without any further detail or qualification) refers to the genocide of about 6 million Jews by the Nazis. The Ottoman Turkish murder of about 1.5 million Armenians in 1915-1917 is often also referred to the Armenian Holocaust). The term is often extended to the systematic, mass killing of all groups that the Nazis tried to exterminate on the basis of group membership - including Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, incuarbles, Soviet political commissars and some other groups. Recently, the word has been widely used in English for the Nazi genocide of the Jews and has largely replaced the expression Final Solution [of the Jewish question], which is a direct translation of Nazis' own term. Some people are uneasy about the use of the word holocaust because it can have religious implications. In Hebrew the word Shoah, meaning great calamity, is widely used instead. For practical and linguistic purposes the meaning of a word is its current use, not its etymology or history. Parts of the answers to the Related Questions below and the links give definitions and some discussion.
Asked in Germany in WW2, Manufacturing, SR-71 Blackbird
Who is the owner of Lockheed Martin?
When and where was the Holocaust?
Basic when and where of the Holocaust Timespan of genocide (mass murder): 1941-1945. Locations: in Nazi occupied Europe. The extermination camps were nearly all in Nazi occupied Poland. Mass open air shootings of Jews began in June and July 1941 behind German lines in Lithuania, eastern Poland, Belarus, Latvia and the Ukraine (in the then Soviet Union). Obviously, persecution, oppression and enforced ghettoization had started earlier and had already taken their toll. Routine (as opposed to experimental) gassings of Jews began on 8 December 1941 at Chelmno. The extermination camps - Auschwitz II (Birkenau), Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka - were all situated in Nazi-occupied Poland. The Holocaust affected Jews throughout Nazi controlled territory between 1941 and 1945. The Holocaust took place in Germany and German-occupied Europe. It was not confined to any particular town or city. Two of Germany's allies - Romania and Croatia - carried out their own holocausts. The Holocaust ended in May 1945, but some camps and some areas were liberated earlier. Start of the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to genocide. Persecution and pogroms by the Nazis prior to the mass killings that started in 1941 do not have the obvious uniqueness of the Holocaust in the more precise sense. Even the events of the Night of the Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) - a massive pogrom - seem to have been designed to bully Jews in Germany into leaving the country. (One might regard the events of 1938-41 as a 'prelude' to the Holocaust). Mass killings of Jews began in June 1941 as the death squads (SD-Einsatzgruppen) that followed the German armies into the Soviet Union began to operate behind the German lines. The deportation of Jews from Berlin to Theresienstadt, to Riga (Latvia) and Maly Trostenets (Minsk, Belarus) started on 15 October 1941. Riga in Latvia and Maly Trostenets soon became a vast killing field for deported Berlin Jews. The first large scale gassings took place at Chelmno on 8 December 1941. Further administrative details of Holocaust were worked out at the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942. (The actual 'conference' lasted only 90 minutes and was mainly concerned with co-ordinating the activities of the various agencies involved. Apart from a brief discussion of what to do about half-Jews and quarter-Jews, the meeting was not concerned with matters of policy). Answer There's timeline at this link: ushmm.org Location of the Holocaust The Holocaust did not happen in any one place. Everywhere the Germans conquered they exterminated the Jewish population and any other 'undersireables'. In the Soviet Union and parts of eastern Poland there were large scale mass executions throughout Nazi held territory. The extermination camps were nearly all in Poland. The killings took place in: 1. Mass open air shootings (especially in the Soviet Union) 2. Exceptionally harsh concentration camps, where the prisoners were literally worked to death: they had to do heavy manual labour (such as quarrying and mining) on insufficient food. 3. Extermination camps, mainly located in Poland: Auschwitz-Birkenau Belzec Chelmno Majdanek (used mainly as a back-up) Sobibor Treblinka The above camps were all in Poland. In addition, Maly Trostenets in Belarus is generally regarded as an extermination camp. In Poland, Jews were herded into ghettos (such as the Warsaw Ghetto and the Lodz Ghetto) and given grossly insufficient food and not allowed medication. Many died of stavation and disease. Two of Germany's allies, Romania and Croatia, carried out their own national holocausts. Here is more input: In my opinion, the Holocaust happened in every town, every house, every heart that knew what was happening and did nothing. Most of the killing was done in Eastern Europe, as the previous post mentioned, especially Poland and Russia. But other countries all over Europe participated, shipping out their Jewish populations, out of fear or to get rid of undesirable peoples. Some of Germany's allies, such as Croatia and Romania conducted their own holocausts. As countries began closing their borders to Jewish refugees, including the US, they contributed indirectly to the death toll in the camps. End of the Holocaust The short answer: the Holocaust ended in 1945. Here are some longer answers: The holocaust ended in 1945 when World War 2 was about to end. The holocaust ended in specific places when the Allies liberated the camps in 1944-1945. The holocaust did not end completely till the end of WWII in Europe and the surrender of all German troops. The Holocaust ended a few days after Hitler committed suicide in 1945. However, even when camps were liberated the death rate from disease remained high for several weeks.
How did concentration camps stop operating?
When it became obvious to the members of the German High Command that the war was lost, they began to order all prisoners marched out of the camps, and mass-marched in the direction away from the advancing armies. The camp, if ti was a work camp, was then abandoned, or if it was a death camp, it was destroyed, as best as they could. At least, that was the plan. But the Allies from every direction were advancing too fast, and many of the camps - including death camps - were captured intact, with prisoners still there.
Why do people talk bad about others?
Why people talk bad about me I've wondered the same thing, and couldn't figure out why. But I've found an answer that has given me some peace, and helped me to prevent talking bad about others. Here's what I found: There are three general motives behind people talking bad about another person. 1. They're talking with someone to solve a problem they're having with the individual, but lack the skill to do it in a kind way. 2. They want to discredit the other person, or cause harm to the other person. Their motive is to hurt, or they feel they must defend themselves from hurt, so they hurt first. 3. They want to be accepted, so they find common humor, evil, etc. to talk about to make themselves feel better. The first group: They talk about the problem, may go into detail, may exagerate a little, but their motive is mainly to get an idea of how to solve the problem, and not to hurt the other person. They may talk innapropriately, or in a way that may leave a negative light on the person they're talking about, but its not hateful. The second group: People who talk bad about another person to cause harm: They seem to feel like you have some major impact in their life, and they are scared of you. For example, a friend who feels like her life is determined by how much boys like her will often bad mouth another girl who the boys like more than her - or that she thinks they like more than her. She does this because she feels like she must manipulate the people around her to stay safe. If she took responsibility for her own actions, and her own ability to change, to act, she wouldn't feel so threatened by other people. So usually, people who talk maliciously are really very terrified people. They feel they must manipulate the people around them to be safe. They don't start by changing their own actions and choosing how they feel, they let life around them tell them who they are. Its a very threatened place to live. Third group: They people are a combination of the two catagories above. They talk about others because they have nothing better to do. They just talk without considering the people or friendships that will be damaged, its just entertainment. Bottom line, I found that the more someone is trying to harm and manipulate, usually the more sensitive and insecure that person is on the inside, so much so that they feel the need to control everyone around them to keep their lives stable. When I find myself talking about someone, I ask myself - if this person were listening to me talk, would I feel honest and respectful of that person, even if what I'm saying is negative? That's my check. Good luck.
Asked in Holocaust, Germany in WW2, Judaism, Adolf Hitler
Why did Adolf Hitler kill the Jews?
Answer 1 The reason why Hitler hated, targeted and killed the Jews was because that: He regarded (most) Jews as Communists. He blamed the Jews for causing the defeat of Germany in World War 1. He blamed the Jews for the Great Depression. They claimed that the Jews were a morally and culturally corrupting influence. He believed that the Jews were conspiring to rule the world. He also believed that the Jews already, to a large extent, controlled Germany. He believed that they were racially inferior and were in some sense 'contaminating' non-Jewish Germans and he wanted a Germany and a Europe without Jews. However, this is at odds with the view that they were extremely cunning and were 'already controlling Germany'. Answer 2 Hitler killed the Jews for more than one reason. The political reason given was that the Jews were aligned with the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, and were hence Communists. Communists were feared in Germany for not only their brutality but for what, they feared, was a totalitarian state in which there would be little freedom and the German culture and society would be radically changed, and everyone would suffer a lower standard of living. Great exhibitions were given to get that point across. Publicly, Hitler did not talk about 'killing' the Jews, but about deporting them. He felt they were 'a people without a fatherland', and that all people, particularly 'Aryan' people and particularly German 'Aryans' were tied to their land in an almost spiritual way. To prosper, Hitler and the neo-pagans of the Third Reich felt that Germany had to be 'cleansed' of the people who were a 'nation within a nation' , and his first efforts were toward deportation. Germany looked into Madagascar off the eastern coast of Africa, but it was impractical. Nazi propagandists began to portray the Jew as the epitome of all evil and the reason for all the defeat and societal ills in Germany. He reasoned that their influence was evil and degenerate, and that they had caused Germany to lose WWI, had ruined the arts, were defiling bloodlines, bringing in disease, introducing communism, etc and that if conditions were left to themselves, would threaten the overthrow of Germany. The Jews were actually a small proportion (525,000) of citizens when the Nazis came to power in 1933, compared to approximately 62 million others in Germany. The real reason almost has to lie in the firm belief that the Aryan herrenvolk [Master Race] could not emerge fully until the Jews and their influence were removed. While it was debated for decades whether the mass Killings were planned, scholars today have amassed such a large amount of data and information, as to make that position beyond doubt. Hitler espoused the desire early on to destroy the Jews of Europe and create a New European Order, and the Wannsee Conference and Operation Reinhard , along with the lagers and Einsatzgruppen made it clear that the systematic destruction of the Jews of Europe was the clear intent. Additional Causes of Anti-Semitism In addition, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, all kinds of fanciful conspiracy theories claiming that "the Jews" were using Communism to achieve world domination became quite popular in some places. In Britain and the US they were not taken particularly seriously by mainstream politicians, but in Germany this kind of stuff was seized on eagerly by the Nazis. ____ The first people to be sent to concentration were known political opponents of the Nazis. 'Outsider' groups such as homosexuals were also persecuted. The Jews were subject to a massive program of extermination and a total of about six million were murdered in the Holocaust. Hatred of the Jews was long standing in many parts of Europe. (America wasn't free of Anti-Semitism, either). The Jews were the traditional scapegoats. Originally, Anti-Semitism had been directed mainly against Judaism and its adherents, but from the 1870s onwards it became racial and ideological. The period from about 1870 onwards was one of rapid change (urbanization and a further wave of industrialism). Many people who disliked these changes or could not adapt to them identified the Jews with Modernism. In addition, in Europe there was a severe economic depression from 1873-1879 (and arguably much longer). Answer 3 It was, above all, conspiracy theories about "the Jews". These had been circulated in Russia from about 1900-1917 by the Tsarist secret police. After about 1918 they also circulated increasingly in Western and Central Europe. After World War 1 there were all kinds of conspiracy theories circulating about the Jews. They were widely regarded as Communists and subversives. In Germany and Austria there was a widespread view (for which there was no evidence) that they had engineered the defeat of Germany. There were also conspiracy theories claiming that the Jews were seeking to dominate the world. Answer 4 This question implicitly has two parts. The first is a question as to the rationales that Hitler believed in to justify Anti-Semitic beliefs and the second is a question as to why Hitler felt the need to kill the Jews as a way to solve these Anti-Semitic concerns. The Reasons for Anti-Semitism in Germany during that period are numerous, but some of the more important reasons were the following: 1) Decay of the German State: During the 1800s, Jews began to become more integrated in German National Life. They served in its government, its military divisions, and its industry. As was typical of Western Europe, the Jews had more of a hand in the higher echelons of government than their population percentage would account for. The Nazis saw this increasing Jewish percentage in the government as a slow takeover of German policy and a corruption of the German people. They contrasted the great victories under Bismarck with the depressing failure of World War I and noted how a much larger percentage of soldiers in the latter war were Jewish. There was also the sentiment than in the early 20th century, values were beginning to ebb (this is similar to current politics in the United States) and the Jewish integration in the German apparatus (becoming teachers, lawyers, doctors, etc.) was to blame for this recession of values as opposed to modernity as a process. 2) Nationalism: Germany was brought together under the Nationalist conception that all peoples with German culture, history, and language should be united regardless of which principality currently held control. The German self-conception also had an ethnic component, holding that the perfect German was blond and blue eyed. Regardless of the fact that the majority of Germans were dark haired, Jews stuck out like a sore thumb because they overwhelmingly had darker hair. In addition, the idea of a German Jew was still rather new and both Jews and non-Jews tended to see the Jews in Germany as being part of a vast Jewish network and that these Jews just happened to be in Germany. The Nazis capitalized on this cosmopolitan sensibility by claiming that Jews' allegiances were not to the German State, but to secret Jewish Councils organizing world events. 3) Economy: Whether it was true or not, there was perception among Germans and the Nazis in particular that Jews were wealthy individuals and had a higher per-capita income than the Germans. In many ways (because of the above two reasons) Germans felt that the Jews were "stealing" their money while they were poor and suffering. 4) Pseudo-Science: The late 19th and early 20th century was filled with radical new ideas concerning Social Darwinism. It was believed by the Pseudo-Scientific community (which was rather in vogue) that different groups of people or races exhibited different emotional traits that were linked to physical differences. This led to the belief that Jews were corrupt and thieving by their irreversible nature and that they could not be "cured" and brought up as proper Europeans. This formalized Racial Anti-Semitism in Germany and made the situation much more dire for German Jews. 5) Heresy: Although not as much an issue in World War II as it may have been 500 years prior, Jews were still considered the heretics who murdered the LORD and Savior. This helped to justify Anti-Semitism as the Jewish comeuppance for their accepting of the Christ Bloodguilt. 6) Hatred: (written by someone else) Because ppl hated them . . . . .not such a good reason, right? Its so sad . . . . . . Why was killing the Jews necessary? The answer to the second part, while cold, is brutally honest. The Nazis encouraged the German population to believe that this myriad of Anti-Semitic issues was ingrained in German Society by making it part of the national curriculum and teaching it to millions of German children. The Nazis proposed that the only way to improve Germany was to remove the Jews entirely. There were two options for such a removal: exile or genocide. Since no country was willing to take the Jewish population en masse (and this includes the United States and United Kingdom due to prevailing stereotypes there) the Nazis made the executive decision to commit genocide to "save Germany". Answer 5 The NSDAP executed many members of various groups, such as Jews, homosexuals, gypsies and others exact reason for each group is up for debate, but I'd guess a mixture of political antisemitism and wanting to create a sense of unity among the German people by pitting them all against the Jews. Answer 6 for fun... seriously no reason he needed someone to blame for the downfall of Germany and no body could stop him in his gov. because he was supreme chancler and would kill you if you spoke out against him First, Hitler did not only kill Jews. The Nazi's also killed basically any race they saw as "unfit" or a political view they opposed. The whole idea was to have a pure German race. Poles, Jews, Russians, Gypsy, Ukrainian, Blacks where all subject to murder and mistreatment in the hands of the Nazi's. Hitler blamed the Jews for financial problems in Germany, control of media, basically a scapegoat for any and all problems the German people endured, especially after the end of the First World War which left Germany bankrupt. What was ironic was the German Jews who where persecuted had lived in Germany for 100's of years and saw themselves just as much German as Jewish. They loved their country and where dumbfounded at first by Hitler's views and extreme persecution. Answer 7 Hilter and the Nazi killed Jews because: Hitler hated the Jews and everyone who wasn't like him! He killed most of the Jews to 'create a better world' for everyone or more likely for himself!!!! Answer 8 Sir Arthur Keith was a British anthropologist, an atheistic evolutionist and an anti-Nazi, but he drew this chilling conclusion:"The German Führer, as I have consistently maintained, is an evolutionist; he has consciously sought to make the practice of Germany conform to the theory of evolution." It seems to be clear from the above link that Hitler had connections with the Roman Catholic church. At the same time it is clear that Hitler persecuted Christians (among others) who did not agree with him. Not all Christians were actually anti-semitic, as true Christians realize that Jesus Christ was himself a Jew. Jesus himself indicated that Christians were to suffer persecution as indeed they did from the martyrdoms of Stephen and James onwards through the Roman Emperors, the Inquisition, Hitler and Stalin and down to this present day in China and Burma, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia, Nigeria and Pakistan etc. Christians were never, even though their teaching would frequently meet opposition and would sadly split families, to be the perpetrators of violence. They were taught to 'turn the other cheek.' Hitler and his Nazis specifically mocked this aspect of the Christian faith as they saw it as a sign of weakness, definitely not part of the 'master race' they were seeking to produce. There are therefore conclusions which may be drawn regarding the position of the Roman Catholic church at this time. Whatever the reasons for their position, it clearly was not Christian. Undoubtedly Hitler was violently anti-semitic. It seems that he drew his motivation from a number of sources. The religious connection is interesting because the Nazis always sought to control the churches (like most other things) particularly because they recognized that there was potential at least for strong opposition to arise from this source. Many church leaders either gave in to their demands or left the country when they saw what was coming. Others like Bonhoeffer joined the resistance and paid the ultimate price. The infiltration of Nazi ideology into the churches involved a radical re-interpretation of Christian theology, Hitler himself almost becoming a messiah-like figure to 'save' Germany. Hitlers evolutionary motivations are also well-documented and there is a clear connection. What is not clear is whether he actually believed personally in the theory of evolution or whether it was merely a vehicle to justify his hatred of the Jews and that he therefore 'used' evolutionary theory as he 'used' the churches. Probably the major difference which must be noted is that Christian theology does not justify either anti-semitism or murder, whereas the evolutionary 'nature red in tooth and claw' and the horrific eugenics theories which also arose from it are certainly consistent with Darwinism as abhorrent as this may seem. The quote from Sir Arthur Keith, himself an evolutionist, is quite honest in this regard. Answer 9 because he blamed them for Germany's difficulties during post WW1 depression,so he eventually went completely insane & attempted to annihilate that ethnic group. Answer 10 Hitler and his army actually did outright kill Jews. Places Jews were killed include: in their homes in the streets inside businesses anyplace they tried to meet for religious services in 'hiding places' such as in friends' homes in the 'Ghetto' to where Hitler forced Jews to move on trains to concentration camps, either by gunshot or by the conditions on the trains, in cattle cars with no ventilation on long marches to camps, including weaker people who couldn't keep up anyone who didn't obey, anywhere at "check points" - which were all over History tells us that Hitler began slowly, which is what many dictators do. By slowly indoctrinating the Germans, he persuaded many more people to agree with his views. HOWEVER, some Germans never agreed with Hitler's politics or policies. Please see the Related Questions which give a more complete idea as to why Hitler did kill Jews. Answer 12 He didn't kill them for power. He already had control of them and still killed them.He thought they were an inferior race and should be destroyed. Answer 13 Adolf Hitler hated and wanted to kill the Jews because he blamed them for the loss of the first World War. Because of Hitler, many Jews were part of a genocide. Answer 14 Hitler ordered the destruction of millions of Jews because he was limited in his scope of human compassion. He used racist and hurtful propaganda to brainwash millions into following his plan for Aryan domination. Hitler killed the Jews because he claimed that they had turned against Germany during the First War. Also, he feared German expansion. hitler killed the jews because he believed they were communist, and behind the downfall of germany in WWI. the jews saved their money, and in europe's depression, they were the only population who flourished. this angered hitler, and he got others to rally behind him against jews. also, it's been said that hitler's perfect race of people, the arian race, did not include jews, gypsies, or communists, so he had them exterminated; hitler believed he was cleansing the world of "scum". Answer 15 Hitler wanted to kill the Jewish race because he believed they were the cause of Germany's problems. He also thought the Aryan race was the best so there did not need to be another race competing against them.
Asked in World War 2, Germany in WW2, Adolf Hitler
What were Hitler's Key mistakes in World War 2?
Several mistakes have been suggested: He did not demand the entry of Spain on the side of the Axis. He stopped air superiority bombing in favor of terror bombing in England. He delayed his invasion of the Soviet Union to invade the Balkans and help out Italy in its failed invasion of Greece. He underestimated the manpower and resiliency of the Soviet Union (a big mistake). He diverted assets from the drive on Moscow in 1941 and did not take it. In the 1942 offensive he split his forces in an attempt to take two strategic objectives: Stalingrad and the Caucasus. He made the problem worse by diverting forces from Stalingrad to the Caucasus. He refused to let his encircled 6th army try to break out of Stalingrad. He did not require Japan to declare war on USSR in return for Germany declaring war on the US (another big mistake). He did not suspect that the Western powers had cracked his communication codes until it was too late. He was late in sending sufficient troops soon enough to Rommel in Africa. When he did send large numbers, it was too late and he lost them all. He often did not follow the advice of his General Staff, particularly in regard to ceding territory to gain room for maneuver. He did not commit all his available panzer divisions to the defense of Normandy quickly enough. He did not put Germany on a total war economy until 1942 or even 1943. He did not put enough resources into the development of an atomic bomb. He chose major allies that were of little use to him.
Asked in World War 2, Germany in WW2, Sweden
Why did Germany not invade Sweden in World War 2?
During the invasion of Scandinavia, Sweden remained neutral; but, because much of their income was generated by exporting iron, they continued to sell it to Nazi Germany. Sweden would not help Finland fight off the Soviet attack, but 8,000 Swedes volunteered for the Finnish army, to bolster the Swedish defense lines. The meager Swedish army nearly doubled overnight, and--by war's end--tripled from that. Civilians built shelters; scanned the skies for enemy aircraft; donated time and money, and made military vehicles and supplies. Northern Europe, meaning Denmark and Norway, were invaded for important strategic reasons, one of which was that Scandinavia supplied iron ore. This raw material was critical for the success of any modern war effort. The allies (Churchill) had as an objective to stop the flow of iron ore to Germany from everywhere possible, including Scandinavia, as well as to get as many European nations involved in the war one way or the other, and on their side, as possible. England then breached Norwegian neutrality by mining some of its waterways and when Germany reacted, Britain launched its own attempted occupation of Norway, which led to the actual German invasion. Germany invaded through Denmark whilst England entered Norway from the north. Germany won this theatre, the British had to evacuate, and thereby Germany secured its flow of iron ore as well as cut off the Baltic Sea from the British navy, securing shipping routes from Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark and Sweden, Finland actually is not officially considered part of Scandinavia) to various European ports. Thus Germany had achieved its objective by holding only Norway and Denmark. If a world atlas is studied it can be seen that holding Sweden and Finland as well was not necessary. Some other perspectives: Germany also needed a neutral country as a conduit for goods and foreign currency, and a stage for negotiations and an outlet to the world. Some goods and materials were purchased by neutral 3rd countries from Allied nations (the US for example) and sold to the Germans via Sweden. Only nations that posed a threat to Germany, one way or the other, were attacked by the Germans. The only strategically valuable things were steel and passage to Norway which were located more strategically and Germany got that without having to invade Sweden. Sweden was also afraid of being invaded by the Soviet Union through Finland (a German ally at the time) due to the Finnish winter war. If Sweden was invaded by Germany this would provide an excuse for the Soviet Union to invade Sweden in turn. It was believed in Sweden that the Soviet Union wanted to incorporate Sweden and Finland and not leave after the war was over and that the allies would stand by and let this happen because of the Soviet Union's strategic importance in the war against Japan. So Sweden was desperate to remain neutral and stay out of war and bowed down to the German demands and by doing that there was no reason for Germany to waste troops by invading.
Asked in Germany in WW2, Famous People
Why did Dietrich Bonhoeffer become a saint?
Joncey's answer, below, falls short. Dietrich Bonhoeffer has not been canonized or recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. The Nazi regime and German RC came to an agreement (Reichskonkordat) that was recognized by the Pope in 1933. However, despite the konkordat, RCs, the RC church and priests were persecuted. Hitler co-op'd the Protestant German church, creating a new national church and appointing a leader that was a fanatical Nazi. The Confessing Church was organized by major German theologians and leaders such as Karl Barth and Martin Niemoeller, but opposed the Nazi's control of the church more as oppression of the church by the state than oppression of Jews and Christians by the state. Bonhoeffer was an early and persistent voice against the Nazis and their injustices. Bonhoeffer was jailed for participating in an effort to assassinate Hitler, and was executed by the Nazis in Feb. 1945. While he was a staunch opponent, he was one of a number of clergy and theologians who stood against the regime, and could not be called it's 'greatest foe'. Dietrich Bonhoeffer would not then, not does he now qualify as a 'saint' because he opposed Hitler. The RC process -canonization- to be named a saint has steps which are detailed, rigorous, and rarely is a step or investigation waived. While Bonhoeffer is considered a martyr by many Christians for his stand against the Nazis, he is not recognized in any way by the RC church as a saint, nor, as a Protestant, is he likely to be. Joncey's answer:<<Bonhoeffer became a saint, because he was part of a group of Christian denominations that joined together in an anti-Nazi alliance, called the "Confessing Church", which included Catholic denominations. During Hitler's regime, he was the greatest foe Hitler faced. Since the Catholic church believes that Hitler was influenced by Satan, Bonhoeffer would qualify as a saint. Whether or not he had the usual test of three miracles to back it up, is up to the Catholic church; in some cases, they are allowed to beatify an individual, without the requirements being entirely met. >> _______________ I'm not sure that the above information is accurate. The "Confessing Church" was Protestant and did not include "Catholic denominations" and with all respect to Bonhoeffer I doubt if many people regard him as "he was the greatest foe Hitler faced2. Bonheoffer has not in any formal sense been made a saint.
Asked in World War 2, Germany in WW2, Flags
What did the German flag in World War 2 look like?
It was a black swastika in a white circle on a red background. The swastika was a universal sign of peace in Ancient Civilizations. The German National Socialist Workers Party adopted it, turned it 45 degrees on end and used it as their party symbol. Ever since it has been associated with the German National Socialist Workers Party. However, there were different variations for different branches of the service.
Asked in World War 2, Germany in WW2, Portugal, Adolf Hitler
Why didn't Adolf Hitler invade Portugal during world war 2?
Adolf Hitler did not invade Portugal during World War 2 because Spain stood in the way. In order to invade Portugal, Hitler would have needed to go through Spain. Spain would not allow that. Spain had far more to lose than to gain by entering the war. Spain had colonies in Africa that the Allied powers could conquer and Spain had very little to gain by entering the war. Both Portugal and Spain stayed out of the war. Spain helped Hitler and Portugal helped England as much as possible without actually participating in the fighting.
Asked in Germany in WW2, Elie Wiesel
What are some ironic quotes in Night at the end?
"Three days after the liberation of Buchenwald I became very ill with food poisoning. I was transferred to the hospital and spent two weeks between life and death." (page 115) This is Ironic because the moment he was liberated (freed) he was back to struggling to live, and he was struggling to live in the concentration camps.
Asked in Holocaust, Germany in WW2
When did the Nazis reach violence in the pyramid of hate during the holocaust?
What role did sectionalism play in the nation during the Era of Good Feeling?
The Era of Good Feelings, Monroe's early presidency, witnessed an era of intense nationalism which almost wholly masked the sectional conflicts underneath. Although the overall sentiments were based on principle and patriotism, sectionalism did induce major events, and played an ominously momentous role: 1. In McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819), the ever omnipresent issue of states rights surfaced. Maryland wanted to defend its right to regulate the Bank of U.S. while the rich elite strove to defend their interests in the bank. In this judicial ruling, John Marshall the chief justice championed the rich and wealthy, along with Daniel Webster, John Quincy Adams, and other remnants of the obsolete Federalist Party. Meanwhile, the westerners and states' rights supporters championed Maryland, and began to oppose the Bank, thus giving rise to Andrew Jackson. 2. In Gibbons vs. Ogden, Marshall again ruled in favor of the commercial interests and rich classes. He directly gave Congress the power of interstate commerce and regulation rather than giving New York and states such broad powers. Again, Marshall ruled in line with former Federalists and commercial classes of the Northeast. The westerners and rural southerners, however, were angered at the decision and hence strongly supported Andrew Jackson or Henry Clay to curb Marshall. The sectionalism in that time period was the argument of a States right to endorse slavery - or really the balance of power in congress between southern states and northern states. But the underlying issue was the souths fear of the rapid population grown in the north. The major sectionalism event during the era of good feelings was the Missouri crisis that led to the Missouri compromise - crafted by Henry Clay in 1820. The nationalism of that time period was the after effect of the war of 1812. It provided the USA with absolute independence. No other world power had influence over America. Also America became resource independent around that time period. Cities were growing and people all around America were becoming Americans.
Asked in Germany in WW2, Root Beer
What does the rootbeer do in nazi zombies?
The rootbeer is Double-Tap Root Beer. This is not a recommended perk-a-cola to use, because (automatic weapons only) for every pull of the trigger, 2 bullets are shot instead of one, effectively doubling your gun's rate of fire. The draw-backs to the perk-a-cola are that it is an easy way to waste your ammo. I would say to only use this perk if you a using an automatic weapon with a very slow rate of fire, such as the MP40 (and guns like this one. For example, getting the Double-Tap Root Beer for a gun like the PPsH is a retarded idea and you should feel sorry for yourself and cry right now.).