The "Third Army" usually denotes a field army. A number of countries have had a Third Army, including Germany. The German Third Army was disbanded in November 1939, only five weeks after the end of the Polish campaign, in which it took part.
Since you asked this in the "Battle of the Bulge" category I am guessing you are asking about the Third US Army. A field army, such as the 3rd, has in it two or more Corps. Each Corps has in it two or more divisions. After the landings at Normandy in France in 1944, the Allied field armies from north to south were the Canadian First Army, British Second Army (together these were the 21st Army Group), the 9th, 1st, and 3rd US Armies (together these three were the 12th Army Group) and the 7th US Army and the French 1st Army (together these were the 6th Army Group). The German attack in the Ardennes Offensive ("Battle of the Bulge") hit the Allied line at the boundary of the US 9th and 1st Armies.
The German attack broke through the Allied line. But the German plan was a desperate one, and for continued success depended on capturing enough Allied gasoline to keep the German tanks moving.
The Third US Army was south of this breakthrough, aimed generally eastward toward the German border. At this time the 3rd Army consisted of the US VIII, XII and XX Corps. The commanding general of the US 3rd Army was General George S. Patton, Jr. He may have been the best US field army commander of the war. The Germans thought so, anyway. Within a day or two Patton halted his attacks eastward, reoriented his army to face northward, and attacked into the soutern flank of the German penetration. The goal may have been to cut off the Germans who had broken through, or to at least restore the Allied line and push the Germans back out, while relieving isolated units which continued to hold out, though surrounded by the Germans.
My father was in 101st in Bastogne and was givin a plaque with the same description (Germans on one side, parratrooper on other side; approx a 6" brass plaque with the words "nuts" and "Bastogne" on the bottom). As much as I can remember he said that it was given to him by the people of the town as a token. His name was S. Lee Savage from Indiana.AnswerI have a plaque that I paid for when I was in Bastogne. I was in the 609td Destroyer. This plaque I bought from the man who made it,in the back it shows where it was made its patent. it was made in Couvin. AnswerI am familiar with the history of this plaque, and what it signifies. On December 22, the situation at Bastogne was grim. The city was surrounded. Rifle ammunition and food were in short supply, and artillery ammunition stocks were so low that each gun was rationed to only a few rounds per day. Despite this, morale in the city was high. It was known that reinforcements from Patton were enroute to lift the siege. Morale was also kept high by the presence of the 101st Airborne division, who held the city.
The city was controlled by Brig. Gen. Anthony McAuliffe, acting CO of the 101st. Just before noon on the 22nd, two German officers and two enlisted men delivered an ultimatum under flag of truce. It read in part:
"To the USA Commander of the encircled town of Bastogne: The fortune of war is changing. This time strong German armored units have encircled the USA forces in and near Bastogne ... There is only one possibility to save the encircled USA troops from total annihilation; that is the honorable surrender of of the encircled town ...
If this proposal is rejected, one German Artillery Corps and six heavy AA Batallions are ready to annihilate USA troops ... all the serious civilian losses caused by this artillery fire would not correspond with the well-known American humanity..." -The German Commander
After reading the surrender demand McAuliffe said "Ah Nuts!" and dropped the surrender demand on the floor. Some time later McAuliffe was reminded that the German messengers were still waiting for a reply.
"What should I tell them?" McAuliffe asked his staff/
"That first remark of yours would be hard to beat, General." Remarked an officer.
Later, an amused American Colonel named Harper delivered McAuliffe's official response.
"To the German Commander: Nuts!" - The American Commander.
Although fluent in English, the German officer was unable to understand the reply. When asked if the response meant yes or no, Colonel Harper replied:
"If you don't understand what "nuts" means, in plain English it is the same as "go to hell" - and I will tell you something else, if you continue to attack we will kill every German that tries to break into this city."
To this the German officer merely saluted and replied, "We will kill many Americans..."
Without thinking at all, Colonel Harper responded "On your way bud, and good luck to you!" Harper could never explain what could possibly have possessed him to wish the Germans good luck...
Despite the continued fighting Bastogne received its promised air drop the following day, December 23rd, and the siege was lifted on December 26th.
An interesting and amusing piece of WW2 trivia.AnswerNote: there are several different versions of this plaque floating around. There is the standard round version with the made in Couvin Belgium imprint on the back and the word "patent." Of this version, there is one with no border, and another with an accented border. There is also an octagonal version of this plaque that was probably manufactured later and sold to GI's during the reconstruction period. This version has NO marks on the back.
Also note, there are several other plaques around that are harder to find: Several from Maastricht Holland celebrating its liberation, and a plaque celebrating the capitulation of Germany at the little red school house in France. I am a collector with an interest in liberation memorabilia. If anyone has additional information or would like to talk... email me at email@example.com. JOE
For example, three stars on an ETO ribbon would mean the veteran served in three campaigns in the European Theater of Operations.
The EAME or E.A.M.E. (European, African, Middle Eastern) Theater Ribbon was a way for the U.S. Military to recogize where a person served during WW 2. It was given to all who participated in the European, African and Mediterranean theatres.
As for the EAME ribbon itself, The colors of the ribbon have their own significance: the brown stripes on the outer edges represent the sands of the North African desert. The wide green stripes in the middle represent the forests of Europe. The narrow green white and red stripes on one side represent Italy and the narrow black and white stripes on the other side represent Germany. The narrow red white and blue stripes in the center represent the United States.
Bronze Stars worn upon it are Campaign Stars, NOT to be confused with the Bronze Star Award for Valour. The two CAMPAIGNS mentioned here are:
Rhineland: Sept. 14, 1944 - Mar. 21, 1945
Central Europe: Mar. 22 - May 8, 1945
For one example, a pilot might have these for piloting a B-17G based at Deenethorpe, England, on strategic bombing missions over Europe, Sept. 14, 1944 to V-E Day.
Campaign Medals (theater ribbons) are on page 3 of United States Army Service Medals
Note that you need to be careful on the Internet. I just read that EAME stands for European/African/Mediteranean theater, but the ME really stands for Middle Eastern.
Here is a quote from the US Army website.
A service star, also referred to as a battle star, campaign star, or engagement star, is an attachment to a military decoration which denotes participation in military campaigns or multiple bestowals of the same award. Service stars are typically issued for campaign medals, service medals, ribbon awards, and certain military badges. Service stars are different from award stars, which are issued for multiple awards of meritorious and combat decorations. The United States military issues bronze and silver and gold service stars, with a silver service star issued "in lieu" of five bronze. For instance, six campaigns, served on a campaign medal, would be annotated by one silver and one bronze service star. In some situations, service stars are only issued after the second award of a decoration. For instance, three awards of a Sea Service Ribbon would be annotated by the ribbon with two bronze service stars. The United States Army also occasionally issues award numerals, instead of service stars, to denote multiple awards of certain ribbon decorations. In addition to award numerals, the United States Army uses the same Gold award star that is worn on many Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard decorations to denote the tenth and final award of the Army Sea Duty Ribbon. Service stars issued for actions in which a United States Navy vessel participated are also placed on campaign streamers, which are affixed to the U.S. Navy flag. The regulations for this originated in 1942, which defined naval campaign areas and designated engagements. Participation in such engagements, by ships and by individuals, was then denoted by service stars. The United States Army followed a very similar practice with ground campaigns and battle engagements. A common point of confusion is to confuse bronze and silver service stars with the Silver Star Medal and Bronze Star Medal. The main difference between the two is that the Bronze and Silver Star Medals are individual decorations while service stars are worn on awards and are not individual decorations or medals.
Harold was a foot soldier so he couldn't control his soldiers. Please note that all the English fought on foot, horses were used to get to the battle and were not used by them in it.Harold's mistakesHarold made mistakes by having two battles in the same period of time, and using the wrong weapons. Harold should have waited before engaging battle with the Normans; The Normans burned the lands they pillaged through and consequently would have eventually had to return back to Normandy in order to get food. AnswerIn the Battle of Hastings, Harold was a foot soldier and he couldn't keep an eye on his men from where he was standing.
His men ran after the enemy when they faked retreat, and broke the shield wall - which was until then protecting them extremely well!
When the shield wall broke and Harold's army ran straight ahead, the Normans split into two columns. These then closed on Harold's army. That is called an envelopment.Then Harold Godwinson fought Harold Hadraada just before the battle.Answer:
Harold's men were not only tired from marching up and then down the country again after taking on and defeating Harald Hardrada but they were also disaffected (fed up) with the terms of their involvement - many of them were not career soldiers but ordinary farm folk who had been rounded up and pressed into Harold's army in leiu of taxes (which he apparently then made them pay anyway). Those that were not killed during the Battle of Stamford Bridge with the Norse King (Harald Hadraada) had marched nearly 250 miles in a couple of days - perhaps if Harold had waited for his men to recover or if he had been a better tactitian he may have been luckier but maybe it was just down to that... luck.
On 22 March 1933 Dachau was opened amid considerable publicity. In fact, Himmler launched it at a press conference and so it was not secret.
It is where the British gave a rap around to George Washington and first surrendered in the Revolutionary War.
It was the first battle the British surrendered in. This made the french recognize the Americans. The French secretly became allies with America, giving them supplies and soldiers.
Eventually the Americans won and defeated the British.
Try these links: com-de.pair.com
<a href=" http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/cemeteries/gecemies.htm">greatwar.co.uk
German Order of Battle, Ardennes Offensive:
Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt
Army Group B
Generalfeldmarschall Walter ModelFifth Panzer Army
General der Panzertruppen Hasso von Manteuffel19th Flak Brigade 207th and 600th Engineer Battalions 653rd Heavy Antitank Battalion 669th Ost (East) Battalion 638th, 1094th, and 1095th Heavy Artillery Batteries 25th/975th Fortress Artillery Battery 1099th, 1119th, and 1121st Heavy Mortar Batteries 3rd Todt Brigade (paramilitary engineers)
XLVII Panzer Corps
General der Panzertruppen Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz
General der Artillerie Walter Lucht
LVIII Panzer Corps
General der Panzertruppen Walter Kruger
XXXIX Panzer Corps
Genlt Karl Decker
Oberstgruppenfuhrer der Waffen SS Josef Dietrich506th Heavy Panzer Battalion 683rd Heavy Antitank Battalion 217th Assault Panzer Battalion 394th, 667th, and 902nd Assault Gun Battalions 741st Antitank Battalion 1098th, 1110th, and 1120th Heavy Howitzer Batteries 428th Heavy Mortar Battery 1123rd K-3 Battery 2nd Flak Division (41st and 43rd Regiments) von der Heydte Fallschirmjager Battalion 4th Todt Brigade
I SS Panzer Corps
SS-Gruppenfuhrer Hermann Priess
II SS Panzer Corps
SS Obergruppenfuhrer Willi Bittrich
Genlt Otto Hitzfeld
General der Panzertruppen Erich Brandenberger657th and 668th Heavy Antitank Battalions 501st Fortress Antitank Battalion 47th Engineer Battalion 1092nd, 1093rd, 1124th, and 1125th Heavy Howitzer Batteries 660th Heavy Artillery Battery 1029th, 1039th, and 1122nd Heavy Mortar Batteries 999th Penal Battalion 44th Machine Gun Battalion 15th Flak Regiment 1st Todt Brigade
General der Kavallerie Edwin von Rothkirch
General der Infanterie Franz Beyer
General der Infantrerie Baptist Kniess
II Fighter Corps
Genmaj. Dietrich Peltz
III Flak Corps
Genlt. Wolfgang Pickert
None, since the battle of the bulge, also known as the Ardennes offensive took place in 1945, about 3 decades after World War I started.
The list is not going to be posted anywhere on the web. Over 19,000 Americans and over 90,000 Germans were killed. There were over 840,000 Americans engaged in the battle.
The Germans had been fighting on the defense since the Allies landed on Normandy. The Germans wanted to launch an offensive attack that would demoralize the Americans and hopefully convince them to negotiate for peace. At the same time, the attack might push far enough into Belgium to capture a fuel supply dump that the Germans desperately needed. The Germans launched the attack at the weakest part of the Allied line. The US 106th Infantry Division was new to the battlefield and they were placed in the line right where the German thrust was aimed. The 106 Division had come almost directly from the Unite States, without significant retraining in England, and was just beginning to sort itself out in the quiet Ardennes. As a sideline, the Germans launched a small offensive in Italy against the 92nd Infantry Division, in the Serchio Valley on 26 December 1944. This attack was named Operation WINTERGEWITTER and involved only a division-size task force. It caused the break-up of the 92nd Division and complete routing of 1 regiment, resulting in a total of 529 killed, wounded and missing. The Americans were able to recover from the German attack and eventually pushed the "bulge" back to where the front line was before it started. The Germans did not gain anything from the attack except it made the Allies more cautious about the Germans.
The Battle of the Bulge was not a single battle, but a major push (the Ardennes Offensive) by the German army during the last winter of World War II. Facing Allied advances across a wide front, Hitler ordered a concentrated attack to drive toward the Dutch port of Antwerp through the Ardennes Forest. It was the last major German offensive of the war.
In December, 1944 the Germans attacked a weak area of the allied lines. Their intention was to break through, split the American and British armies, and capture Antwerp, Belgium thus cutting off the British from supplies and reinforcements. They hoped to force the evacuation or surrender of the British forces and that that would force America to make peace. They would then have been able to turn all their strength to defending against the Russians. It didn't work though. The allied lines held, although they were pushed back in a broad semicircle, or bulge, in the line, hence the name of the battle.
The main thrust of the offensive was a two-pronged Panzer attack on the weak points of the Allied lines. It is also noted for the German deception of using captured US vehicles and uniforms to infiltrate the American lines.
*(see also the related links below)
Aspects of the Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of The Bulge was a battle fought in Belgium, across the Siegfried Line. It was the battle right after the Americans took the Hürgenwald (Huertgen Forest). The battle is most recognized from two perspectives: the 101st Airborne surrounded in Bastogne, and the 1st Infantry Division pressing the Germans back up through the Bulge. It was a great long series of battles and operations. Some of the more notable would be
- Operation Stösser, where the Germans attempted to drop Fallschrimjäger paratroopers into an area outside of the Allied Lines
- Operation Greif where the Germans were able to send a single man behind Allied Lines and steal a great deal of gold
- The Malmedy Massacre, where 84 American prisoners were executed by the Germans.
The Siege of Bastogne
While in Bastogne, the 101st Airborne became encircled when the Germans hit their lines behind them, and captured a number of American doctors and medics, as well as killing many soldiers. One of the most famous quotes of the war was uttered by acting 101st Division Commander, General Arthur McAuliffe. When the Germans had encircled the Americans, the German commander sent them a letter asking for their honorable surrender, to which McAuliffe replied "NUTS!" This gave the members of the 101st a good laugh. Eventually, General Patton's Third Army charged through and rescued the 101st, even though no member of the division had ever agreed that they needed to be rescued.
The battle started December 16, 1944 and lasted until January 25, 1945.
There were two Allied army groups being massed up for the invasion of Germany itself and in the middle was the Ardennes forest where new recruits and fatigued veterans went to calm down. In this spot the resistance to an attack would be weak and the Germans through everything they had at it. There goal was to make it to the port of Antwerp and cut off the northern army group and make them surrender. This was Hitlers last strong offensive.
Both battles occurred on April 19, 1775: first the Battle of Lexington (a British victory) and then the Battle of Concord (an American victory). Both battles were mainly caused by the Boston Massacre. Some people think the Americans attacked at Lexington for revenge. The Americans started retreating toward Concord, where they met reinforcements and were able to overpower the British soldiers.
Need Clarification ===
First I have to assume you refer to an American unit. Then I assume you refer to the 141st Field Artillery Battalion.
The 141st Field Artillery Battalion served in the following campaigns:
In my notes, I show that the 141FA Btn was originally part of the 39th Infantry Division. But some of its units were sent into combat as independent units. It was probably assigned to VI Corps, which also fought in Italy and then landed in Southern France in August 1944.
Try a search for 141st Field Artillery Battalion and detailed reference books on the Battle of the Bulge. I will do more searching, also.
A lot actually. You may not notice it but a lot of the time parents are arguing constantly all around the world about who gets the kid/kids. Now there are more "civilized" parents out there that can keep there anger down or just talk it over. A lot of the time a parent walks out of the kids life/ family's life because of a spous's argument or because they are just being jerks. But just remember that this is not your fault that they are leaving nor that they are fighting. Lexi Cameron
The Battle of the Bulge was just that---the Germans penetrated through the Allied lines and made a bulge in the lines. So the bulge covered a lot of territory. However, the most noted battle was at Bastogne, Belgium, where the Allies were surrounded for several days. Othe notable cities involved are Foy and Noville The Battle of the Bulge was fought in an area of Belgium known as the Ardenne, and fighting took place in several towns and villages. Not in any one particular city.
Rather than a city, the Battle of the Bulge raged mostly across the Ardennes Forest area on the German/Belgium border. The attack was the last large German offensive movement of WW-II, pushing across a front of some 85 miles.
The Battle of Passchendaele is referred to in some texts as the Third Battle of Ypres. It was one of the more significant battles of WWI, and involved British, ANZAC, and Canadian troops against the Germans. The purpose of the battle was to gain control of the village of Passchendaele (now Passendale) near the town of Ypres in West Flanders (now part of Belgium). The line of strategy was to create a vulnerability in the German lines, continue to the Belgian coast and capture the German submarine bases on the coastline. If won, it would have been a defining battle, opening corridor strategically significant area of the front. It also would have have taken some of the pressure off the French defence forces.
The campaign for Passchendaele began on 31 July 1917 and continued through to 6 November 1917, when the Canadian Corps gained control of Passchendaele. The campaign was long, intense and demoralising both physically and mentally, since the preparatory bombing from the British ripped up the countryside which was basically just reclaimed swampland. The countryside was transformed into liquid mud after heavy rains fell from August onwards. It is unknown how many soldiers drowned.
By the time the campaign concluded, the combined allied casualties reached almost a quarter of a million men, with around the same figure lost by the Germans. Up to 95,000 British or Australian men remained unidentified, while another 42,000 bodies were never recovered.
About 8 million.
Country Pop. Killed/Mising Wounded Total(Military) Civilian (deaths) Germany 78m 3.5 million 4.6 million 8.1 million 2million Italy 44m 330,000 ? 70,000 Japan 72m 1.75 million ? 350,000 Rumania 20m 500,000 300,000 800,000 400,000 Bulgaria 6m 10,000 ? 50,000 Hungary 10m 120,000 250,000 370,000 200,000 Finland 4m 100,000 45,000 145,000 4,000 Country Pop. Killed/Mising Wounded Total(Military) Civilian (deaths)
Source: world war 1 casualties (Google)
Harold had extremely tough soldiers who had just marched 250 miles in 4 days with full gear having just defeated the Vikings at the the battle of Stamford Bridge. They were the fastest marching troops in recorded history. They fought two major battles in a few days.
The battle all came down to which side was the most disciplined. The Saxon army was made up of mainly farmer/warriors who joined up at the request of the king (Harold). A large number of William's forces were full time cavalry troops with the bulk of the army made up from the ranks of the populus, which came from a warrior ancestry (the Vikings). At the battle the Saxons occupied the high ground at Hastings and formed a impenetrable defensive wall, providing the Saxon warriors did not leave the line. The Norman cavalry tried time and time again to break through but failed. It looked like the Saxons had won but a section in the line spotted William, who was in amongst his cavalry trying to raise morale. This section of the Saxon line went chasing after him (this is where discipline comes in) leaving a vulnerable opening in the Saxon line which the Normans exploited and broke down the Saxon army.
this is right
it was the cause of the battle of the somme which was the bloodiest first day in British history, the battle of verdun was going badly for the allies so Haig decided to divert the Gemans and releive the pressure on verdun, which it did but created lot of casulaties on the first day, the worst in history
The battle of Verdun was simply a German derived strategy to bleed the French army dry. Attrition, attrition, attrition. The German leadership knew that the French would never break at Verdun so more and more troops were fed into the meat grinder. Of course German losses were horrendous too.
William was the better leader. He was good at persuading his villagers to fight. Whereas on the other hand Harold wasnt as good.
they fell back to Germany to defend Berlin
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