Water that has had its hydrogen replaced with deuterium atoms is called heavy water. Due to the fact that heavy water can slow the velocity of neutrons, it is often used as a coolant in nuclear power plants and as a moderator in nuclear reactors. Heavy water can be naturally occurring in very small amounts. However, it is usually artificially created by enriching water with deuterium atoms.
Asked in Nuclear Energy, Heavy Water
What are the function of heavy water reactor?
This is the CANDU reactor, developed in Canada. They have been successful and produce a large amount of power in Canada and other countries where they have been built. CANDU stands for CANadian DeUterium. The heavy water (D2O) is a better moderator than ordinary (light) water, and allows a reactor to be built that runs on unenriched uranium (u-238) as opposed to slightly enriched uranium (u-235, about 4%). The heavy water slows the fast neutrons down more, allowing better absorbtion, and the subsequent use of u-238.
Asked in Science, Heavy Water
How much does a gallon of heavy water weigh?
Deuterium oxide -- or "heavy water" -- is composed of water molecules formed by two deuterium atoms and one oxygen atom. Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen containing one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. The more common hydrogen atom contains no neutrons in its nucleus. Heavy water is about 10 percent denser than regular water. Its specific gravity is 1.106. Since regular water weighs 8.34 pounds per gallon, a gallon of heavy water, therefore, weighs 9.22 pounds.
Asked in World War 2, Germany in WW2, Heavy Water
Was there an effort to get atomic bomb materials such as heavy water and industrial diamonds and scientists out of France before the Nazis got them?
No. No one was seriously trying to make an atom bomb at that time and France was not that important a player in the nuclear research that had already been done. Most of the important nuclear scientists were already in the United States. Michael Montagne NO. There were several reasons: 1. France had no Atomic Bomb research at that time, and the amount of any "Heavy Water" they may or may not have had was unimportant to England or the United States at tha time. Its importance was not recognized. 2. France probably did have industrial diamonds, as did most industrial nations. BUT to be honest the Germans offered France a pretty good deal when compared to the other occupied nations. France was not totally occupied by the Germans. Southern France remained under the control of Frenchmen (granted they were cooperating with the Nazi's but no other defeated nation got such a deal. (Think about it, the French still controlled their own navy, and colonies.) As a result the French made very little effort to defy the Germans in the early days. This included, among other things -- Industrial diamonds. Hope this helps, John Yes, see the following: physics.ubc.cal absolutely, early in 1940, the french armaments ministry (with british support) negotiated with Norsk Hydro in Norway to obtain their supply of heavy water 185kg. Withfrance facing defeat, the water was moved to the college de France, then on to bordaux. In sept 1940, the heavy water, specialized machine tools, $10m in industrial diamonds and 50 french scientists (all rounded up by the earl of suffolk,who was the liaison in France for the british department for scientific and industrial research), were all loaded on the Denholm Lines ship MS Broompark, under the command of Capt. Olaf Paulsen, who was the only ship's captain will to transverse the girod estuary which had been mined by the Germans. The heavy water was placed in wooden crates and lashed to wooden pallets (which would float free if the broompark was sunk). The broompark arrived safely back in Scotland, with its cargo intact and eventually the heavy water was relocated to the university of Chicago. For his actions in saving the heavy water, capt. olaf paulsen was awarded the "Order of the British Empire email me for a more detailed account as well as a photo of the broompark sailing down the girod estuary (you can see the wooden crates on deck that held the heavy water), capt. paulsen was my grandfather, and my mother has the medals he was awarded in ww2. Captain Paulsen's OBE was for 'saving his ship when it was torpedoed, see the Fourth Supplement to The London Gazette of Friday the 31st January 1941. Available online - do a search for Paulsen. He deserved a decoration for his work at Bordeaux but did not receive it. The ship delivered the goods and the people to Falmouth on 21 June. Please contact me through this site for further information - EbbandFlow Six ships sailed from Bordeaux during 17 - 21 June and 12 from Le Verdon at the entrance to the Gironde. Captain Paulsen's OBE was for taking the Broompark through the minefield. Three months later the Broompark was torpedoed and Capt. Paulsen was awarded Lloyds War Medal for Bravery at Sea for saving his ship and all but one crew member. Would very much like to see Captain Paulsen's record of his trip. Hey, I'm Bruno Comer, a researcher in Belgium. I've a complete report on the events with the Broompark in June 17-21 1940. The author is Paul Timbal, a banker from the Antwerp Diamond Bank who kept the diamonds that were saved by the Broompark. The report was recently discovered by me when I wrote a company history of the Antwerp Diamond Bank that celebrated its 75th birthday in 2009. The report will be published by the Royal Historical Commission of Belgium. I'd be very pleased to get to know the grandson of capt. Paulsen and I've some interesting information to offer. Of course, all information that will interest the readers of Paul Timbal's report is welcome too. My coordinates are: Bruno Comer Weststraat 35 8340 Damme Belgium (Bruno.firstname.lastname@example.org) tel 00 32 50 50 00 86.
Asked in Physics, Chemistry, Nuclear Energy, Heavy Water
Why is heavy water used in nuclear power plants?
Most nuclear fission reactors rely on slow neutrons to support the chain reaction, because uranium 235 has a much larger capture cross section for slow neutrons than for fast ones, and the reactor can therefore operate with low enrichment or even natural uranium. When neutrons are produced by fission they are fast, or energetic, and need to be slowed down by some material that does not absorb them too strongly. The best materials for this purpose are high purity graphite or heavy water, that is water with the hydrogen part of the molecule as the deuterium isotope. Reactors with these moderators can be made to work with natural uranium, that is not enriched, with the natural level of 0.7 percent U 235, whereas reactors with natural water moderators need enriched fuel, about 4 percent U235 is usual.
Asked in Nuclear Energy, Heavy Water, Nuclear Reactors
What is the function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor?
Asked in Inventions, Chemistry, Heavy Water
Is xylene used as activator in water transfer printing?
Yes, but it's only one of the components. One MSDS listed a wide variety of solvents and ketones: Xylene = Dimethylbenzene 42% Methyl = methyl acetate = acetic acid methyl ester = methyl ethanoate 28% Butyl = butyl acetate or butyl ethanoate 17% B-butanone = methyl isobutyl ketone 8% Isobutanol = isobutyl alcohol = methyl propanol = isopropylcarbinol 5% Another company uses a different set: Xylene 52.94% Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) 25.88% Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 11.18% Isophorone 5% Cyclohexanone 5% The exact mix varies from company to company, which is good because many of these chemicals are difficult to obtain. Nearly any cleanly evaporating paint thinner, thinned with a solvent like xylene, can be made to work.
Asked in Home & Garden, Heavy Water, Radioactive Waste
Five example of potential energy?
-hanging apple -the energy that is stored in our cells of our body -when we stretch a rubber band -the water at the middle at the tap -a football at the table 1. Apple on a table 2. Spring of a watch 3. You sitting on a Chair 4. a ball floating on a water column 5 Apple hanging on a tree A rock next to a ledge. A wound up spring. A turned off faucet. An unpopped balloon. unexploded dynomite
Asked in Botany or Plant Biology, Heavy Water
Why should heavy water plants be near to fertilizer industry?
Asked in Chemistry, Heavy Water
Why is iron pillar in Delhi not rusted?
The heterogeneous nature of the structure of the monument reveals two important points, namely, no heat treatment has been applied and the metal of the pillar has never been in the molten state, probably the last stage in the construction of so large a piece of iron at that date would almost certainly have consisted of the hammer forging together of balls of iron and thereafter repeated re-heating and hammering process to create smooth surface. This must have taken a considerable time to complete. During this time an oxide film would have formed some of which could get hammered into the surface. Slag too would have oozed out and would have joined the scale. Owing to its high heat capacity and high ambient temperature the finished iron would have taken relatively long time to cool leading to a somewhat non-homogenous normalization, the quality of the oxide layer produced by this sequence of operation would in all probability greatly promote the preservation of the pillar in pure and dry climate. According to the second theory, the protective oxide could have formed from atmospheric exposure. Examination of small pieces of scale obtained from the iron pillar reveals that it consists of approximately 80% of an oxide of iron having the properties of the solid solution phase of mixtures of FeO and Fe2O3. About 10% of this hydrated oxide of iron, approaching Limonite (Fe2O3.3H2O) has also been reported. From the above reports it can be concluded that the scale was apparently formed under conditions of heating with significant extent of atmospheric oxidation occurring at the surface and penetrating along cracks running longitudinally in the scale. There have also been suggestions that in the past pillar was ceremonially anointed with purified butter. Tghee obtained from the milk of cow would have had a marked effect. A thin coating of linseed oil or lanoline or wool grease is well known to give good protection to steel for some months. If applied regularly and reinforced b the dust and sand which settle on it, it gives a good protective coating to the material underneath. However, the practice of ceremonial anointing would probably have been discontinued during Muslim occupation of the area in 12th century AD. The great mass of metal might act as a temperature stabilizer, thus reducing condensation of moisture on it. It has already been mentioned that corrosion proceeds during those time when the effective relative humidity on the surface of the metal exceeds the critical value (e.g. 80%). In Delhi, this cannot normally occur during the day or early in the night because the air is very dry, except of course when it rains. During the remainder of the night the temperature slowly drops and because of its high heat capacity, the pillar remains warm and less liable to corrode than the relative humidity of the air would indicate. Just before day break the pillar is for a very short time cooler than air as dry, daytime conditions are quickly reestablished. So, in brief, it can be concluded that the corrosion resistance property of the Delhi Pillar is due to: (i) the purity of its iron; (ii) high phosphorus; (iii) low sulphur; (iv) absence of any other metal; (v) cinder coating formed on the surface; (vi) better forge welding; (vii) drier and uncontaminated atmospheric condition; and (viii) mass metal effect The presence of second phase particles (slag and unreduced iron oxides) in the microstructure of the iron, that of high amounts of phosphorus in the metal, and the alternate wetting and drying existing under atmospheric conditions, are the three main factors in the three-stages formation of that protective passive film.
When did Nazi Germany start its heavy water experiments?
Nazi Germany began its 'heavy water' experiments (or, more precisely, production) in mid-1940 after its invasion and conquest of Norway, which was at the time the world's only source of this key ingredient for the production of a nuclear weapon. Production at this facility ceased several years later as a result of several Allied bombing raids and the subsequent attempted transfer to Germany of the heavy-water supply, which was lost in yet another Allied-inspired sabotage operation.
Asked in Chemistry, Environmental Issues, Heavy Water
Does microwaved water taste different?
If for any other reason the only way a microwave could possibly change the taste of water is to dehydrate the unpurified water's components from the other elements and or foreign particles and or impurities already suspended in the solution. Boiling the water will make this mixture more concentrated thus possibly giving it a slightly different taste. However, I seriously would like to see a study that actually identifies if an electrically heated, microwave heated or kettle heated water would make such a difference to the taste that a human palate could actually differentiate the parameters and decipher as being off-tasting. (Of all the things I would seriously like to see... This one is maybe not too high on the list...) Heated water is just that, and not much more. Good luck! PS: If you are using the heated water to make tea, just don't steep you tea in the mug in the microwave. Also, as you put your tea in the mug, don't look down into a mug right out of the microwave in the way off-chance the water is super-heated. Also, try a little brown sugar and cream with heaver teas. Delectable! http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=1_OXM4mr_i0
Asked in World War 2, Heavy Water
When the Germans were trying to get the heavy water were they trying to get it from an ocean or what?
Heavy water occurs naturally in all water in a proportion of about one part in twenty million. In order to get a certain amount of heavcy water you have to isolate the heavy molecules out of a large quantity of water. The Germans used fresh water because there would have been no point in having to desalinize before they could even begin isolating the heavy water from the regular water. Heavy water is heavy because one of the hydrogen atoms in the water molecule has a neutron in its nucleus along with the proton.
Asked in Chemistry, Heavy Water
What is the molarity of heavy water?
Asked in Geology, Earth Sciences, Soil, Heavy Water
How do porosity and permeability impact how water flows through rock?
Porosity is a measure how hole many pores, or holes a rock has in it. Permeability is a measure of how a rock resists fluids flowing through it. If a rock is very porous and is very permeable, water will pass right through it. Limestone is a good example. If the reverse is true, water will not flow through. Marble or Granite are good examples.