History of Ireland
The Emerald Isle provides a great deal of history. The people have greatly affected the cultures of many countries particularly in the Western Hemisphere.
Where can you find an Irish history timeline from 1700 to 1900?
For a timeline of the history of Ireland that begins in 10,000 BC, please go to the rootsweb.com link to the right. 'Irish History Links' also provides a detailed timeline for this period. You can find a comprehensive Timeline of Irish history on Wikipedia. The BBC offers a Timeline of Key Events in Northern Irish history...
Here's a concise Irish History Timeline from 10,000 BC/BCE to 1998 AD/CE...
10,000 BC Earliest settlers arrived in Ireland in the Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age period
The first settlers crossed by land bridge from Scotland
600-150 B.C. - Celtic tribes settled on the island
100 BC Arrival of the Gaels
432 AD - Arrival of St. Patrick to help convert pagan Irish Gaelic Kings to Christianity
800 Ireland attacked by Viking Norsemen
920 Vikings established settlements at Limerick
940 Brian Boru was born who was the son of a leader of one of the royal free tribes of Munster
Brian Boru defeated Vikings in 999
1167 Arrival of Normans at Baginbun in Co. Wexford which initiated the struggle between the English and the Irish
Reign of Rory O'Connor who was the last native High King of Ireland (1166-1175)
The Statutes of Kilkenny of 1388 forbade Irish/
How do you pronounce 'Fag an bealach'?
"fawg a bal-uch", with "ch" as in "Bach". It should spelled 'FÁG an bealach'.
Irish Gaelic for 'Get out of the way'.
Why do people get pinched on Saint Patrick's Day if they do not wear green?
It's thought that the pinching started in the early 1700s, about the time that awareness of St. Patrick's as a holiday came to the fore, too, in Boston, in the Massachusetts colony. They thought if you wore green, it made you invisible to the Leprechauns, which was good because they would pinch anyone they could see. So the pinching is to warn and remind you about the Leprechauns.
Pinching those not wearing green on St. Patrick's Day is an American tradition, having really nothing to do with Ireland or St. Patrick Wrong. I have lived in Ireland. The truth is, Irish people think Americans are crazy. St. Patrick's Day is not even remotely celebrated over there as heavily as it is in the US.
WikiAnswers users share their ideas on the origin:
- Many years ago, playful Irish children began the tradition of pinching people who forgot to wear green on St. Patrick's Day and the tradition is still practiced today.
- You get pinched because you're a nonconformist.
- Pinching gives you a bruise so you can have some green on you.
- The act of pinching on St. Patrick's day began in America with Irish settlers who tried to get their kids to behave by telling them that fairies would come pinch them.
Who was Sonny O'Neill?
The man who almost certainly shot and killed Michael Collins at Beal na Blath in West Cork on August 22nd 1922.
What is a fear of Irish people called?
The Book of Kells is an example of?
an illuminated manuscript. [APEX]
Ireland split from Great Britain in the?
Ireland split from Great Britain on the 6th December 1922 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Northern Ireland which had by this time been partitioned from Ireland was able to opt out of joining the Free State and staying with the rest of Great Britain. Pretty much because all the politicians were protestant…. Even though there was a lot of Catholics around the region their voice wasn't heard as they had no political representation. And that's when the rows (arguments) started which reached it heights in the 70's & 80's.
The whole of Ireland was free and independent until 1650 when Cromwell paid a visit.
Who is the founder of the Irish Times?
The founder of the Irish Times was Major Lawrence Knox.
What is the symbolic meaning of a shamrock?
For the Celtic Druids, three was a religiously mystical number. They regarded the shamrock as a sacred plant because its leaves formed a triad.
An enduring story of St. Patrick holds that the shamrock was used by him, to help illustrate the Holy Trinity. Through its use he was able to increase people's understanding of God and church, and how they were connected. St. Patrick is said to have used the shamrock to symbolize how The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit can be separate but also part of the same entity. However, though the story is persistent, it remains a myth for lack of corroborating evidence or support.
What important event happened on January 29 1972?
No important historical events occurred on January 29, 1972. On January 30, 1972, however, Bloody Sunday occurred. On this day, 26 civil-rights protesters and bystanders were killed by the British Army in Northern Ireland.
What is the origin of the term 'Luck of the Irish'?
- It is an ironic phrase. The Irish have been, and are a spectacularly unlucky race. The "luck of the Irish" is BAD luck, as any reading of Irish history will document. When I did my Master's thesis on Irish references in the American language, I found the original and proper use of this irony goes clear back to the Old Country and migrated to America early on. Nowadays many speakers and writers -- even the supposedly erudite ones -- misuse the phrase to imply GOOD luck. Let these misinformed (and misinforming) folks eat only potatoes for a few decades -- if any potatoes can grow in their fields.
- Some trace the origin of the phrase to the US where, during the exploration for gold in the West, there were a high number of Irish people who got lucky, and found their "pot o' gold" in the gold fields of California, or were equally prosperous in silver mining. Luck of the Irish does owe its origin to the U.S.A.. When they arrived, they were very disliked, treated badly, despised and hated. When the Irish had any kind of success most Americans at the time didn't think the Irish were capable such successes, so they called it luck. Hence the term "Luck of the Irish".
- As far as I know, the term comes from the legend of the 'Little People' of the land, or the leprechauns. Finding or catching a leprechaun (who would then give you gold) was a lucky event that could only take place in Ireland.
Why did most Irish immigrants of the 1830s and 1840's initially settle in port cities?
Because they landed in the port cities of the US and didn't have money to travel far. Also, the port cities offered many opportunities for employment and a community of fellow Irish immigrants.
What effect did the spread of Christianity have on education in Ireland?
Before Christianity came to be, most were not given any education. Just grew up and worked not learning much more than their name and what ever works they had to work at.
Who was Michael Collins?
Miceal is the Gaelic version of Michael and the Micheal version is just a twist on it, ie he is the Irish rebellion leader Michael Collins (English ) miceal Ocolleain (Gaelic version)
Michael Collins was the most important Irish military leader during the War of Idependence. Born in Co.Cork in 1890, he went to London at the age of 15 to work in the British Post Office. He soon became a member of the IRB (Irish Republican Brotherhood) and the Irish Volunteers and returned to Ireland for the 1916 Rising. Collins did not make his mark on events until after his release from prison at the end of 1916. He then set about re-organising the Volunteer movement whch now became known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA). During the War of Independence, Collins directed IRA activities. He master-minded his own spy network which successfully countered the British spying system. The British government offered ï¿½10,000 for the capture of Collins. To them,he was the most wanted man in Ireland. In 1921, Collins was part of the Irish delegation that went to London to arrange a treaty with the British government which contained many points one of which being that Britain would keep six counties in the north of Ireland. Collins signed the treaty. When he returned many were angry that Ireland was to be divided. The Irish people split in two, half defending Collins decision and the other half saw the treaty as a 'sell-out' to the British. This sparked the Irish Civil War. In 1922, Collins was shot dead in an ambush in Co.Cork. His death, at the age of 32 was a tragic loss to the new state.
What are some sayings about a four leaf clover?
They say a four leaf clover is very lucky and that it is very rare so if you find one you will have luck.
What is the origin of the 'Wearing of the Green'?
"The Wearing of The Green" was written by a Dubliner, Dion Boucicault (1820-1890). After America's revolution, the Irish thought it was time for their own independence. The color greem became a symbol of sympathy for Irish independence and the British actually began executing persons found wearing anything green. See the lyrics to the son on that web site, too. I haven't been able to verify this statement as fact and I can't find a more exact time-line for the writing of the song.
The song Wearing of the Green was made because Irish people would burn the color red because they hated England so British soldiers would shoot peolple wearing the color green.
"The wearing of the green" refers to the Irish green plaid on kilts and other items of clothing. The English considered this a sign of active nationalism or separatism and, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, methods of stopping that were simple. The attitude was, "If you are wearing the green, you are siding with the troublemakers, disturbing the equilibrium of our landowners and governors, ie., you are a terrorist and shall be dealt with".
"The Wearing of the Green" is a song that follows the tune of an O'carolan air, the origins of which are unknown. The lyrics were written to relate the British practice of hanging any Irishman/woman who wore green in a patriotic manner during a certiain Irish rebellion(as to which, I don't know). Many more sets of lyrics were written later on, including "Rising of The Moon", which relates the Rebellion of 1798. The tune was even present in Civil-War America, as "The Army of the Free".
The English would execute any irishman or irishwoman who was caught wearing green, or displaying green as a banner or flag, because the color green was used as a symbol of Irish patriotism, and supporters of the rebellion used it. The time of this was probably in the late 1770's through the mid 1790's. In 1798 the Irish finally rebelled against the English because of the tyranny and opression they faced every day by the hands of the English. .
Why did unionists oppose home rule?
Because they wanted to maintain the link with Britain and the government in London as they felt they would be a minority in Ireland and that things would be better for them without Home Rule.
What does a four leaf clover tattoo symbolize?
According to legend of western cultures, each of the four leaf clovers represent one theme.
- first leaf is for hope
- second leaf is for faith
- third leaf is for love
- fourth leaf is for luck.
Where did the Irish Republican Army get their weapons?
The following answer refers to the 'Provisional Irish Republican Army', which began as a splinter group of the 'Irish Republican Army' in 1969.
Libya has been the biggest single supplier of arms and funds to the IRA, donating large amounts: three shipments of arms in the early 1970s and another three in the mid 1980s, the latter reputedly enough to arm two regular infantry battalions.
The IRA has also received weapons and logistical support from Irish Americans in the United States, especially the NORAID group. Apart from the Libyan aid, this has been the main source of overseas IRA support.
In the United States in November 1982, five men were acquitted of smuggling arms to the IRA after they claimed the Central Intelligence Agency had approved the shipment, although the CIA denied this.
The IRA has received some training and support from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In 1977, the Provisionals received a 'sizeable' arms shipment from the PLO, including small arms, rocket launchers and explosives, but part of the shipment was intercepted at Antwerp after the Israeli intelligence alerted its European counterparts.
What was St. Patrick's original name?
Patrick's writings do not indicate his given name but legend says that his given name was Maewyn Succat.
Why is Co Kerry known as 'the Kingdom'?
The origin of the expression "The Kingdom" Ciar raige anglicised Kerry means Ciar's Kingdom or Kingdom of Ciar. Ciar was the progenitor of the O'Connor Kerry Clan. Around 65 AD Ciar took possession of an area of land stretching from the river Maine in the south and the Shannon estuary in the north and included the peninsula of Corca Duibhne or Dingle Peninsula. This territory at the time was known as Clar na Cliabh or The Plain of Swords.
What was the conflict between the Catholics and Protestants in Ireland?
The original conflict between the Catholics and Protestants in Ireland was not truly a matter of religion -- it was a matter of social class.
Put quite briefly, the majority of the population in Ireland, post 1000 A. D., was Catholic. They never underwent the church reform that England did in the 1500s. Thus, by the 1600s, England = Anglican (Protestant), and Ireland = Catholic.
When England began to establish plantations in Ireland and establish themselves as the ruling class, they often did it in a relatively unpleasant and domineering fashion, making themselves unpopular with their new subjects in the manner of America and India.
Hostility arouse between Catholics and Protestants in this way not because the religions themselves bore marked differences, but because these denominations were attached to two very different classes. Intermarriages were frowned upon, not for spiritual reasons, but because the Protestant was marrying below their class.
This hostility between the denominations continued into the present for many of the same reasons. Protestantism represents the continued presence of England in Northern Irish affairs, while Catholicism bears the stigma of being the religion of the poor, the rebels, and the socialists intent on a free Ireland.
I hope this helps answer your question. Tim Pat Coogan has published some very good books on the subject, and many books on the IRA give good, concise histories of earlier conflicts before the IRA.AnswerMaggie, your answer is more or less correct. However, there is another aspect. British colonial activity in Ireland isn't to be condemned simply because it was executed in such a harsh and murderous manner. It is to be condemned because colonialism is always wrong.
With regard to the harsh nature of the occupation here, the British government used religious difference as a political tool over and over again since inventing it shortly after the 1798 United Irish revolution. It has been used by both sides, to their mutual disgrace.
For those who don't know, the United Irishmen aimed to unite Protestants, Catholics, and Dissenters in a single military force aimed to drive the British out of Ireland. (Not such an unrealistic idea - the population of each country was very similar). This scared the daylights out of the British, who relied on Ireland to feed the less agriculturally productive Britain. They knew that it was only a series of lucky incidents for them, and unlucky ones for the revolutionaries that allowed the British to hold on here. Therefore they had to find a way to divide and conquer. Throughout history, religion has worked nicely in this role. So yet again it was brought into play. One of the first markers of this was the founding of the Orange Order, an organisation dedicated to remembering William of Orange, a King of England of Dutch origin in the early 1700s. A fairly large scale war was fought between William and his rival for the throne - James throughout England, but mostly in Ireland. In reality, this war had little to do with Irish nationalists, as these were two foreigners fighting over what amounted to the throne of England and influence in Europe. Catholics and Protestants fought for both.
After the United Irishmen revolution over 100 years after the Williamite wars, the British founded the Orange Order on the pretext that the Williamite war was fought exclusively by Protestants on one side, and Catholics on the other. It has all sorts of overtones of racial and ethnic bigotry associated with it. In any case, the Orange Order, and related organisations led and nurtured the Protestant Hatred of catholics.
On the other side, the Catholic Church has always been the enemy of popular freedom movements throughout the world. In point of fact, most revolutionaries in Ireland were excommunicated by the church for their activities. It is only after we achieved independence that the church found a sense of nationalism, that had heretofore been undiscovered! Catholicism had been brutally suppressed in Ireland - catholics couldn't own properties, trade in certain circumstances, were subject to tithes to support the established church - (The Church of Ireland - an Anglican church), amongst other repressions. Eventually it was allowed back in. That time of repression allied to the propoganda of the catholic church fomented a misunderstanding of protestantism, and consequently helped to form a deep and abiding bigotry amongst some of the Irish Nationalist catholic populations. I'm sure there's more stupidity involved here too.
In any case, both sides played into the British governments hands. It is easy to divide and conquer when there is already religious tension. This religious card was played over and over again by successive British governments to establish majorities at critical time in mainland British politics. It led to an institutionalised religious intolerance. Over time it has created a society in Northern Ireland that is unbelievably absurd. It is probably the most mollycoddled of places in the world. There is government funding galore, straight out of London, and increasingly Dublin. The political leaders have a world status unimaginably far in excess of what you'd expect when you look at the actual population and territorial limits. One can drive from one end of Northern Ireland to the other in at most a couple of hours. The entire population of Northern Ireland is a good deal less than that of Manchester in England. We don't see the Mayor of Manchester getting broadcast all over the world, and behaving like a spoied child.
The church my girlfriend's family attends gets vandalised from time to time by catholic kids from the council estate nearby. As a person who grew up in a catholic family, it always astonishes me when catholics assume that Protestants are unionist, or perhaps even Orange Order members. I'd go so far as to say that the most prominent of Irish nationalist and revolutionary heroes were protestant. The person who first flew the tricolour was protestant, the leaders of the United Irishmen were protestant, many of the 1916 revolutionaries were protestant.
Needless to say, the whole thing is stupid, stupid, stupid.AnswerWhat do you mean by colonialism in proper? Ireland was a part of the realm after the Union of Kingdoms (1603)? And part of the British state by the Act of Union? Do you imply British imperialism with colonialism?
And a counterfactual question: If reformation has succeeded, wouldn't have been an Irish question?Answerliving here in northern Ireland the simple answer is that most protestant are proud to be british and wish to remain so . the majority of the roman catholics want a united Ireland some have used force to try and achieve this whilst the protestants have used force to oppose this . hope this is of some help to you all AnswerPAULAall the answer is really, that prodestants wanted to take over Ireland, and Ireland wanted to be free and they went about this in a number of ways leading to some sad in murderous ways to get what they wanted. and this shaped many different views! AnswerPlenty of good answers here. It's complex and simple at the same time. All in all, it's the british ace in the hole. Find differances, exploit them, and fuel the fire. Divide and conquer. Draw attention away from themselves and rule through their puppet. In the colony of N.Ireland their puppet was fanatical Relgious Scots who gave up their independance. Their reward was land in Ireland, military protection, the privilage of swearing alligiance to a foreign queen, loss of the true Scotish Identity (a very Proud and distinctly different one from that of britons), and of course, they could also call themselves british. What a treat. We can see this same technque "the relgious confict card" as I will label it. In other places the british did'NT accidently find themselves. In India, after they had robbed that country blind via a network of hired mercernaries, all of course directed and assisted by the british. They used the tatic as an exit stradegy. So, they rallied to the cause of fundamentalist religious fervor and divided the people of India. Hinduism was the dominant religion, some though were Muslim. They expoited the difference by carving out of India and new country...Pakistan. Complete with a divided and now disputed capital of Kasmir. Same ploy as in Ireland but for a slightly differant reason, was it employed. They, the british were overstreatched (like the Romans once found themselves)and the natives of either religion found common ground (Freedom). The difference though was that they left India. They were able to steal enough ( apperently enough to satisfy even the Devil) that they actually left. Ireland though, is too close to home. It was the first colony outside their home island. Plus their is a deep rooted racism against the Irish in british history and culture. They just can't accept the spirt of freedom in other people. People outside their own violent and racist sense of nationalism. Finally, The question should be "What IS the conflict. Not "what WAS the conflict", as there still IS the british colony of N.Ireland. Pherhaps altogether the best question should be..."What role is the british government resposible for in the conflict between the Catholics and Protestants in Ireland?" AnswerThe reason why the British continue to remain in Northern Ireland is to protect the majority that wish to remain a part of Great Britain. The IRA are a band of communists that do not give one iota for democracy nor the rights of the individual; the Irish included. What they aim for is a socialist republic along the lines of the former Soviet Union. This is evident in everything they say and do and they arn't fooling anyone. Yes, Great Britain was a colonial power and their model of government is the basis of Western democracy; including the United States. What we have seen in the last 5 hundred years is an improvement in the standard of living and wealth anywhere the British model of government has been established. Where it met resistance was from peoples like the IRA who didn't give a tinker's hoot about their own populations but attempted to maintain their own little fiefdoms "by any means necessary". Why was Great Britain a colonial power? The short answer is they had to. The old eastern trade routes were cut off by the Islamic empires and every European power had to find new sources of trade. Couple this with the fact that Great Britain itself was the most invaded country in history and you can imagine the attitude that might develop over the ages. Great Britain has nothing to apologize for. Are they perfect? Certainly not. But at least they had the stones to go out and stake their claim - which is more than I can say about the Irish. It should be duly noted that with all their bleating about how bad the British have been and that colonialism is so horrid, the Irish represent the largest demographic in North America and they seem to have exploited the very land that they claim shouldn't have been invaded - very well indeed. Maybe if Ireland actually pried its head out of its behind it may see that the British have been instrumental in the moving forward of mankind. How would you like to join instead of crying like a baby. AnswerWow !!! ... The last answer was racism and apologetics all wrapped up in the union jack like a big fish supper swimming in vinegar !!! A living testament to the definition of ignorance and (not very) subtle hate. Firstly, the author goes straight to the question of majority. The problem though, is that he failed to clarify what his idea of majority is... To this person, the majority of Irish people only pertains to the majority of 6 out of 32 counties which constitute Ireland ... Ireland being the island where Irish come from, thus making anyone born there "Irish". So, the Irish majority, in a democracy, would have to include the majority of counties that constitute Ireland and the Irish. These would be the 26 counties in the south. They actually constitute a majority that is not counted by the author above or the british government. The reason being that: if the majority of Irish were given the democratic right of Irish people to determine their own fate - they would most likely vote for complete independence from the savages that have murdered and stolen so much from them - just like many of the other victims of british colonial terrorism have chosen. Ireland was divided by the british under threat of an "immediate and terrible war" in order to cause a civil war between the Irish - a tactic they have perfected in many other countries. The reason they chose the area known as "Northern Ireland" is because they had a concentration of people loyal to them. People whose ancestors were enticed by the british to settle there in order to upset the majority of native Irish people. They were given free land and money by the british with the strict provision that they would not rent land to the native Irish in the area. Nor were they to hire native Irish to work for them. Thus, creating an artificial pro-british majority in that area. The area that was centuries later to become N.Ireland under threat of an "immediate and terrible war"... On top of all of that - N.Ireland house of government was considered (using the words from a statue in front of the building which housed the british "law " makers)... A Protestant parliament for a Protestant people". The above author failed to remember this glaringly obvious fact. I would hope he just didn't know any better. But I feel that he is unable to understand what a democracy is. Unlike the author above, I feel that it is not possible to have a democracy in a colony. Imagine if here in America the senate in New Yorkd declared the senate to be a "White Parliament for a White people"!!! Would Democracy be possible then? Well, according to the author above, we would have to say... Yes! Then,like a script being read we're subject to some conspiracy theories of communism to distract the reader. Imagine that... The communist union in Russia were not socialists. If you consider the definition of socialism. They were a military dictatorship. A workers union, is one form of actual socialism. The people who labor, control themselves. Through a democratic system of electing people to represent them for a short period of time. Until the next democratic election of representatives is chosen. Repeating that process, over and over again. The first thing communist Russia did was to dismantle these unions that began to form. During the time Russia was going through a civil war. Which the communist force won. Once the communists won - all elements of socialism were brutally dismantled. The only connection to socialism, by definition, is that they lied to their people and convinced them that they were a socialist gov., in name, and were there to serve them. That they should unite together under the communist dictators. In socialsm there is no room for a military dictatorship due to the fact that the people determine their own fate through constant elections and democracy. To ensure the wealth created by the workers. is equally and fairly distributed. ... Back to the people who created the wealth. The author's only credible argument is that the now defunct "Official I.R.A." considered themselves communist. He fails to mention the fact that the "P.I.R.A." split from the "Officials" because of the officials identification towards communism. His failure to mention this can be described as " selective amnesia ". ... Then we begin to get into the most deplorable part of the exhortation ... That Britain had to go around the world to murder, rape and steal from every country imaginable, just because they "had to". As is so eloquently explained under this form of idealogy. One could even use it to argue that the " son of sam killer" simply had no choice because the neighbor's dog's told him to do it. He "had to" kill people. What choice did he have ??? He had to !!! We also learn that Britain "was the most invaded country in history" (Vietnam ?) though we are not given the slightest example of evidence - which is a serious problem. Mainly, because the author above probably includes colonies invaded and held by "great Britain"... Colonies kept through brutal terrorism. Thus, in this senario, any victim of "great Britain" could be considered an enemy. Who is an "invader" ??? Despite the fact that they are the natives, when they take up arms to protect their homeland from british colonial terrorism, in their own land, which the british consider to be a part of "great Britain." Despite the feeling of unity with "great Britain" ... the non-british people in their country who found themselves imprisoned in a artificial entity called "great Britain". The author then informs us as to the attitude that they ,(the british) " might develop over the ages." This is true. People that are serial criminals and murderers develop,over a period of time, an attitude towards their victims... A very twisted and sadistic attitude in which they have nothing "to apologise for"... As the above author clearly informs us. Then we are told that the british "atleast had the stones to go out and stake their claim." Which claim is this ? Is it the gold rush ? Is it the claim to inventing a game that you regularly and embarrassingly get defeated at ? ... Is it the claim to having a large body and a small head ? Is it an insurance claim for your dimwit girlfriends lost camera in the English colony of Ibiza ???... Or is it for the salty tears that now run down your face for the loss of your capital city to all of the people that you have taken the piss out of for so long ??? Why don't you just go and invade the Wembley pitch when it's ready ... in the meantime .... ha ha !! AnswerThe British government has used religion to divide Ireland for centuries. They have brutishly executed Irish rebels. While I am on that point they have also wiped out the Scottish Highlanders who oppossed British rule. They have nealy destroyed the Gealic languages of Scotland and Ireland. The Ulster plantations effectivly cut off the Scottish geal from his Irish brother. The Scottish Presbiterian population of Ulster are now bitter enemies with the Irish Catholics. They are separated not by RELIGION, but by a identity of being truly BRITISH or IRISH! The hatred will only end if there is a sense of unity between the two. anyway, we are both from the same gealic clan! We are the same people!
What is another name for a four leaf clover?
if it's 3 leaf , it's call a shamrock. It it's four leaf, it's call "lucky"!
What does bejabers mean in Irish?
if you have been to Ireland it is a common phrase (i use it) to express shock. also they were probably saying bee-jay-zus. eg. holy bejesus you scared the life out of me
May the road rise with you?
May the road rise up to meet you,
May the wind be ever at your back.
May the sun shine warm upon your face
The rain fall softly on your fields
And, until we meet again,
May God hold you in the hollow of his hand.