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Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Parent Category: Physics
Thermodynamics is the study of energy conversion between heat and mechanical work which leads to the macroscopic properties such as temperature, volume, and pressure. Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory to study the thermodynamic behavior of systems of a large number of particles.
pressure creates heatIf you are using pressure from your hands then when you touch the ice your body gives off heat which the ice uses to melt and turn to water.
The laws of thermodynamics tell us to expect observable changes  when we perturb (change) the inputs or conditions of the  environment in this case, the earth. What we put into the air, how  we change the surface through logging and agriculture, and what we  dump into the ocean can all wind up...
The first law is called the zeroth law. The second law is called  the first law. OK, catching on? Mostly ThermoD is a steady state  explaination of "nice" conditions. OK, things can happen, but they  happen slowly in ThermoD.
That question is as broad as asking "Who discovered physics?" There  were many individuals who contributed key elements of theory,  experimental data, practical applications, and mathematics to the  field of study we call "thermodynamics".    It might be argued that thermodynamics as a...
first law of thermodynamics states that "Energy can neither be  created nor be destroyed ,but it can be transformed from one form  to another"    suppose a body is lying at some height ..it would have some  energy..now ..if body is allow to fall down ..it's potential energy  is converting...
cellular respiration is an example of 2nd law of thermodynamics
In any process energy is conserved, i.e. it is neither created nor  destroyed; it just changes form.   In any process some energy will be lost as heat; you can't convert  all energy from a source into useful work.
 radiation transports energy completely without contact  conduction requires direct contact to transport energy  convection requires mutual contact with a medium that moves to  transport energy  
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.   ----------------------------------------------------------   Here's a quick breakdown of all three:   1st Law: you can't win (you can't get more than you started with).   2nd Law: you can only break even at absolute zero (some energy is  always ...
Under normal conditions, nitrogen is a gas. It can be liquefied/condensed into a liquid under cryogenicconditions (−195.795 °C, ​−320.431 °F). If reduced still further in temperature below −210.00 °C ​(−346.00°F) it can be frozen into a solid. At...
The deficit is supplied by metabolizing energy stored in the fat  cells. If that isn't enough, the body will begin metabolizing other  tissues - like muscle.
A path function is one where it the value of the function depends  on the path you took from the initial and final state. Work and  Heat are path functions.    A "point function" is one that only has points as values rather  than being continuous. The only point functions in thermodynamics ...
PROPERTY is a point function..it is exact differential and  measurable ..   There are two types of thermodynamics properties - 1. INTENSIVE  PROPERTIES 2.EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES    INTENSIVE PROPERTIES are those which doesn't depend upon the mass  or volume of the body   EXTENSIVE...
It depends. Some solids will first melt (change to a liquid) andnot change to a gas until still more energy is added. Some solidswill change directly to a gas by a process called sublimation.Pretty much all solids have a pressure range (from zero pressure upto their triple point) where they will...
yes the word "thermodynamic" can be called a sentence.   "THERMO" means heat and "DYNAMICS means motion or movement.   -Thermodynamic refers to the study of heat and temperature and  their relation to energy and work.
Four laws of thermodynamics exist, though one is labeled the 0th,  and as such is not usually considered. The first law describes how  other energies change as heat energy is introduced or removed from  a system. The second law formulates how the entropy of energy in a  system never decreases,...
Malleability is an intensive property.
first law of thermodynamics- Energy can neither be created nor be  destroyed but it can be transformed from one form to another form"   mathematical expression-   dq - dw=du    q is heat   w is work done   u is internal energy
When an ice cube melts and changes into water. (solid to liquid) When the water in an ice try freezes to form ice. (liquid to solid) When ice on the sidewalk sublimes over several days leaving thesidewalk clear and dry. (sublimation) When it gets so cold that ice crystals precipitate out of the...
  Many ways, and it depends on the type of ship. A large ship will benefit from thermodynamic analysis of the HVAC system (especially if it is a refrigerated cargo ship); smaller ships will also benefit from this as well. In addition, most thermodynamic solvers on the market will also do fluid...
The second law of thermodynamics states essentially that it is impossible for heat to flow from a cooler body to a hotter one, without the performance of work by an external agency. I'm not sure how this relates to your wording of 'matter and energy'.
A good approximation: Velocity = (331 + 0.6*Tc) m/sec where Tc is in Centigrade, not Kelvin V (at 27C) = (331 +0.6*27)m/sec = 347.2 m/sec
It is assumed as part of the second law, but the second law is  really all about what happens to the energy as it changes form. If  energy were not conserved (1st Law), then it might be  possible to violate the second law by magically creating some  energy out of nowhere to allow the work coming...
Deposition in thermodynamics is the accumulation of a solid phase -  usually by changing phase from gas to solid, solute to solid, or  liquid to solid. (Really solute to solid is a special case of  liquid to solid).
because the process requires the formation of currents which is only possible in fluids (i.e solids and liquids). It is not possible for currents to develop in solids for the simple reason that the molecules in a solid are not free to move around and they are contained in their fixed positions.
Yes. That is correct. It certainly does. But I can hear mobs of readers right now, asking "WHY does convection need a medium to travel ?", and their concerns must certainly be addressed. The answer to that one is: "Convection" is the term used to describe the transfer of heat by means of the ...
Density is an intrinsic property of each type of material, defined as the total mass divided by the total volume. Obviously, two samples of the material which have the same mass and same volume will have the same density, but that is not that answer to this question. This question is about the...
The first law is that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Any  process can only convert energy from one form to another.  Einstein's famous equation E=mc2 extends this to include  conservation of energy AND mass and explain the source of the  energy released by nuclear fusion.    The...
First, open up the Internet tab. THEN, go to Google. Last, type in your question and hit Enter. you are good to go after that! :)
The energy of an Isolated system is Constant.
More than to generate 0,5 kwh, but less than to generate 1,5 kwh.
Reversible adiabatic expansion/compression
Bear in mind that in science, all laws are part of theories. Thermodynamics has 3 laws, and is also a theory.
Sounds like you are looking for the second law that requires that  heat move from warmer source to a cooler sink. This happens when  the cold refrigerant absorbs heat and when the compressed  refrigerant dumps heat to the cooler surroundings. There will also  be some heat dumped to the cooler...
A lot of materials are known for their relatively high thermal  conductivities including:   Silver   Copper   Gold   Aluminum   Brass (at least most types are pretty good conductors)   Diamond   Carbon nanotubes (along the tube)   Graphite (along the plane - not so good...
No. Thermal energy refers to the amount of heat energy a massholds. Temperature refers to how hot a mass is. * They are related but they are not the same. If the temperature ofa mass is increased, the thermal energy of that mass will alsoincrease. Answer The term, 'thermal energy', is...
No, most heat energy can never be converted into work. Heat is the most entropic form of energy, and therefore is limited by the second law of thermodynamics.
Efficiency can never be greater than one because it is the ratio  between work you got out of the system and the total energy.  Because of conservation of energy, the equation ΔE = Q + W reduces  to Q + W = 0.
1. A major limitation of the first law of thermodynamics is that its merely indicates that in any process there is an exact equivalence between the various forms of energies involved, but it provides no information concerning the spontaneity or feasibility of the process. For example, the first law...
Many of the properties measured and calculated in thermodynamics are "state" functions. The key feature is not their absolute value but rather how much they change. We are more concerned with the amount of work required to raise an object 20 feet than we are with the total potential energy of the...
No. The formation of living organisms occurs through processes that create more increase in entropy in the surroundings than the reduction of entropy inherent in the formation of the living organism, thus the formation of living organisms does not violate the second law of thermodynamics.
Thermal energy flows from warmer objects to colder objects.
  So far no known way.
There are two laws of thermodynamics:1: energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another. For example, potential energy to kinetic energy2: the total entropy of the universe is constantly increasing.In biology the second law shows up in the requirement of...
If A,B and C are three systems and A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C then according to zeroth law of thermodynamics C is in thermal equilibrium with A.
an open system through which both energy and mass can transfer
Energy can't be created or destroyed. The First Law of Thermodynamics is also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy.
Like any discipline, in physics or otherwide, thermodynamics covers  only a limited range of concepts, conditions, and interactions. It  deals primarily with heat, and in some ways can be extended to  other forms of energy and energy transfer. Because energy transfers  are involved in a great...
Several cartoon laws of physics violate the First Law of  Thermodynamics:   Cartoon Law VI  As speed increases, objects can be in several places at  once. This is particularly true of tooth-and-claw fights, in which  a character's head may be glimpsed emerging from the cloud of  altercation...
Basically, living beings need energy, just like any process needs  energy. By "doing their things", e.g. moving around, reproducing,  simply breathing, they use up energy, converting it into  lower-quality energy. In other words, entropy increases.
Even though living organisms take raw materials and create complex structures, they still obey the 2nd law of thermodynamics because as they carry out their biological processes, they release heat to the surrounding environment and increase the entropy of the universe. The second law doesn't say...
If pieces of the truck fly off then yes, if all the parts manage to stick together then no. I would have to say that this is not a good example of the 2nd law.
The first law states that neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed The second law states that everything tends toward disorder ie. falls apart, fades, withers, erodes, etc. I like the versions: 1st: You can't get something for nothing 2nd: Not only that, you can't even break even
The entropy of an isolated system will increase over time. Differences in temperature tend to balance, heat flows from high temp. to cold.
Yes. Dry ice demonstrates equilibrium between solid and gas. Thermodynamics predicts that such an equilibrium should be possible. It also demonstrates that transition from solid to gas need not include a liquid phase in between - again predicted by thermodynamics.
Psalm 102:25-26Of old You laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of Your hands. They will perish, but You will endure; yes, they will all grow old like a garment;
 like a cloak You will change them,
 and they will be changed.
It can't. That's the simplest way to explain why no successful perpetual motion machine has ever been built. --------------------------------------------------------------- Another contributor persisted: well it's just a matter of time and life!
because partly will be emissed to the environment, which cant be reused. For more information refer to sustainability studies, which are looking, among other things, how heat directed to the environment can be minimised
According to the first law of thermodynamics energy can neither be created nor be destroyed and any change in energy of a system is accounted for by work done. The work-energy relationship is the foundation on which all engines and motors operate, including the human engine. Energy gets converted...
I have thermodynamic temperature changer.
Neither has any known exceptions. You do have to account for the  equivalence of mass and energy though to keep the 1st law  consistent, i.e. E=mc² when it comes to nuclear fission and nuclear  fusion.
True In a closed container, sure. In a leaky container, possibly not?
The First Law of Thermodynamics always applies; there is no known  way to violate it.
  Delta is a symbol meaning "change". Delta T means (T2-T1)
The Heisenberg uncertainty principal is an aspect of the axiomatic system associated with Quantum Mechanics. The Fist Law of Thermodynamics is an aspect of the axiomatic system of Classical Thermodynamics. To state that one 'goes against' another is to say that an apple 'goes against' an orange. ...
There are hypothetical processes that would obey the First Law, but  disobey the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Heat transfer within the atmosphere occurs via all three modes of heat transfer:Conduction - as the air contacts existing heat sources. These might be surfaces that have been heated previously via absorption of solar radiation or from chemical reactionsConvection - as warm air mixes with...
Cycle needs to be defined as well as its state points -- pressure and temperature values. Also, the working fluid mass flow rate needs to be defined ...
The first law dictates that the power (energy per unit time) output from a solar cell cannot exceed the power of the light landing on it. The second law dictates that the efficiency of the solar cell must be less than 100% no matter how good the cell is - some of the energy will be lost as heat...
Heat capacity is NOT a path function. It is a STATE function. It  depends on the phase of the material, the temperature and the  pressure. Usually heat capacity is known at some particular  condition and then a calculation is required to estimate it at the  condition of interest. Performing...
Neither living organisms nor Earth nor even our solar system are closed systems. The minor entropy decreases caused by life processes are more than made up for by the entropy increases by the functioning of the sun, of the absorption in the oceans, etc. Entropy is countered by the influx of solar...
Heat flows easily on conductive materials.
The First Law of Thermodynamics has one exception. That is in  nuclear reactions; where a small amount of mass is destroyed  resulting in the production oh huge amounts of energy. according to   Einsteins Equation :    Delta E = ( - Delta m ) ( ( C )^2    The above exception also...
It means that the proces is somewhere between an isothermal and a adiabatic proces You have some heat transfer, but not all of it.
An open system is a SYSTEM which continuously interacts with its environment. The interaction can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary.
Work can be calculated as an integral of PdV, so if volume doesn't  change (dV = 0) there is no work. Changing the temperature of an  isochoric system involves no work on or by the system - unless you  are moving the system around like lifting it or lowering it or  shoving it or decellerating it...