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Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Parent Category: Physics
Thermodynamics is the study of energy conversion between heat and mechanical work which leads to the macroscopic properties such as temperature, volume, and pressure. Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory to study the thermodynamic behavior of systems of a large number of particles.
Ice near its normal freezing point has a larger volume than liquidwater at the same temperature. If you put pressure on ice it willbecome smaller by becoming liquid.
The laws of thermodynamics tell us to expect observable changeswhen we perturb (change) the inputs or conditions of theenvironment in this case, the earth. What we put into the air, howwe change the surface through logging and agriculture, and what wedump into the ocean can all wind up altering the...
The study of the relationship between mechanical work, heat andother forms of energy and energy transfer is known as thermodynamics . Thus, thermodynamics is the study ofheat, temperature and the conversion of mechanical work into heatand vice-versa.
That question is as broad as asking "Who discovered physics?" Therewere many individuals who contributed key elements of theory,experimental data, practical applications, and mathematics to thefield of study we call "thermodynamics". It might be argued that thermodynamics as a science started...
The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation ofenergy. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but onlychanged in form. For example when water turns a turbine in a hydroelectric powerstation. the loss in kinetic energy of the water is equivalent tothe electric energy produced plus...
cellular respiration is an example of 2nd law of thermodynamics
When a cold object and a hot object are in direct contact (touching) heat will be transferred through thermal conduction. Normally, heat transfer processes are categorized as thermal conduction, radiative transfer or convection. Heat transfer through thermal conduction is the direct transfer...
In any process energy is conserved, i.e. it is neither created nordestroyed; it just changes form. In any process some energy will be lost as heat; you can't convertall energy from a source into useful work.
radiation transports energy completely without contact . conduction requires direct contact to transport energy . convection requires mutual contact with a medium that moves totransport energy
Changing 45.2 ml of pure water from 21.00 °C to 23.68 °C requires 45.2 ml x 1g/mL x (23.68-21.00)°C x calorie/g/°C = 121.136 calories This means the original metal sample had a heat capacity of 121.1.36 cal/58.932 g/(101.00 - 24.68) °C = 0.026585 cal/g/°C = 0.026585 kcal/kg/Â...
Heat can travel in 3 ways: conduction, convection, and radiation. If the air or fluid are sufficiently transparent and the difference in temperatures big enough, radiation can be a significant mode of heat transfer. Because gases and liquids can move around, natural convection and forced...
heat is measured in joule and temperature in degree Celsius
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. ---------------------------------------------------------- Here's a quick breakdown of all three: 1st Law: you can't win (you can't get more than you started with). 2nd Law: you can only break even at absolute zero (some energy isalways "lost" to heat except at...
Under normal conditions, nitrogen is a gas. It can be liquefied/condensed into a liquid under cryogenicconditions (−195.795 °C, ​−320.431 °F). If reduced still further in temperature below −210.00 °C ​(−346.00°F) it can be frozen into a solid. At...
Short Answer: In gasses, forces between atoms are not important and the transfer of momentum (hence force, hence viscosity) between different adjacent regions of a fluid is dues to the movement of particles over long distance. Higher temperature means faster movement means higher viscosity in a...
The deficit is supplied by metabolizing energy stored in the fatcells. If that isn't enough, the body will begin metabolizing othertissues - like muscle.
A path function is one where it the value of the function dependson the path you took from the initial and final state. Work andHeat are path functions. A "point function" is one that only has points as values ratherthan being continuous. The only point functions in thermodynamicsare where the...
PROPERTY is a point function..it is exact differential andmeasurable .. There are two types of thermodynamics properties - 1. INTENSIVEPROPERTIES 2.EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES INTENSIVE PROPERTIES are those which doesn't depend upon the massor volume of the body EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES are those which depend...
Overall the temperature and randomness of the molecules changes according to the absorption or expulsion of energy in the form of heat while changing states of matter. For example, when changing from a liquid to a gas, energy is needed, which increases the temperature of the substance, and therefore...
It depends. Some solids will first melt (change to a liquid) andnot change to a gas until still more energy is added. Some solidswill change directly to a gas by a process called sublimation.Pretty much all solids have a pressure range (from zero pressure upto their triple point) where they will...
yes the word "thermodynamic" can be called a sentence. "THERMO" means heat and "DYNAMICS means motion or movement. -Thermodynamic refers to the study of heat and temperature andtheir relation to energy and work.
To understand the difference between relative temperature in spaceand on Earth, one must understand what causes temperature.Temperature is the amount of relative heat something has, heatbeing essentially the movement of energy in something. Earth iswarm relative to the surrounding space because...
Four laws of thermodynamics exist, though one is labeled the 0th,and as such is not usually considered. The first law describes howother energies change as heat energy is introduced or removed froma system. The second law formulates how the entropy of energy in asystem never decreases, and as such...
Malleability is an intensive property.
first law of thermodynamics- Energy can neither be created nor bedestroyed but it can be transformed from one form to another form" mathematical expression- dq - dw=du q is heat w is work done u is internal energy
When an ice cube melts and changes into water. (solid to liquid) When the water in an ice try freezes to form ice. (liquid to solid) When ice on the sidewalk sublimes over several days leaving thesidewalk clear and dry. (sublimation) When it gets so cold that ice crystals precipitate out of the...
Many ways, and it depends on the type of ship. A large ship will benefit from thermodynamic analysis of the HVAC system (especially if it is a refrigerated cargo ship); smaller ships will also benefit from this as well. In addition, most thermodynamic solvers on the market will also do fluid...
The second law of thermodynamics states essentially that it is impossible for heat to flow from a cooler body to a hotter one, without the performance of work by an external agency. I'm not sure how this relates to your wording of 'matter and energy'.
A temperature difference of 50 K would be equivalent to a difference of 90 °F.
The First Law is simply conservation of energy. It is impossible to create energy out of nothing, or to make energy disappear entirely. The First Law is simply conservation of energy. It is impossible to create energy out of nothing, or to make energy disappear entirely. The First Law is simply...
A good approximation: Velocity = (331 + 0.6*Tc) m/sec where Tc is in Centigrade, not Kelvin V (at 27C) = (331 +0.6*27)m/sec = 347.2 m/sec
It is assumed as part of the second law, but the second law isreally all about what happens to the energy as it changes form. Ifenergy were not conserved (1 st Law), then it might bepossible to violate the second law by magically creating someenergy out of nowhere to allow the work coming out of a...
No. Temperature is an intensive property, thermal energy is an extensive property. Temperature can be thought of as a measure of the average thermal energy per particle. So an iceberg might have more thermal energy than a red-hot quarter just because it's very large, while the quarter would have...
Deposition in thermodynamics is the accumulation of a solid phase -usually by changing phase from gas to solid, solute to solid, orliquid to solid. (Really solute to solid is a special case ofliquid to solid).
Yes - pretty much by definition, the molecules of a liquid do not have a fixed position in the liquid, they are thus in constant motion. Should they assume a fixed position - or at least a fixed location that the oscillate around, we would be looking at a solid..
because the process requires the formation of currents which is only possible in fluids (i.e solids and liquids). It is not possible for currents to develop in solids for the simple reason that the molecules in a solid are not free to move around and they are contained in their fixed positions.
Yes. That is correct. It certainly does. But I can hear mobs of readers right now, asking " WHY does convection need a medium to travel ?", and their concerns must certainly be addressed. The answer to that one is: "Convection" is the term used to describe the transfer of heat by means...
You can't get ahead (1st law - conservation of energy - you can't get more energy out than you put in) You can't even break even (2nd law - 100% efficiency is not possible - some energy will always be lost as heat to the surroundings, thus increasing the overall entropy of the universe) You...
Density is an intrinsic property of each type of material, defined as the total mass divided by the total volume. Obviously, two samples of the material which have the same mass and same volume will have the same density, but that is not that answer to this question. This question is about the...
Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature. . First law of thermodynamics: Heat is a form of energy. Because energy is conserved, the internal...
As water is heated in a coal-fired boiler, the enthalpy of the water increases. Note that enthalpy is defined as: . H = U + pV . where. H is the enthalpy of the system U is the internal energy of the system p is the pressure at the boundary of the system and its environment V is the...
Our Bodies Convert Concetrated Energy to Useless Low-Grade Energy Animals, plants, and humans, use energy changes to move, grow, catch food, and make more of themselves. Cellular respiration is the process by which most living things convert concentrated food energy into work and thermal energy ...
The first law is that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Anyprocess can only convert energy from one form to another.Einstein's famous equation E=mc 2 extends this to includeconservation of energy AND mass and explain the source of theenergy released by nuclear fusion. The second law can be...
Heat is transferred through solids by the process of conduction. . The particles in a solid are very close together. . When heat energy is given to the particles, they begin to vibrate faster. They hit the particles next to them and this passes on the energy. . Metals conduct heat energy very well...
First, open up the Internet tab. THEN, go to Google. Last, type in your question and hit Enter. you are good to go after that! :)
The energy of an Isolated system is Constant.
More than to generate 0,5 kwh, but less than to generate 1,5 kwh.
Reversible adiabatic expansion/compression
Benjamin Thomson (also known as Count Rumford)in 1798
Bear in mind that in science, all laws are part of theories. Thermodynamics has 3 laws, and is also a theory.
I think when the heat is passed to a substance the molecules start vibrating increasing the molecular distances,thus the heat starts transfering from one molecule to other.
It might be possible to argue that when something boils, cooling takes place at the "surface" where the boiling is going on. Let's look into things just a bit and attempt to puzzle this out. We begin our experiment by taking a pan of water that is just beginning to boil and look at the surface....
Sounds like you are looking for the second law that requires thatheat move from warmer source to a cooler sink. This happens whenthe cold refrigerant absorbs heat and when the compressedrefrigerant dumps heat to the cooler surroundings. There will alsobe some heat dumped to the cooler surroundings...
Conduction . Heat travels from high to low to balance itself, in a cold pool our warm bodies will lose heat to balance the waters temperature.
A lot of materials are known for their relatively high thermalconductivities including: Silver Copper Gold Aluminum Brass (at least most types are pretty good conductors) Diamond Carbon nanotubes (along the tube) Graphite (along the plane - not so good between planes) Graphene (a 2-dimensional...
No. Thermal energy refers to the amount of heat energy a massholds. Temperature refers to how hot a mass is. * They are related but they are not the same. If the temperature ofa mass is increased, the thermal energy of that mass will alsoincrease. Answer The term, 'thermal energy', is...
ANSWER: Most people say that you leave the coffee so it's hotter when you get back then pour the milk in. This is incorrect... a simple Thermodynamic principle is that the further away something is from the ambient temperature the faster it will approach it - it's exponential. So If you ad the...
It is nearly impossible to let a thermos flask lose heat to its surroundings because, space between the double walls of the thermos flask has been vacuumed, therefore heat has nothing to rely on to be conducted to the surroundings. Radiation is also not possible because the reflective materials at...
No, most heat energy can never be converted into work. Heat is the most entropic form of energy, and therefore is limited by the second law of thermodynamics.
No, evolution does not violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. No life disobeys the Second Law. Zygotes become embryos, embryos become foetuses, foetuses become babies, then children, then adults. All zygote-to-adult growth fails to disobey the Second Law. There is a constant influx of energy...
when no more solute will dissolve ========== when the concentration of the solute is equal to the concentrationthat would be in equilibrium with any solid of the same substance -when that happens, no more solute will dissolve, or more precisely,if any more dissolves, it would be expected to cause...
Efficiency can never be greater than one because it is the ratiobetween work you got out of the system and the total energy.Because of conservation of energy, the equation ΔE = Q + W reducesto Q + W = 0.
1. A major limitation of the first law of thermodynamics is that its merely indicates that in any process there is an exact equivalence between the various forms of energies involved, but it provides no information concerning the spontaneity or feasibility of the process. For example, the first law...
Many of the properties measured and calculated in thermodynamics are "state" functions. The key feature is not their absolute value but rather how much they change. We are more concerned with the amount of work required to raise an object 20 feet than we are with the total potential energy of the...
No. The formation of living organisms occurs through processes that create more increase in entropy in the surroundings than the reduction of entropy inherent in the formation of the living organism, thus the formation of living organisms does not violate the second law of thermodynamics.
When a cold object and a hot object are in direct contact (touching) heat will be transferred through thermal conduction. Normally, heat transfer processes are categorized as thermal conduction, radiative transfer or convection. Heat transfer through thermal conduction is the direct transfer...
Thermal energy flows from warmer objects to colder objects.
evaporative cooling
There are two laws of thermodynamics: 1: energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another. For example, potential energy to kinetic energy 2: the total entropy of the universe is constantly increasing. In biology the second law shows up in the requirement of...
Ficks laws (note that there are two of them) are: Most people are concerned with Fick's first law which relates the diffusive flux to the concentration under the assumption of steady state : R=D X A Dp / d R=the rate of diffusion D=diffusion coefficient, which is a characteristic of the...
1) Any physical process is subject to the Second Law. Assuming otherwise would not be a realistic description of our Universe. 2) The maximum possible efficiency is a factor of 1 (equivalent to 100%). If some energy is wasted, as is usually the case, the actual amount will be somewhat less.
molar heat capacity is the product of specific heat capacity and molecular weight molar heat capacity=specific heat capacity*molecular weight
If A,B and C are three systems and A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C then according to zeroth law of thermodynamics C is in thermal equilibrium with A.
an open system through which both energy and mass can transfer
The kinetic molecular theory assumes that the collisions of gas particles are perfectly elastic. This means that
Energy can't be created or destroyed. The First Law of Thermodynamics is also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy.
Vector quantities are quantities that have directionality as well as magnitude. Displacement (meters North) vs Distance (meters) Velocity (meters per second North) vs Speed (meters per second)
Several cartoon laws of physics violate the First Law ofThermodynamics: Cartoon Law VI As speed increases, objects can be in several places atonce. This is particularly true of tooth-and-claw fights, in whicha character's head may be glimpsed emerging from the cloud ofaltercation at several places...