## Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Parent Category: Physics
Thermodynamics is the study of energy conversion between heat and mechanical work which leads to the macroscopic properties such as temperature, volume, and pressure. Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory to study the thermodynamic behavior of systems of a large number of particles.
I depends of the starting temperature of the water.A BTU is the amount of energy required to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit ... water weighs about 8.34#/gal ... so 8.34 BTU's are required to raise 1 gallon of water 1 degree F. If your starting temperature of the water was 40 degrees F ..…
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Bose - Einstein Condensate When matter is cooled to within a very very small fraction of the coldest temperature it is possible to have (absolute zero) the atoms comprising the matter become stiller and stiller (heat is the movement/vibration of atoms). When they become very still, quantum effects b…
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Answer Inorder to answer this question it is best to understand convection. When water is heated the particles pick up energy therefore rising to a less dense area where they are free to move arround, the particles then lose their energy and fall to join all the other particles.
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NTU is nothing but Number of Transfer Units. It is one of the method used to find the heat transfer of hot and cold body it is applicable to both parallel and counter flow. ==== The NTU Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers when there is insufficient informati…
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A cup of coffee cools down in a room cooler than it. but the reverse.. A cup of coffee heating up in a room cooler that it because of heat transfer from the air satisfies the first and violates the second.
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Every reaction in the universe increases the disorder, or entropy, of the universe. This is because energy that goes into a reaction is usable energy, but after the reaction, the energy is not usable anymore.
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the study of the movement of energy and heat. or Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different energy forms. •DeltaG (rxn) = DeltaG (pdts) - DeltaDG (rcts) •DeltaG°(rxn) = -R T ln K •
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The second law of thermodynamics states that mechanical work can be derived from a body only when that body interacts with another at a lower temperature. Answer The laws of thermodynamics have been found to have broader application than the field of thermodynamics. The second law can be stated a…
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Yes - it is correct. That is why a violation of the 2nd law has never been observed.
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Conservation of EnergyThe first law of thermodynamics is essentially that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only transferred into or out of a system. Stated in other terms: The increase in the internal energy of a thermodynamic system is equal to the amount of heat energy added to the syst…
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water is charged positively on the oxgen end, and negativelyon the hydrogen end. Oil does not have a charge ( it's netrual), so the oil does not mix with the water. (EDIT by Dr.J.) - Close, but actually water is charged NEGATIVELY on the oxygen and POSITIVELY on the hydrogen. So, it is POLAR, and o…
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Answer Heat is being added to ice as it melts, but that heat is going into turning the water from a solid into a liquid (breaking intermolecular bonds), rather than increasing the temperature. This is also true when it boils, and that is why a boiling pot of water won't reach a higher temper…
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There are four laws of thermodynamics, zeroth to third:Zeroth law. If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.First law. In any process, the total energy of the universe remains the same. This is the law that states…
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Answer There is no accepted or established "fourth law of thermodynamics". There are, however, numerous authors who have postulated versions of fourth laws to explain certain aberrant phenomena. The following link gives over fifteen different versions of postulated "fourth" laws of thermodynamics…
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The process in which change in pressure ,volume and temperature takes place without any heat entering or leaving the system is called an adiabatic process
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Yes, they can. Physicists at the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching was recently able to cool a gas to negative Kelvin. Finding negative Kelvin shouldn't be that surprising considering that temperature is a measure of …
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Buckle up 'cause the NASA mechanical engineer has his hands full. Both of them! The mechanical engineer might be called an "applied physicist" because he takes the principles of physics and applies them to mechanical systems. Let's check it out. Rockets, space stations, satellites and stuff like th…
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Original Answer: When we say equilibrium, it is a state of balance. Meaning the summation of all forces in a system is equal to zero and the three states of equilibrium are; stable, unstable and neutral. Equilibrium has many different meanings, depending on what subject (chemistry or physics) or wh…
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At thermodynamic equilibrium the dynamic processes for changes in a system have reached a steady state (not changing with time) where temperature has stabilized to a constant, no heat is being exchanged, no work is occurring, composition is constant (reactants are being converted to products at the …
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The name of this phenomenon is conduction.
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conduction transfers hea by contact
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1) In general, the second laws states that all energy in the universe will head towards its lowest state. Another way of stating it is "the universe will tend towards maximum entropy" or "heat cannot of itself flow from a colder body to a warmer body."2) All systems try to achieve a state of minimum…
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Galileo invented an air thermometer in about 1600, but changes in atmospheric pressure made accurate measurement difficult. Liquids were quickly used instead and Gabriel Fahrenheit was the first to use alcohol (1709) and mercury (1714), in a thermometer.
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Energy is the capacity to do work. Matter may possess several forms of energy : kinetic energy , potential energy, internal energy, flow or pressure energy, chemical energy , and nuclear energy.
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An endothermic reaction is a chemical reaction in which energy (heat, light, etc.) is absorbed instead of being released as it is in a exothermic reaction. It may also be called a hypothermic reaction.
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In chemistry, an intensive property is a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample.
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There are actually 3 Laws of Thermodynamics (the actual number is debatable, but the number ranges from 3-5, depending on your adding skills). See the link below, wikipedia does an adequate job of explaining it.
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give us investigatory project example about heat and thermal energy
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Differences in the concentration of a component result in a net difference in the Gibbs free energy of the molecules of that component in the more concentrated region and the more dilute region. That difference provides a driving force for the molecules in the more concentrated region to migrate tow…
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All quantitative variables will be reduced including: Internal energy Enthalpy Gibbs energy Volume Mass Moles All intensive properties will remain unchanged including: Specific internal energy Specific enthalpy Specific Gibbs energy Specific volume (and its reciprocal density) Temperatur…
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The median annual salary for a metallurgical engineer in the US is \$59,037. For mechanical engineers, the median salary is \$80,580.
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petrol comes from lubricating oil. it is fractioned down.
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Yes - the energy to evaporate the liquid comes from the remaining liquid - which results in it cooling down. That's why when you are wet and a breeze blows over you, you feel colder as the water on you evaporates (unless the air is already so saturated with water that no evaporation can occur)
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Yes. Different cloths are made of different materials - and different materials have different heat capacities and thermal conductivities.
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of my think the thickness's wood cuos to bad conductor because if more thickness cous to less conductor and surface disk that if the disk circle more heat save and sent to disk 2
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The "scale" of each is infinitely big -- in other words, both have no maximum possible temperature. However, one degree Celsius (°C) is larger than one degree Fahrenheit (°F).
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When a cold object and a hot object are in direct contact (touching) heat will be transferred through thermal conduction. Normally, heat transfer processes are categorized as thermal conduction, radiative transfer or convection. Heat transfer through thermal conduction is the direct transfer of ki…
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Thermodynamic properties are specific volume, density, pressure, and temperature. Other properties are constant pressure, constant volume specific heats, Gibbs free energy, specific internal energy and enthalpy, and entropy.
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Technically it didn't come from anywhere because it always existed. The western philosophy would say god created the energy. That is, he is not a part of this world, he is eternal, and therefore separate from our "space" therefore he created the rules. However, in eastern Philosophy people like Sh…
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Three types of motion common to molecules are: Translational Vibrational Rotational
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That all energy in a closed mechanical system is conserved, that is the energy cannot increase or decrease.
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salt water can hold heat the most but just a little ahead of water (Fresh). that's all i now for now, I'm orking on it for science!
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Due to the hydrogen bonds that are attracted to one another. This attraction pulls the molecules together and forms the shape.
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Depends how you define 'good'. Metals are usually much better heat and electricity conductors (there are few exceptions) than nonmetals.
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First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.Second Law of Thermodynamics: The second law of thermodynamics states that for any process occurring in a closed system, the entropy increases for an irreversible system and remains cons…
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The four laws of thermodynamics are:Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature.First law of thermodynamics: Heat is a form of energy. Because energy …
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A catabolic reaction is a reaction that breaks macromolecules into constituent individual subunits.
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What we now call thermodynamics was sometimes referred to as "thermotics" during some of the early developments in what we now call thermodynamics but the term fell out of use nearly a hundred years ago.
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The kinetic energy of water molecules in ice is less than the kinetic energy of water molecules in water and that is less than the kinetic energy of water molecules in stream.That is because the range of temperatures where ice exists, -273C to 0C, is less than the range where water exists, 0C to 100…
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FIRST COROLLARY OF THE 1ST LAW: -the application of the conservation of energy to the closed system.Closed system is also known as "control mass". It could either be a non-flow or steady flow closed system.SECOND COROLLARY OF THE 1ST LAW:-the application of the conservation of energy to an open syst…
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Resistors dissipate heat energy with power P=I2R. Since power is defined as energy gained or lost per unit time, we can solve for the energy lost using E=Pt, where E is energy (joules), P is power, and t is time (seconds). Finally, substituting the definition of power into the equation you get: E…
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The first law of thermodynamics states that in any thermodynamic process, when heat Q is added to a system, this energy appears as an increase in the internal energy stored in the system plus the work done by the system on it's surroundings. or to shorten that, energy can neither be created nor des…
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There are many uses for thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity can be used to heat things like water and gasses are typically poor conductors.
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Energy is the ability to cause changes in matter. It's hard to answer because you define the word "energy" in different ways.I hope this answer can be useful.. :)
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Yes. Intensive properties are properties which do not depend on the size of the system. Say you had a piece of ice, whether that piece of ice was extremely small or extremely large, the density of the ice would be the same, so it's considered an intensive property.
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kinetic energy
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If one needs an engineering treatment one can go for books like1)engineering thermodynamics-cengel and boles or2)engineering thermodynamics-moran and shapiro these are the suitable ones. if one needs an advanced treatment one can turn to the book on advanced engineering thermodynamics -adrian bejan.…
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a device attached to (or part of) some component that dissipates a lot of power that absorbs the heat from that component and disposes of it faster than the bare component could by itself. it may be colored black to increase radiation and will have fins to increase air convection current generation.…
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The thermodynamic entropy S, often simply called the entropy in the context of thermodynamics, is a measure of the amount of energy in a physical system that cannot be used to do work. It is also a measure of the disorder present in a system. The SI unit of entropy is JK-1 (Joule per Kelvin), which …
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Black absorbs light, light colors reflect light away, But also Matt colour attract whilst shinny colours reflect.
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Yes. It has to be -361.82'F (218.79'C) or lower. If you want to freeze it at higher temperatures you have to raise the pressure.
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thermodynamics, is essential for mechanical engineers, because the subject is mainly about heat and work in system, and as an engineer that is important, especially when you have to design engines, because that is when you have to determine important factors such as the amount of work that can be do…
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10 Joules Conservation of energy, assuming there are no other losses in the system, and 20 Joules are introduced by compression, and 10 Joules are removed by heat transfer, the remaining 10 Joules must be absorbed as increased thermal energy of the gas.
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It is the pressure that occurs in solids. For example when you press against a wall solid pressure is created, or when you cut an apple. All forms of pressure relies on a certain equation p=f/a that means pressure = for
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Isothermal process is going on under constant temperature, adiabatic is a process where no heat is exchanged (this does not imply that temperature is constant).
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First law of thermodynamics was proposed by Helmholtz in 1847. He stated that:"Energy can neither be created nor can be destroyed , but it can change from one form to another form"
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A Bose Einstein Condensate is a state of matter that occurs when matter is cooled to its lowest energy state, the fermions in the matter, normally excluded from each other due to the exclusion principle, collapse onto each other to form Cooper pairs and achieve a bosonic behavior
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the rate of which one system changes position with another system the body is moving in fluid opposite direction the flow fluid is called relative velocity
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One of the consequences of the 2nd law is that it is impossible for a power plant to achieve 100% efficiency. In fact the maximum efficiency is limited by the temperature of the boiler and temperature of the condenser for power plants powered by heat (like coal, gas fired, and nuclear).
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The 2nd law of thermodynamics basically states that there is always increasing entropy in the universe. Although the total quantity of energy is conserved, there is always a breakdown of useful energy into less useful forms. Usable energy, when processed, turns into a less efficient form. Entropy is…
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sources of error
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No, under normal circumstances, yes (perhaps), if we consider superheated liquids. Under normal conditions, when a liquid reaches the boiling point, no temperature increase of the liquid will occur when heat is added. What happens instead is that any more energy is used to transform the liquid into…
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The value of absolute zero is the temperature at which all molecules and atoms stop moving completely.
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the difference between thermal conductance and thermal conductivity is that:  thermal conductivity(k) and its unit is (W/m.K)it is coefficient of heat transfer through materials in contact with air (the out side layers).  thermal conductance(C) its unit is (W/m2.K)it is coefficient of h…
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An endothermic reaction is a chemical process with heat absorption. Melting is an example of endothermic process.
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There are no real processes that violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. You could describe a process where a block of steel at 0 °C is placed on top of a block of steel of equal size at 400 °C and the cold steel drops to -10 °C while the hot block rises to 410 °C. That would satisfy the 1st law …
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Evolution does not violate the second law of thermodynamics. Anyone who says that it does lacks a correct understanding of the second law of thermodynamics or of evolution, or of both. The controversy originates in a misunderstanding of the second law. In oversimplified form, the second law implies …
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Saturated steam is gas-phase water in equilibrium with liquid water at the same temperature and pressure. If the temperature is above the saturation point and/or the pressure is below the saturation pressure, the steam is "superheated steam". In either case it is a gas. There are some conventions w…
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That is exactly what it means - however there is still the question of rate of reaction and equilibrium. As an example - thermodynamics favor the conversion of diamond back to something more like graphite at normal room conditions, but the process is so slow that no one will observe the change with…
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pressure creates heatIf you are using pressure from your hands then when you touch the ice your body gives off heat which the ice uses to melt and turn to water.
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To understand the difference between relative temperature in space and on Earth, one must understand what causes temperature. Temperature is the amount of relative heat something has, heat being essentially the movement of energy in something. Earth is warm relative to the surrounding space because …
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Four laws of thermodynamics exist, though one is labeled the 0th, and as such is not usually considered. The first law describes how other energies change as heat energy is introduced or removed from a system. The second law formulates how the entropy of energy in a system never decreases, and as su…
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first law of thermodynamics- Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but it can be transformed from one form to another form" mathematical expression- dq - dw=du q is heat w is work done u is internal energy
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It might be possible to argue that when something boils, cooling takes place at the "surface" where the boiling is going on. Let's look into things just a bit and attempt to puzzle this out. We begin our experiment by taking a pan of water that is just beginning to boil and look at the surface. The…
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No. Thermal energy refers to the amount of heat energy a mass holds. Temperature refers to how hot a mass is. They are related but they are not the same. If the temperature of a mass is increased, the thermal energy of that mass will also increase. Answer The term, 'thermal energy', is obsol…
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It is nearly impossible to let a thermos flask lose heat to its surroundings because, space between the double walls of the thermos flask has been vacuumed, therefore heat has nothing to rely on to be conducted to the surroundings. Radiation is also not possible because the reflective materials at t…
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when no more solute will dissolve == when the concentration of the solute is equal to the concentration that would be in equilibrium with any solid of the same substance - when that happens, no more solute will dissolve, or more precisely, if any more dissolves, it would be expected to cause the s…
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