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Instruction decoder takes bits stored in the instruction register and decodes it and tells to CPU what it need to do for it and enable the components for the operation.
Simply, instruction decoder is like a dictionary. It tells the meaning of the instruction.
A microprocessor that uses 24 bit addressing, such as the Intel 80286, can address 224 or 16,777,216 memory locations. The IBM MainFrame, 360/44 or any modern version running in AMODE=24 also has the same capacity.
mov @(some memory location ) say 2200,ax
Hyper-threading is using one processor but logically dividing it into two so that it gives the user the benefit of two processors with only using the resources equivalent to almost one. This is achieved by sharing, partitioning and duplicating the various resources almost into two processors. Used by the latest Pentium processors, which are HT enabled, in layman's terms, it allows you to use more than two applications at the same time without slowing down processing speed.
Multi-threading is when various processes are time sliced such that it gives the user the impression that all the programs are being run at the same time. This is what happens on your computer regularly.
Super-threading allows threads from different processes to be executed at the same time unlike Multi-threading where every process has a time slot during which, thread from only one process will be executed. But every time, if for example, there are four instructions issued to the processor. They will all be from the same process. Hyper-threading takes it a step further. It allows threads from different processes to be issued at the same time, in turn, utilizing the waste cycles of the processor. You can go to any Intel site for further info on this.
Super-threading is a multithreading approach that weaves together the execution of different threads on a single processor without truly executing them at the same time. This qualifies it as time-sliced or temporal multithreading rather than simultaneous multithreading. It is motivated by the observation that the processor is occasionally left idle while executing an instruction from one thread. Super-threading seeks to make use of unused processor cycles by applying them to the execution of an instruction from another thread.
Multithreading computers have hardware support to efficiently execute multiple threads. These are distinguished from multiprocessing systems (such as multi-core systems) in that the threads have to share the resources of single core: the computing units, the CPU caches and the translation lookaside buffer (TLB). Where multiprocessing systems include multiple complete processing units, multithreading aims to increase utilization of a single core by leveraging thread-level as well as instruction-level parallelism. As the two techniques are complementary, they are sometimes combined in systems with multiple multithreading CPUs and in CPUs with multiple multithreading cores.
Hyper-threading is Intel's trademarked term for its simultaneous multithreading implementation in their Pentium 4, Atom, Core i7, and certain Xeon CPUs. Hyper-threading (officially termed Hyper-Threading Technology or HTT) is an Intel-proprietary technology used to improve parallelization of computations (doing multiple tasks at once) performed on PC microprocessors. A processor with hyper-threading enabled is treated by the operating system as two processors instead of one. This means that only one processor is physically present but the operating system sees two virtual processors, and shares the workload between them. Hyper-threading requires both operating system and CPU support for efficient usage; conventional multiprocessor support is not enough, and may actually decrease performance if the Operating System is not sufficiently aware of the distinction between a physical core and a HTT-enabled core. For example, Intel does not recommend that hyper-threading be enabled under Windows 2000, even though the operating system supports multiple CPUs (but is not HTT-aware).
The bits of address bus inform the memory(Ram) which particular element is to be read or write in memory.
multiplexed address data bus means that the same bus is used to carry data as well as address. when ALE signal is active this multiplexed bus will contain address and if ALE is not active this bus will contain data.
Three for opcode fetch, one for decode, two to process the manipulation of the stack pointer.
Interrupt acknowledge is the process of acknowledging a hardware interrupt, obtaining an interrupt vector address, and initiating the interrupt service routine in software. The INTA- (Interrupt Acknowledge) pin has the same timing as RD-, and external hardware is expected to provide an opcode in response to it. In the case of TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, and RST5.5, there is no specific interrupt acknowledge cycle like there is for INTR, but everything else is the same.
AIRCRAFT MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL - 1CV
Area /Catalog # : AERO / 2012
General Information, Semester 1, 2008
Course Coordinator: Dr Bruce Wedding
Office: F2-50 Phone: 8302-3052 (VoiceMail)
AERO 1012 Aviation Physics 2N is a prerequisite for this course. Students who have not passed both 1
physics courses are advised to un-enroll from this course and consult their program director for advice on an
appropriate academic pathway through their program.
To introduce the student to basic electronics, microprocessors and control systems in order to advance an understanding
of their application to aviation ie. 'glass cockpit' systems
On completion of this course, the student should be able to:
* demonstrate a sound knowledge of microprocessor basics, control theory, physical transducers and their
application in aviation.
* undertake experiments in basic electronics and transducers followed by a series of computer based control
Microcomputer organisation; execution of instructions; microprocessor architecture; logic; introduction to
microprocessor applications; transducers; control theory; aircraft control examples; analog & electronic aircraft
instrumentation examples; high level language micro controllers; communication between systems.
There will be no single text book for this course which completely covers all the material however the principle
reference book will be
Burton M, Electronics, Logic and Auto-Flight Instruments, Airlife, 1997 [ 629.13252 B973 - 3 day reserve ]
I list a selection of other reference books which are available in either the library ( look under 629.X), the campus book
shop, or the Pilot's Shop at Parafield airport.
Johnson CD, Microprocessor Based Process Control, Prentice-Hall, 1984 [ 629.895 J66 - 3 day ]
Collinson RPG, Introduction to Avionics Systems, 2
Ed, Kluwer Academic Pub., 2003
Siuru B & Busick JD, Future Flight - the next generation of aircraft technology, TAB AERO McGraw-Hill
[ 629.13334 S623.2 ]
McCormick BW, Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics, 2
Ed, John Wiley & Sons, 1995
[ 629.1323 M131.2 - 3 day ]
Continuous assessment 25%
Examination (1 x 2 hr.) 50%
The continuous assessment will consist of quizzes and problem papers delivered as
per the schedule below. The quizzes (approx 20 minutes) will evaluate the students
conceptual knowledge as well as small problem solving skills. The problem papers
will each consist of 3 or 4 numerically based problems.
The relative weighting of quizzes and problem papers will be:
Quizzes (Formative) 0% Tests (3 x 9%) 25% Dr A Bruce Wedding D:\A_Teaching\DOCS\Subject Outlines\AMC 1CV_Outline 2008.doc 13/05/2008
There will be 2 hours of lectures per week, with tutorials in the odd numbered teaching weeks ie. week 3, 5, 7 etc. and
the Practical will begin in week 3. Students will attend only one 2 hour practical sessions each week. Room details are;
Lectures Monday 1-3 pm D1-05
Tutorials Thursday 1 pm P2-28
Practical s Mon 3-5 pm Thur 2-4 pm Fri 2-4 pm F2-04A
The following represents the proposed schedule (framework) of studies for semester 1.
Week Monday Lectures Thursday Tutorial Practicals
1 Free Free
2 Holiday Monday Free
3 Sample problems Prac #1
4 Holiday Monday Lecture + Quiz 0 One out, all out
5 Quiz 1, TutorialVideo Prac #2
6 Test #1 Prac #3
MID SEMESTER BREAK
MID SEMESTER BREAK
7 Feedback Tutorial Prac #4
8 Prac #5
9 Quiz 2, Tutorial Video Prac #6
10 Test #2 Prac #7
11 Feedback Tutorial Prac #8
12 Inc. Exam Preparation Quiz 3 Prac #9
13 Holiday Monday Test #3 Free
SVac Quiz & Test Feedback Free
The examination will be of 2 hours duration and will be held in the official examination period at the end of the
semester at a date to be advised. The exam covers all work from the lectures (as per the syllabus), the practical sessions
and tutorials during the semester.
A deferred examination may be granted if a student is unable to sit for an examination because of illness. An
application for a deferred examination must be accompanied by a doctors certificate and must be lodged with your
division office within seven days of the examination.
Please note that the University has a policy on plagiarism. Plagiarism is the copying of work or data of other people
without giving them due acknowledgment. This includes word-for-word copying of sentences or whole paragraphs
from books, articles, etc, without clearly indicating where you got the material from. It also includes using very close
paraphrasing of sentences or paragraphs without due acknowledgment.
Deliberate plagiarism is regarded as a serious form of academic misconduct and offenders (both the person copying and
the person knowingly supplying the information) are liable to be penalized by a fail for the particular assignment or the
entire course. Repeated plagiarism may result in your expulsion from the University.
For a more complete definition of plagiarism refer to the section on Academic Misconduct in the University Calendar
or for definitions of plagiarism, educative process, penalties and of the procedures which will be followed in a case of
suspected plagiarism see the University Web page www.unisa.edu.au/adminfo/policies/manual/index.htm Section 5 Academic Misconduct, 5.1.2 Plagiarism.erterter
There is no DAC in the 8085 microprocessor. There might be a DAC in the system implementation, but the DAC is not part of the 8085 itself.
Masking in the 8085 is when certain interrupts are disabled, or masked, by instruction execution. TRAP is not maskable. INTR, RST7.5, RST6.5, and RST5.5 are maskable as a group with the EI and DI instructions. RST7.5, RST6.5, and RST5.5 are selectively maskable, even after the EI instruction, by using the RIM and SIM instructions.
8 address lines can address 28 or 256 different memory locations.
The usage of "segment" and "data bus" in the question appears inconsistent, and does not completely make sense.
If you mean the data segment in the 8086/8088, then this is the region of memory mapped by the Data Segment (DS) register, usually reserved for operands in memory.
If you are talking about the 8085, then the question does not make sense at all.
A clock pulse is one cycle of the system clock. Some processors (such as the 8085) use that as their primary clock. Others, like the more advanced (current) Intel chips, internally multiply the clock to generate an internal clock at a higher speed.
Each instruction is executed in one or more clock pulses, depending on the instruction and on the processor. The minimum instruction time, for instance, for the 8085 is 4 clock cycles. The maximum, for some of the repeated string operations on an advanced processor, could be thousands.
Access to memory is also controlled by the external clock. In the 8085, 3 clock cycles are required to read or write one byte. In the advanced processors, 2 clock cycles can read or write 8 or even 16 bytes at a time.
The flow of information on the data bus is bi-directional. When status pin S1 is high, it is a read from IO or memory towards the CPU; when S1 is low, it is a write. S1 is present on the 8085. On the 8086/8088 it is inverted and combined with DT and called DT/R-
Instruction register is use to store the next instruction to be executed.
Instruction decoder is use to decode the instruction come from the memory and tell the CPU what is instruction really are. (CPU interpret instruction is different from the data store in the memory . A good example is , memory can store hexadecimal, but device only can read binary data.) without decoder the device cannot indicate or recognize the data )
"memory can store hexadecimal, but device only can read binary data" This is an improperly worded, misleading statement. The difference between binary and hexadecimal is purely interpretive. Reading hexadecimal is a function of dividing the bits into groups of 4 and assigning a unique symbol to the pattern; 0-9 + A-F. This is only translating from one numbering system to another. The memory isn't specifically able to store hexadecimal as opposed to binary; it stores a BYTE as a group of EIGHT BITS no matter what. So even if the hardware is designed to move 64 bits at a time, grouping the bits into nibbles of four bits is how we interpret the bit pattern in hexadecimal.
Another Answer <<< Truth!
Instruction Register is where the instruction bit pattern is loaded for execution. Instruction Decoder is all the hardware logic that is cascade triggered by the instruction bit pattern during execution.
Here are the most common engine configurations as summarized in Timberwoof's Motorcycle FAQ.
In addition to the comprehensive answer above, additional flat twins (boxers) were made by the Chinese, the Russians ( BMW copies) as well as Zundapp, and one by the Japanese. Thumpers come in varying configurations- depending on the angle of the cylinder which can be nearly flat as with Aermacchi 350 and Moto Guzzi Falcone, and at an angle of around 45 degrees in Panther and BSA Sloper. Of course most other single cylinder 4-strokes vary from upright to a few degrees off vertical, such as the approx. 24 degrees of the Vincent Comet. Two-strokes have come in some weird configurations, Honda made a V3 for a few years (two cylinders nearly flat in front, one nearly vertical, like a Ducati, with three carburettors in the "V"). Also, some "inline twins" (more commonly known as parallel twins) have the cylinders "fore and aft" i.e. longitudinal, like the Sunbeam.
An interrupt is a signal (hardware) or condition (software) that causes the executing program to stop, save its state, and do a function call to service the signal or condition. Once the servicing is complete, the service routine does a return from interrupt sequence, effectively a return from function call, that allows the processor to continue doing what it was doing before the interrupt.
In the 8085, the hardware interrupts are TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5, and INTR. The software interrupts are RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, and RST7.
The way an operand is specified is known as its addressing modes.
Sorting is not a microprocessor specific thing. Sorting requires a program and, as such, is not dependent on which microprocessor is involved.
A data should be either WRITTEN to a memory or should be READ from a memory (both direction)and so the data bus is bidirectional.
It's possible in 2 ways:
1. Just open your company data in Tally 9.0, and you will see a message that says "Rewrite Version?".
Then, press the "Y" or "Enter" button.
Your data will then be transferred from 7.2 to 9.0.
2: Just open Tally 9.0 and press Alt+Clt+R (It's an option for rewriting the company).
Then, locate your 7.2 data destination and press "Enter".
The correct way of transfering data from 7.2 to ERP9.0 is using the Tally Data Migration Tool using which you can transfer data from 7.2 to Tally 9 this tool is available in your Tally installation directory called as TallyDataMigration.exe just take backup from 7.2 & then restore it using the tool & then ask the tool to migrate the data all your data would then start migrating from 7.2 to 9
There are 16 address lines (8 shared by the data bus), and 8 data lines in the 8085.
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