The kidneys serve many purposes. They regulate electrolytes, blood pressure, and acid levels. They also help to filter the blood.

2,616 Questions

Are kidneys symmetrical?

They are symmetrical in terms of the shape however the right kidney is a little smaller as it shares space with the liver, which also pushes it lower down than the left kidney

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Could you live without both kidneys?

They could keep you alive artificially but you would be on dialisis constantly. If you were to not stay on your dialisis, then you would die.

Medical Terminology

What is suppuration of the kidney?

the formation and discharge of pus by the kidney (s)

suppuratio renalis (renal suppuration)


What are the parts of the kidney?

The outer, reddish region, next to the capsule, is the renal cortex. This surrounds a darker reddish-brown region called the renal medulla. The renal medulla consists of a series of renal pyramids, which appear striated because they contain straight tubular structures and blood vessels. The wide bases of the pyramids are adjacent to the cortex and the pointed ends, called renal papillae, are directed toward the center of the kidney. Portions of the renal cortex extend into the spaces between adjacent pyramids to form renal columns. The cortex and medulla make up the parenchyma, or functional tissue, of the kidney. The central region of the kidney contains the renal pelvis, which is located in the renal sinus and is continuous with the ureter. The renal pelvis is a large cavity that collects the urine as it is produced. The periphery of the renal pelvis is interrupted by cuplike projections called calyces. A minor calyx surrounds the renal papillae of each pyramid and collects urine from that pyramid. Several minor calyces converge to form a major calyx. From the major calyces the urine flows into the renal pelvis and from there into the ureter.

Each kidney contains over a million functional units, called nephrons, in the parenchyma (cortex and medulla). The nephrons make up the bulk of the kidney tissue and join up with larger collecting tubes that eventually form the main urine-carrying duct - the ureter Each kidney has an indentation, called the hilum, on the medial side. The hilum leads to a large cavity, called the renal sinus, within the kidney. The ureter and renal vein leave the kidney, and the renal artery enters the kidney at the hilum.

Malphigian body can be further divided into glomerulus and bowman's capsule,whereas renal tubules can be divided into proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubule.

Dieting and Weight Loss
Green Living

Is lemon water good for you?

Lemon Water is Good for You! Who Knew?

The following is another interesting item I received from cyberspace. I had no idea there were any significant health benefits in lemons. Go figure!

Health Benefits of Lemon Water

Lemon water is rich in several essential nutrients. It is known to have antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-aging, anti-fatigue and anti-inflammatory properties. It boosts immune system, improves digestion and maintains overall health. It can be used to treat various health conditions and prevent infections. Traditional Chinese medicine suggest that you begin your day with refreshing lemon water.

  • Lemon water is the best source of vitamin C and antioxidants. It removes harmful, free radicals from the body and improves immune systems. Lemon water also acts as a blood purifier.
  • Lemon water is used to prevent and treat different infections as well as to control allergies. Due to its antiseptic properties, it is effective in healing wounds. Lemon water is helpful in relieving symptoms of sore throat, tonsillitis or asthma.
  • Lemon water plays an important role in maintaining digestive health. It boosts metabolism and improves functioning of digestive systems and prevents various digestive problems like constipation, indigestion, nausea, heartburn and parasites. It also helps dissolve gallstones.
  • Lemon water is effective in body cleansing and detoxification. It maintains good health by eliminating harmful toxins from the body.
  • Another important benefit of lemon water is that it strengthens liver functioning and stimulates it to produce more enzymes essential for different body processes. A well-functioning liver is the key to a healthy body.
  • Since lemon water has a diuretic effect, it is beneficial for people with urinary tract infections.
  • Lemon water is helpful in treating arthritis and rheumatism.
  • Daily consumption of warm lemon water is one of the effective remedies to get rid of obesity and belly fat.
  • Lemon water is one of the most effective regimens for skin and hair care. Daily consumption of lemon water can make a huge difference in the appearance of your skin. It rejuvenates the skin and gives a clear, radiant, glowing complexion. Lemon juice is one of the best home remedies for acne control. It can also be used to treat various skin diseases like eczema. Application of lemon juice on the skin is effective in preventing sunburn. If you apply lemon water to your hair for a few minutes and then rinse with water, it will make your hair clean and shiny.
  • Lemon juice externally applied on the nostrils can help stop nosebleeds and when massaged onto the gums control bleeding gums . Lemon juice combined with glycerin is effective to heal chapped lips.
Conditions and Diseases
Urinary System

How many kidneys do you have?

We have 2 kidneys as some people are born with 1 kidney for example. But you can survive with only one.
We have two kidneys. We can live with just one. The fact that we have two shows how important a kidney is. We can donate one to another person without sacrificing our health as long as the surgery goes well.

Urinary System

What connects the kidney and the bladder?

The kidneys are connected to the bladder by the ureters. These are small muscular tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. They connect to the kidney at the hilus.

In contrast, the urethra is the tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body.


What would happen to your kidney if any of its parts were injured or diseased?

If part of the kidney were injured or diseased, metabolites will accumulate. There will be a lessening of the creation of erythropoietin, which is needed to force the long bones to create red blood cells, necessitating the intake of epoetin alfa (Epogen, for example) to artificially stimulate red blood cell generation along with iron supplementation. This damage may also restrict the elimination of urine, causing the organism to start "poisoning" itself. In humans (and some animals), this necessitates the need for dialysis.

Conditions and Diseases

Can hyperglycemia lead to kidney failure?

Yes because of its ability to cause low blood pressure


Actually low blood pressure has nothing to do with it. High blood sugar damages the network of fine blood vessels found in the kidneys . It also causes the body to eliminate excess sugar through

urine, so the kidneys can become fatigued. Long periods of high blood sugar can lead to kidney damage that in turn may cause high blood pressure.

Urinary System

You have hyaline casts in your urine what does that mean?

Hyaline casts are not specific to kidney pathology and are often found in urinalysis post-exercise. However, in the presence of other signs and symptoms, they may be a clue that something is wrong with the kidney.


What is the name of the outer region of the kidney?

The renal cortex is the outermost region of the kidney.


What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

The symptoms of Kidney failure are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and fatigue, problems sleeping, decreased mental state, muscle cramps, high blood pressure and shortness of breath.
Symptoms of kidney failure include little or no urine when urinating, swelling in extremities, and pain the back located right under the ribcage.


Are edamame beans good for you?

Edamame packs a powerful punch when it comes to nutritional content. It is high in phytoestrogens, a natural plant estrogen. A 100 gram serving (1/3 ounce or about 35 pods) of the beans only, not the pods, has 125 calories pack with 12 grams of protein, 13 grams of carbohydrates, and only 3.5 grams of fat. It is rich in calcium, and phosphorus and is a good source of vitamin A. You can also purchase from your grocery store lightly salted dry roasted edamame soybeans that are gluten free, cholesterol free and MSG free. They also are packed with Vitamin C, Calcium and Iron. A 1/4 cup serving (or 30g) serving contains 130 calories, 4 grams of fat, no saturated or trans fats, 230 mg of sodium (they are salted), 9 grams of Carbohydrates, 7 grams of dietary fiber and 13 grams of protein. So, they are high in protein and low in Net Carbs (which are your total carbs minus your dietary fiber=2grams net carbs), so they make a great snack fo people watching their carb intake and they appeal to those looking for a high protein snack. Hope this helped people looking for a yummy snack that's very healthy for you too!

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Urinary System

What is the most hyper osmotic portion of the kidney-specifically?

the ascending loop of henle

Urinary System

How long does it take for your bladder to fill?

The process works like this: First, the water has to be absorbed into your bloodstream from your stomach and intestines (which can absorb about 1/4 Liter about every 15 minutes). Then, assuming you were already at optimal hydration levels, your kidneys would notice that there's more blood coming to them (because of the greater volume of fluid in the blood). Your kidneys are always producing some urine because they need to get rid of wastes from your blood, but when they notice the extra blood volume they will decide to get rid of the extra water at the same time. That means they'll produce more dilute urine, so a greater volume of liquid (urine) would go to your bladder. Depending on the size of your bladder and how reactive it is, eventually the increasing amounts of urine being stored there will trigger a need to urinate.

So if you were already dehydrated (whether from exercise or from not having anything to drink for a while or whatever), your kidneys won't ramp up urine volume production because they'll just think "oh good, there's finally enough fluid in the blood again." Or if you ate a ton of salty food, the kidneys might say "we should keep some of this water around, to help dilute all the salt!" In those cases it could take longer before you have to pee.

If you drink sips all day long, your blood volume won't go up enough to make your kidneys take notice. Rather than all those sips building up in your blood to noticeable levels, you'll lose most of the extra fluid by breathing and sweating. But of course you'll still have to pee eventually, because your body has to get rid of more than just water through the urine. In fact, 500mL is about the least amount you can pee each day and still get rid of those other waste products from your blood.

On the other hand, if you happen to have a particularly small or reactive bladder, it might make you feel like you have to pee when there is less urine in there compared to somebody else. So maybe you'd sense the need to urinate when only 250 mL of urine has been made, compared to someone who could wait until 350 mL of urine shows up before getting uncomfortable. Or maybe you just drank a huge amount of water and are wearing too-tight pants, in which case the sense of pressure in your abdomen might lead you to feel the urge to pee sooner, even though most of the water hasn't hit your bloodstream yet. That's a lot like if you're pregnant, and the baby is squishing your bladder so much that you have to pee all the time.


Where are the kidneys?

They are located in back of the abdominal cavity (and technically outside of it). From the back they are about half way down, just under the ribs, and just under the layers of muscle on either side of the spine.

The kidneys are behind the bottom ribs in the back. The lower half of each kidney is unprotected by the ribs.

The ribs are on either side of the spine (in the back), between the intestines in the front and the muscles of the lower back. The bottoms of the kidneys are above the level of the navel. (The right kidney is often slightly lower than the left kidney.)


What are the glomeruli?

The filtering units located in the nephrons of the kidneys


How is urine formed?

Urine is formed from many things. Waste byproducts from normal metabolism, electrolytes, glucose, acid, and water. The amount of these products excreted are regulated in the loop of henle and by glomerular filtration.The nephron makes urine by filtering the blood of its small molecules and ions and then reclaiming the needed amounts of useful materials.Surplus or waste molecules and ions are left to flow out as urine

Ammonia is converted to urea (mostly in the liver). Urea is segregated by the kidneys..


What is the function of the renal cortex?

The renal cortex is the part of the kidneys which mostly consists of nephrons and blood vessels. Its function is to filter blood and to remove the waste products inside the body. Nephrons are the basic functional units of the kidneys. Each healthy human kidney normally has one million or more of these important structures. In each nephron there is a glomerulos and a renal tubule that is divided into sections. The renal tubule is a long tube that winds through both the renal cortex and the renal medulla which has multiple triangle-shaped structures in the kidney.
for ultrafiltration

the most important functon of the renal cortex is production of erythropoietin by tubular cells.


What is the function of the tubules found in the kidney?

Blood entering the kidney is filtered of cells and large proteins . The filtrate enters the tubules and an exchange of ions (sodium, potassium, calcium) takes place and water is retained (which concentrates the urine). The tubules act in part as a counter-current exchange system to remove hydrogen ions from the body.
connects your kidney to your bladder


What are the regions of the kidney?

cortex, medulla, and pelvis.
The substance, or parenchyma, of the kidney is divided into two major structures: superficial is the renal cortex and deep is the renal medulla.
cortex and medulla
Cortex, medulla, and pelvis.


What is an echogenic kidney?

A kidney that is visible by sonography

Conditions and Diseases
Urinary System

Is there a cure for cysts in the kidneys?

I had a scan for other things that showed cyts in the kidneys and I was told they are very common with aging and usually of no consequence.


What is the kidneys man kidneys joke?

A man was in a line of patients trying to get his release from a mental institution. He watched as the others went in to meet with the doctor and heard the questions the doctor asked, which were: "point to your right arm", "point to your stomach", point to your toes", point to your knee," and so on. He saw which answers were correct, and which answers were wrong.

When it was his turn, he sat down with the doctor and answered all the questions the correctly. The doctor was amazed, because he knew this patient and his problems. The doctor asked: "how were you able to answer all those answers correctly?"

The patient pointed to his head and replied: "Kidneys, man! Kidneys!"


What is the difference between the renal tubule and the renal corpuscle?

The renal corpuscle is composed of the Bowman's capsule and the glomerulus, the site of filtration. The renal tubule is composed of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal tubule. This is where reabsorption and secretion takes place as the filtrate is converted into urine.


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