A real-time operating system is intended for systems that need to tightly control responsiveness and performance. With an RTOS you can prioritize operations such that the most critical areas of the application get control of the processor exactly when they need it. All other lower priority operations are paused. An RTOS also gives you all of the other advantages of an OS: * a consistent coding platform * a rich set of APIs to save coding time and errors * processor housekeeping functions * hardware abstraction
RTOS stands for real-time operating system, versus the general-computing operating system (OS). The key difference between general-computing operating systems and real-time operating systems is the need for " deterministic " timing behavior in the real-time operating systems. Formally, "deterministic" timing means that operating system services consume only known and expected amounts of time. In theory, these service times could be expressed as mathematical formulas. These formulas must be strictly algebraic and not include any random timing components. Random elements in service times could cause random delays in application software and could then make the application randomly miss real-time deadlines – a scenario clearly unacceptable for a real-time embedded system. Many non-real-time operating systems also provide similar kernel services. General-computing non-real-time operating systems are often quite non-deterministic. Their services can inject random delays into application software and thus cause slow responsiveness of an application at unexpected times. If you ask the developer of a non-real-time operating system for the algebraic formula describing the timing behavior of one of its services (such as sending a message from task to task), you will invariably not get an algebraic formula. Instead the developer of the non-real-time operating system (such as Windows, Unix or Linux) will just give you a puzzled look. Deterministic timing behavior was simply not a design goal for these general-computing operating systems. On the other hand, real-time operating systems often go a step beyond basic determinism. For most kernel services, these operating systems offer constant load-independent timing: In other words, the algebraic formula is as simple as: T(message_send) = constant , irrespective of the length of the message to be sent, or other factors such as the numbers of tasks and queues and messages being managed by the RTOS. Many RTOS proponents argue that a real-time operating system must not use virtual memory concepts, because paging mechanics prevent a deterministic response. While this is a frequently supported argument, it should be noted that the term "real-time operating system" and determinism in this context covers a very wide meaning, and vendors of many different operating systems apply these terms with varied meaning. When selecting an operating system for a specific task, the real-time attribute alone is an insufficient criterion, therefore. Deterministic behavior and deterministic latencies have value only if the response lies within the boundaries of the physics of the process that is to be controlled. For example, controlling a combustion engine in a racing car has different real-time requirements to the problem of filling a 1,000,000 litre water tank through a 2" pipe. Real-time operating systems are often uses in embedded solutions, that is, computing platforms that are within another device. Examples for embedded systems include combustion engine controllers or washing machine controllers and many others. Desktop PC and other general-purpose computers are not embedded systems. While real-time operating systems are typically designed for and used with embedded systems, the two aspects are essentially distinct, and have different requirements. A real-time operating system for embedded system addresses both sets of requirements.
Every web server has a unique address so that other computers connected to the internet know where to find it on the vast network. The IP (Internet Protocol) address looks something like this: xx.xx.xxx.116. This address maps to a more human friendly address.
Web hosts rent out space on their web servers to people or businesses to set up their own websites. The web server allocates a unique website address to each website it hosts.
When you connect to the internet, your personal computer also receives a unique IP address assigned by your ISP (internet service provider). This address identifies your computer's location on the network. When you click on a link to visit a website, your browser sends out a request to that IP address. This request includes return information and functions like a postal letter sent across town, but in this case the information is transferred across a network. The communiquÃ© passes through several computers on the way, each routing it closer to its ultimate destination.
When your request reaches its destination, the web server that hosts said website sends the page in HTML code to your IP address. This return communique travels back through the network. Your computer receives the code and your browser interprets the HTML code then displays the page for you in graphic form.
The more powerful the server, the faster it can serve up website pages. Slower, smaller servers may result in frustrating lag time for viewers. High traffic can also slow servers that are not powerful enough to handle high volumes of data exchange. This lag time should be a concern if you are shopping for a web host. Most web hosts have a page dedicated to sharing technical information about their web server, including speed, capacity, network configuration and other details.
In theory, web servers stay connected to the Internet 24/7, 365 days a year. In truth they experience occasional downtime due to maintenance and technical problems. Web servers with consistent records of an uptime of 99.5% or better are considered reliable.
A computer that manages Web site services, such as supplying a Web page to multiple users on demand. ^^mukx
Add the RRAS computer to the appropriate group:
1. Log on to your computer with an account that has administrator privileges on the Windows 2000 domain.
2. Launch the Active Directory Users and Computers MMC snap-in, and then double-click the domain name.
3. Double-click the Users folder, and then double-click the RAS and IAS Servers security group.
4. Select the members tab.
5. Add the RRAS server to this group.
If the organization has more than one domain in the forest, and users from the different domains are trying to log on to the RRAS server, continue to follow steps 1 through 5 until the RRAS server is in the "RAS and IAS Servers" security group for each respective domain.
Use the Netsh.exe Utility
The Netsh.exe methods can only be used if the RRAS server is Windows 2000-based.
Use either of the following methods with the Netsh.exe tool:
Log on the RRAS computer using an account that has domain administrator privileges, type netsh ras add registered server at a command prompt, and then press ENTER.
To run a command with administrator privileges without being logged in as an administrator:
1. At a command prompt on the RRAS computer, type runas /user:domain name\administrator name "cmd", where domain name is the appropriate domain name, and administrator name is the appropriate administrator name. You are then prompted to enter a password for this account. If this computer is able to connect to the domain controller and verify the credentials, a command prompt opens with the following information in the title bar:
cmd (running as domain name\administrator name)
2. At a command prompt, type netsh ras add registeredserver at a command prompt, and then press ENTER.
Internet Information Services is used to make your computer a web server. If we want to have a web server for developing dynamic website or want to publish website on our own server then we install the IIS. IIS is used on windows plate form
IIS takes request from user and executes the required files and sends result back to the user. IIS server also provides the services of SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol). We can send emails using SMTP. FrontPage server extensions are also the part of IIS. Using FrontPage server extension we can use the dynamic features of IIS like form handler, Hit counter and etc.
The most popular web server on the Internet is the Apacheweb server. The Apache web server is available from The Apache Software Foundation at
To view hosting information on Apache and IIS, please visit
and scan the page for the Web Server Survey.
You need equipment a scanner, copier/scanner/printer, etc. to scan your doc. The software will ask you where you want to store it on your computer. Then go to e-mail program and click on new mail. After you fill out "to:", "regarding" etc. find the tab for "attachment". That tab will allow you to search your computer for doc you want to attach and send. Then send!
use program RiDoc (a4scandoc.com/en)
The are called A, B, C, ...
These are the highest level of the DNS hierarchy. Ultimately, any DNS requests that can't be solved at a lower level (through the use of a cache) is traced back to those 13 root servers.
There isn't a news (NNTP) server.
Here are answers and opinions from FAQ Farmers: * Sounds like one of the application's DLL files has a bad or missing registry link. * Here is the offical word from Microsoft, not sure if you are accessing the apps it mentions in the KB solution, but it hits your error message right on the mark. http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;268610 * I had this problem with Everquest2 and Windows media player....I uninstalled Netlimiter and it was fixed: http://computersandjunk.com/Guides-and-Tutorials/Computer-Maintenance/Application-Memory-Error.html
yes, one can configure two dhcp server on a same network. But for doing this, one has to define different scopes in both dhcp server in order to avoid ip address conflict. Eg. one can configure a scope for a lan with network address of 10.0.0.0 as- 10.0.0.10- 10.0.0.100 in one dhcp server.
while other scope would be 10.0.0.101-10.0.0.200 . In this way we can have to dhcp servers on a same network. Which ever dhcp server receives the request for the ip address will provide the ip address.
IN case for servers, one can use mac bindingin both servers so that they obtain same ip address
According to Microsoft:
How to use automatic TCP/IP addressing without a DHCP server
"A Windows-based computer that is configured to use DHCP can automatically assign itself an Internet Protocol (IP) address if a DHCP server is not available. For example, this could occur on a network without a DHCP server, or on a network if a DHCP server is temporarily down for maintenance."
For more information, see Related Links, below.
When you install Active Directory on a server, you promote the server to the role of a domain controller for a specified domain. When completing this process, you are prompted to specify a DNS domain name for the Active Directory domain for which you are joining and promoting the server.
If during this process, a DNS server authoritative for the domain that you specified either cannot be located on the network or does not support the DNS dynamic update protocol, you are prompted with the option to install a DNS server. This option is provided because a DNS server is required to locate this server or other domain controllers for members of an Active Directory domain.
Once you have installed Active Directory, you have two options for storing and replicating your zones when operating the DNS server at the new domain controller:
* Standard zone storage, using a text-based file.
Zones stored this way are located in .Dns files that are stored in the systemroot\System32\Dns folder on each computer operating a DNS server. Zone file names correspond to the name you choose for the zone when creating it, such as abc.com.dns if the zone name was "abc.com."
* Directory-integrated zone storage, using the Active Directory database.
Zones stored this way are located in the Active Directory tree under the domain or application directory partition. Each directory-integrated zone is stored in a dnsZone container object identified by the name you choose for the zone when creating it.
Benefits of Active Directory integration
For networks deploying DNS to support Active Directory, directory-integrated primary zones are strongly recommended and provide the following benefits:
* Multimaster update and enhanced security based on the capabilities of Active Directory.
In a standard zone storage model, DNS updates are conducted based upon a single-master update model. In this model, a single authoritative DNS server for a zone is designated as the primary source for the zone.
This server maintains the master copy of the zone in a local file. With this model, the primary server for the zone represents a single fixed point of failure. If this server is not available, update requests from DNS clients are not processed for the zone.
With directory-integrated storage, dynamic updates to DNS are conducted based upon a multimaster update model.
In this model, any authoritative DNS server, such as a domain controller running a DNS server, is designated as a primary source for the zone. Because the master copy of the zone is maintained in the Active Directory database, which is fully replicated to all domain controllers, the zone can be updated by the DNS servers operating at any domain controller for the domain.
With the multimaster update model of Active Directory, any of the primary servers for the directory-integrated zone can process requests from DNS clients to update the zone as long as a domain controller is available and reachable on the network.
Also, when using directory-integrated zones, you can use access control list (ACL) editing to secure a dnsZone object container in the directory tree. This feature provides granulated access to either the zone or a specified RR in the zone.
For example, an ACL for a zone RR can be restricted so that dynamic updates are only allowed for a specified client computer or a secure group such as a domain administrators group. This security feature is not available with standard primary zones.
Note that when you change the zone type to be directory-integrated, the default for updating the zone changes to allow only secure updates. Also, while you may use ACLs on DNS-related Active Directory objects, ACLs may only be applied to the DNS client service.
* Zones are replicated and synchronized to new domain controllers automatically whenever a new one is added to an Active Directory domain.
Although DNS service can be selectively removed from a domain controller, directory-integrated zones are already stored at each domain controller, so zone storage and management is not an additional resource. Also, the methods used to synchronize directory-stored information offer performance improvement over standard zone update methods, which can potentially require transfer of the entire zone.
* By integrating storage of your DNS zone databases in Active Directory, you can streamline database replication planning for your network.
When your DNS namespace and Active Directory domains are stored and replicated separately, you need to plan and potentially administer each separately. For example, when using standard DNS zone storage and Active Directory together, you would need to design, implement, test, and maintain two different database replication topologies. For example, one replication topology is needed for replicating directory data between domain controllers, and another topology would be needed for replicating zone databases between DNS servers.
This can create additional administrative complexity for planning and designing your network and allowing for its eventual growth. By integrating DNS storage, you unify storage management and replication issues for both DNS and Active Directory, merging and viewing them together as a single administrative entity.
* Directory replication is faster and more efficient than standard DNS replication.
Because Active Directory replication processing is performed on a per-property basis, only relevant changes are propagated. This allows less data to be used and submitted in updates for directory-stored zones.
The main group type found in active directory is the security group.
The primary active agent identified to date is 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol, known as THC.
You wont be able to access the network resources/login properly to your account.
I know the ans but i am not going to tell you guyz.
Note: Windows Server 2003 was released as an upgrade to Windows 2000 Server. Additional features in Windows Server 2003 include. windows 2003 server support remote desktop feature but in 2000 remote desktop feature was not supported.
Window 2003 server includes IIS server in it. That is the biggest advantage on top of better file system management.
you can change the domain name at any time with help of ntdsutil command, without rebuilding the domain that is not possible in 2000.
1: Windows 2000 server give only 90 days trial version of Terminal server. but windows server 2003 give 120 days trial version.
2: Windows server 2003 shared folder at a time only 65767 user access.
1) In Win 2000 server we can apply 620 group policies but in 2003 we can apply nearly 720 so Win2003 server is more secure than win 2000 server.
2) In 2000 we cannot rename domain whereas in 2003 we can rename Domain.
3) In 2000 it supports of 8 processors and 64 GB RAM (In 2000 Advance Server) whereas in 2003 supports up to 64 processors and max of 512GB RAM.
4) 2000 Supports IIS 5.0 and 2003 Supports IIS6.0
5) 2000 doesn't support Dot net whereas 2003 Supports Microsoft .NET 2.0
6) 2000 has Server and Advance Server editions whereas 2003 has Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter and Web server Editions.
7) 2000 doesn't have any 64 bit server operating system whereas 2003 has 64 bit server operating systems (Windows Server 2003 X64 Std and Enterprise Edition)
8) 2000 has basic concept of DFS (Distributed File systems) with defined roots whereas 2003 has Enhanced DFS support with multiple roots.
9) In 2000 there is complexality in administering Complex networks whereas 2003 is easy administration in all & Complex networks.
10) In 2000 we can create 1 million users and in 2003 we can create 1 billion users.
11) In 2000,there is no shadow copy whereas 2003 shado copy is there.
12)In 2000,we can't rename domain name whereas we can change it.
In 2003 we have concept of Volume shadow copy service which is used to create hard disk snap shot which is used in Disaster recovery and 2000 doesn't have this service.
Many more to tell
for more info
DNS is the domain name system for short .DNS is a system that maps a name to an address . Ip address for Gmail.com is 184.108.40.206 .
A computer network can be segmented physically but also logically. A collision domain is one of the logical network segments in which the data packets can collide to each other. One of the most common protocols used when referring to a collision domain is the Ethernet protocol. Collision domains are often referred as 'Ethernet segments'.
The term of 'collision domain' is also used when describing the circumstances in which a single network device sends packets throughout a network segment and forces every other device in that network segment to pay attention to those packets.
Depends on what you mean by "quote out" ?
At the command prompt type the following: net user username /add /random /passwordchg:yes. The /random switch will randomly generate a password for the user. The / passwordchg:yes switch will allow the user to change the password.
You can add this new user to a group by using the net localgroup command e.g net localgroup "administrators" username /add
Try the steps as mentioned in:
When you "do" a Ctrl+Alt+Del, the task manager comes up. Here are listed all the programs you are running at present. You will also find these on the taskbar (the "start" bar, or "quick launch" bar). In this window you may close them (one at a time) until you have eliminated the program that is causing the problem (usually a "lockup" or "freeze"). You can also do this from the taskbar. If this doesn't help, it will probably be necessary to reboot. I have found that most time when my machine locks up it is because I have lost my connection. For more information on how computers work, visit answerpool.com and click on "Computers." The experts there can help you with any computer question.Answerthere you can just se filenames, and nut program names .. for example if you're running ms office word, you'll see msword.exe or sth similar. try using the find option in win. explorer (or start --> find) and search for the filename you see in the task manager (try searching your whole computer, nut just the folder you're in) AnswerTry typing the file names into a search engine. AnswerGo to www.answersthatwork.com and check out their task list. AnswerGo to http://www.reger24.de AnswerUse a free program called Process Explorer. You can download it here
You could also use System Mechanic to check what those precesses do.
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