Windows Server 2003

Also known as the Win2K3, Windows Server 2003 is a server OS (operating system) from the American software company Microsoft. This OS has the capability to share printers and files, provide email services, authenticate users, and host message queues.

500 Questions

Dose Windows Vista Home Premium have microsost word?

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Asked by Wiki User

No, it does not. Microsoft Office is a separate product and you have to pay for it too.

Where can one download a Windows Server Software?

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Asked by Wiki User

Windows has offered many versions of its server software. The newest version, Windows Server 2012 is available on the Microsoft website's download page.

Windows 2003 server is the latest version of operating system in windows?

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Asked by Wiki User

Windows 7 is the latest Windows Operating System

Can you upgrade XP Home Edition to Server 2003?

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Asked by Wiki User

There is no windows 2000 home. You can upgrade from windows 2000 to windows xp home.

What did Checkpoint Security Group Inc. earn in 2001?

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Asked by Wiki User

Checkpoint Security Group Inc. had 200 employees in 2001

How do you join a domain?

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Asked by Wiki User

The System applet in the control panel will allow you to join a system to a domain.


right click my computer-> properties->computername->click change

it will ask the domain administrator username pwd

enter it

will get prompt to restart the computer.

voila you are joined to domain..

Can DNS and DHCP both be on one server?

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Asked by Wiki User

Absolutely. If you are running a Windows server, configure the DNS and DHCP Server settings in [Start] [Administrator Programs]. If you have a *nix server, configure the named and dhcpd daemons.

In either case, if you are running a single-server scenario, there are many advantages to running both DHCP and DNS on the same box. For example, if your local domain is set to something like "example.local", your PCs in the network would have names like accounting.example.local, server.example.local, and so on. By having both services configured together, you will be able to address your local network by the computer name ("accounting" or "ScottsDesktop", etc), without the "example.local".

If you are running Small Business Server, I think you *must* use both DNS and DHCP on that server, integrated into Active Directory.

What is Dora process in DHCP and how it works?

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Asked by Wiki User

1) Client makes a UDP Broadcast to the server with a DHCPDiscover, or Discover packet.

2) DHCP offers to the client.

The server sends a DHCPOffer including other configuration parameters (DHCP Options) for the client per the servers configuration file

3) In response to the offer Client requests the server.

The client replies DHCPRequest, unicast to the server, requesting the offered address.

4)The server sends DHCPAck acknowledging the request which is the clients final permission to take the address as offered. Before sending the ack the server double checks that the offered address is still available, that the parameters match the clients request and (if so) marks the address taken.

A good reference for DHCP information is Droms and Lemon "The DHCP Handbook". BoydK

What is the centralized directory database in the domain model SAM?

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Asked by Wiki User

the centralized directory database in the domain model

is NTDS.DIT(directory information tree)

but for the local sstem not connected to domain is SAM

What type of FSMO role can be transfered from one domain controller to another using the active directory domain and trust mmc snap-in?

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Asked by Wiki User

FSMO Role Loss implications

Schema The schema cannot be extended. However, in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time.

Domain Naming Unless you are going to run DCPROMO, then you will not miss this FSMO role.

RID Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time, unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week.

PDC Emulator Will be missed soon. NT 4.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate, there will be no time synchronization in the domain, you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem.

Infrastructure Group memberships may be incomplete. If you only have one domain, then there will be no impact.

FSMO seizing restrictions:

FSMO Role Restrictions

Original must be reinstalled


Domain Naming

Can transfer back to original


PDC Emulator


steps to seize and transfer

1. On any domain controller, click Start, click Run, type Ntdsutil in the Open box, and then click OK.



1. Type roles, and then press ENTER.

ntdsutil: roles

fsmo maintenance:

Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool, type ?, and then press ENTER.

1. Type connections, and then press ENTER.

fsmo maintenance: connections

server connections:

1. Type connect to server <servername>, where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use, and then press ENTER.

server connections: connect to server server100

Binding to server100 ...

Connected to server100 using credentials of locally logged on user.

server connections:

1. At the server connections: prompt, type q, and then press ENTER again.

server connections: q

fsmo maintenance:

1. Type seize <role>, where <role> is the role you want to seize. For example, to seize the RID Master role, you would type seize rid master:

Options are:

Seize domain naming master

Seize infrastructure master

Seize PDC

Seize RID master

Seize schema master

1. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize. Click on Yes.

fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master

Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure.

ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable).

Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300, problem 5002 (UNAVAILABLE)

, data 1722

Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed. The current FSMO holde

r could not be contacted.)


Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection,

ldap, or role transfer error.

Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed, proceeding with seizure ...

Server "server100" knows about 5 roles

Schema - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER200,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net

Domain - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net

PDC - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net

RID - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER200,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net

Infrastructure - CN=NTDS Settings,CN=SERVER100,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configuration,DC=dpetri,DC=net

fsmo maintenance:

Note: All five roles need to be in the forest. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles. Determine which roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server.

1. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles.

2. After you seize or transfer the roles, type q, and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil tool.

Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controller as the Global Catalog server. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This is because a GC server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest

Which of the following is considered a group type?

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Asked by Wiki User

security distribution

The group that assigns and controls top-level domains?

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Asked by Wiki User

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

What are the advantages of manual testing?

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Asked by Wiki User

Advantages of Manual Testing

1. Manual Testing is eyeball testing

2. Applications with short life cycles.

3. Applications that have GUIs that constantly changes

4. It requires less time and expense to begin productive manual testing.

5. Automation cannot replace human intuition, inference, and inductive reasoning.

6. Automation Testing cannot change course in the middle of a test run to examine something that had not been previously considered.

7. Manual QA testing can be used in both small and big projects.

8. Easily we can update our test case according to project movement.

9. It is covered in limited cost.

10. Easy to learn for new people who are entered into testing.

11. Manual QA Testing is more reliable than automation (in many cases automation will not cover all cases)

What advantages of using IIS as a web server?

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Asked by Wiki User

Internet Information Services is used to make your computer a web server. If we want to have a web server for developing dynamic website or want to publish website on our own server then we install the IIS. IIS is used on windows plate form

IIS takes request from user and executes the required files and sends result back to the user. IIS server also provides the services of SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol). We can send emails using SMTP. FrontPage server extensions are also the part of IIS. Using FrontPage server extension we can use the dynamic features of IIS like form handler, Hit counter and etc.

Additional information:

The most popular web server on the Internet is the Apacheweb server. The Apache web server is available from The Apache Software Foundation at

To view hosting information on Apache and IIS, please visit

and scan the page for the Web Server Survey.

What is replication in active directory and how it is done?

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Asked by Wiki User

the Active Directory database is replicated between domain controllers. The data replicated between controllers called "data" are also called "naming context". Only the changes are replicated, once a domain controller has been established. Active Directory uses a multimaster model which means changes can be made on any controller and the changes are sent to all other controllers. The replication path in Active Directory forms a ring which adds reliability to the replication.

How Replication is Tracked

* USN - Each object has an Update Sequence Number (USN), and if the object is modified, the USN is incremented. This number is different on each domain controller.

* Stamps - Each object has a stamp with the version number, timestamp, and the GUID of the domain controller where the change was made

Domain controllers each contain a "replica" which is a copy of the domain directory. The "directory update type" indicates how the data is replicated. The two types are:

* Origination update - A change made by an administrator at the local domain controller.

* Replicated update - A change made to the replica because of a replication from a replication partner.

Replication Sequence


* Latency - The required time for all updates to be completed throughout all comain controllers on the network domain or forest.

* Convergence - The state at which all domain controllers have the same replica contents of the Active directory database.

* Loose consistency - The state at which all changes to the database are not yet replicated throughout all controllers in the database (not converged).

1. A change is made to the Active Directory database on a domain controller. The attribute of the object and the new USN is written to the database. The entire object is NOT replicated. This is called an atomic operation becuase both changes are done, or neither change is done. This is an origination update. There are four types:

* Add - An object is added to the database.

* Delete - An object is deleted from the database.

* Modify - An object in the database has its attributes modified.

* Modify DN - An object is renamed or moved to another domain.

2. The controller the change was made on (after five minutes of stablilty), notifies its replication partners that a change was made. It sends a change notification to these partners, but only notifies one partner every 30 seconds so it is not overwhelmed with update requests. Each controller, in turn, when it is updated, sends a change notice to its respective replication partners.

3. The replication partners each send an update request with a USN to the domain controller that the change was made on. The USN identifies the current state of the domain controller making the change. Each change has a unique USN. This way the domain controller that has the change knows the state of the domain controller requesting the changes and only the changes are required to be sent. The time on each controller, therefore, does not need to be synchronized exactly although timestamps are used to break ties regarding changes.

4. Changes are made through replication partners until all partners are replicated. At some point, replication partners will attempt to replicate partners that are already updated. This is where propagation dampening is used.

If no changes have been performed in six hours, replication procedures are performed to be sure no information has been missed.

Information sent during an update includes:

* Updated object

* The GUID and USN of the domain server with the originating update.

* A local USN of the update on the updated object.

Replication Path

The replication path that domain controller Active Directory replicated data travels through an enterprise is called the replication topology. Connection objects are used to define the replication paths between domain controllers. Active Directory, by default, sets up a two way ring replication path. The data can travel in both directions around the ring which provides redundancy and reliability. Two types of replication occur in the path:

* Direct replication - When replication is done from a primary source of data.

* Transitive replication - When replication is done from a secondhand or replicated source of data.

The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) (running on all domain controllers) generates the replication topology by specifying what domain controllers will replicate to which other domain controllers in the site. The KCC maintains a list of connections, called a replication topology, to other domain controllers in the site. The KCC ensures that changes to any object are replicated to all site domain controllers and updates go through no more than three connections. Also an administrator can configure connection objects.

The KCC uses information provided by the administrator about sites and subnets to automatically build the Active Directory replication topology.

Propagation Dampening


* Propagation dampening is used to prevent unnecessary replication by preventing updates from being sent to servers that are already updated. Each domain controller keeps a list of other known domain controllers and the last USN received from each controller. Two up-to-date vector numbers support this:

o Replica GUID

o Update Sequence Number (USN) - Mentioned earlier it is incremented anytime an origination or replicated update is received. The USN stored is from the originating server. It is stored as metadata with:

+ An attribute indicating "added" or "changed" for the object being updated.

+ The GUID (above).

+ A local USN for the object attribute changed.

+ The changed data.

The up-to-date vector numbers are incremented when replication occurs with the originating server. Each domain controller has its own different USN (They may not start at the same number). The highest USN from each domain controller that is stored in other domain controllers is called the high watermark for that domain controller.

* Propagation delay describes the amount of time required for a change to be replicated to domain controllers throughout the domain.

* Ring Topology - The Active Directory replication process uses a ring topology where the replication partners form a ring. This adds reliability to the process and also helps decrease propagation delay.

The information sent in an update request includes the high water mark entry for the originating server for the last change received. If the highwater mark received from the server that sent the update request is the same as the highwatermark for the originating server on the server receiving the request, the receiving server will not send the replicated information.

The usnChanged parameter is the highest USN number for any object.

Replication Partitions

Types of Active Directory data storage categories which are called partitions:

* Schema partition - Defines rules for object creation and modification for all objects in the forest. Replicated to all domain controllers in the forest. Replicated to all domain controllers in the forest, it is known as an enterprise partition.

* Configuration partition - Information about the forest directory structure is defined including trees, domains, domain trust relationships, and sites (TCP/IP subnet group). Replicated to all domain controllers in the forest, it is known as an enterprise partition.

* Domain partition - Has complete information about all domain objects (Objects that are part of the domain including OUs, groups, users and others). Replicated only to domain controllers in the same domain.

o Partial domain directory partition - Has a list of all objects in the directory with a partial list of attributes for each object.

These partitions are all replicated between domain controllers by Active directory. Different partitions may be replicated between different replication partners.

Replication Conflict

Replication conflict occurs when changes are made to the same object and attribute before the changes can be replicated throughout all domain controller's copies of the database. Additional data (metadata) stored for each object attribute includes (not related to USN):

* Time stamp of the last change.

* Attribute version number - For each object's attributes, this value is the same on all domain controllers.

When an Active Directory database update is received on a domain controller, one of the following happens:

* If the update attribute version number is higher than the current version number on the controller, the new value of the attribute is stored and the version number is updated.

* If the update attribute version number and stored attribute version number are the same, timestamps are used to resolve the conflict.

* If the both version numbers and both timestamps are the same, the update from the controller with the highest GUID is used.

File Replication Service

In Windows 2000, the SYSVOL share is used to to authenticate users. The SYSVOL share includes group policy information which is replicated to all local domain controllers. File replication service (FRS) is used to replicate the SYSVOL share. The "Active Directory Users and Computers" tool is used to change the file replication service schedule.

Intrasite Replication

Replication that happens between controllers inside one site. All of the subnets inside the site should be connected by high speed network wires. Replication between two sites may need to be sent over a slower WAN link or leased line. Intrasite replication data is sent uncompressed.

Site replication is done using Remote Procedure Call (RPC). If a change is made, replication occurs within five minutes, and replication is done every six hours if no changes were made. Domain controllers that receive updates replicate that information to other domain controllers on their route list. All changes are therefore completed within a site within 15 minutes since there can only be three hops.

The topology used here is the ring topology talked about earlier and this replication is automatically set up by Active Directory, but may be modified by an administrator.

DNS Replication

The DNS IP address and computer name is stored in Active Directory for Active Directory integrated DNS zones and replicated to all local domain controllers. DNS information is not replicated to domain controllers outside the domain.

Intersite Replication

Intrasite replication is replication between sites and must be set up by an administrator.

Replication Management

The administrative tool, "Active Directory Sites and Services", is used to manage Active Directory replication. Replication data is compressed before being sent to minimze bandwidth use. There are two protocols used to replicate AD:

* Normally Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is used to replicate data and is always used for intrasite replication since it is required to support the FRS. RPC depends on IP (internet protocol) for transport.

* Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) may be used for replication between sites.

SMTP can't replicate the domain partition, however. Therefore the remote site would need to be in another domain to be able to effectively use SMTP for carrying replication data.

Bridgehead server - A domain controller that is used to send replication information to one or more other sites.

Flexible Single Master Operations (FSMO) (discussed in an earlier section) can be transferred manually to various domain controllers. Roles and tools used to transfer are:

* Schema Master - Use "Active Directory Domains and Trusts". Makes changes to the database schema. Applications may remotely connect to the schema master.

* Domain Naming Master - Use the MMC "Active Directory Schema Snap-in". Adds or removes domains to or from the forest.

* Primary Domain Controller (PDC) Emulator - Use the "Active Directory Users and Computers" administrative tool. When Active Directory is in mixed mode, the computer Active Directory is on acts as a Windows NT PDC. Mixed mode occurs when Active Directory interfaces with NT 4.0 BDCs or ones without Windows 2000 Directory Service client software. In mixed mode, computers without Windows 2000 client software must contact the PDC emulator to change user account information.

* Relative ID Master (RID Master) - Use the "Active Directory Users and Computers" administrative tool. All objects have a Security Identifier (SID) and a domain SID. The RID assigns relative IDs to each domain controller.

* Infrastructure Master - Use the "Active Directory Users and Computers" administrative tool. Updates group membership information when users from other domains are moved or renamed.

Any master role can be transferred by using the command line program, ntdsutil.exe. When a server performing a master role fails and goes offline, you can perform "seizing master operations" to have another server perform that role. Only the ntdsutil.exe program can perform this function. Commands include:

* connections - A connections prompt appears:

o connect to server "FQDN of server to connect to"

o quit

* sieze "name of role to transfer". Role names are:


o RID master

o schema master

o domain naming master

o infastructure master

Example: "sieze RID master"

Replication Associated Performance Monitor Counters

* DRA Inbound Bytes Not Compressed - Replicated uncompressed bytes that are probably from a Directory Services Agent (another controller sending data) in the same site.

* DRA Inbound Bytes Compressed (Before Compression) - Replicated bytes received (as though in uncompressed form).

* DRA Inbound Bytes Not Compressed (After Compression) - Replicated bytes received (as in compressed form).

* DRA Inbound Bytes Total The sum of the DRA Inbound Bytes Not Compressed plus the DRA Inbound Bytes Not Compressed (After Compression).

* DRA Outbound Bytes Not Compressed - Replicated uncompressed bytes that are being sent to another domain controller in the same site.

Schema Cache

A schema cache which is a copy of the schema in memory can be used to speed up schema queries but should be used sparingly due to the high memory requirements. If the schemaUpdateNow attribute is added to the RootDSE a schema cache update is done immediately. Normally the schema cache is stored in memory when the system boots and updated every five minutes.

How many partitions can be active at any given point in time?

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Asked by Wiki User

Ultimately, it can be limitless, but most hard drives will restrict you to 10. (being 0-9)

There are alternate methods used to create many more, but the more partitions you have, the more long term damage it can do to your hard drive. I wouldn't recommend doing more than 5 on a 500GB.

HOW to look at the Schema in AD how can you do that?

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Asked by Wiki User

Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that Different database servers use different commands to look at a schema. Additionally, the client software that you use has features that make it easier to manipulate database objects.

MS SQL Server


lists all tables in a schema

sp_help [tablename]

displays information for table [tablename]


select table_name from sys.user_tables

list all tables for the current schema

select t.* from sys.user_tab_columns t

list all tables, columns, and data types for the current schema

There are entire websites dedicated to database programming. Windows Active Directory I believe this question is referring to the Active Directory schema, in which case, adsiedit.exe is a good place to start. Please follow this link for more info: option to view the schema register schmmgmt.dll using this command c:\windows\system32>regsvr32 schmmgmt.dll Open mmc --> add snapin --> add Active directory schema name it as schema.msc Open administrative tool --> schema.msc

How do you find a dns server address?

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Asked by Wiki User

AnswerIf you are using a PC, click the start button. Select the run command. Type CMD into the box and press enter. When the black box pops up type the following line in

ipconfig /all

Look through the data to see what your DNS address is.

If you are using a Mac. Go to the System Preferences. Click on the Network Icon Double Click on the Ethernet icon if you have an ethernet cable plugged in (Looks like a wide phone jack) Double Click on the Airport card if you are using wireless internet. The DNS servers will be listed under the TCP/IP Tab.

Can you copy GPOs from one domain to another domain?

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Asked by Shivangg

In fact, the answer is YES!!! With the GPMC, you can most definately accomplish this, and the steps required are, for the most part, relatively straight forward. Microsoft has released a white paper that discusses this very topic which you can download