Caliphates were Middle Eastern community jurisdictions headed by a caliph, the civil and religious leader.

2,341 Questions

What country were the Umayyads unable to conquer?

It depends on what period of history is being discussed. If you are referring to the Umayyad Empire when it was still ruled from Damascus, the largest defeat for them was in Poitiers when the Franks successfully prevented the conquest of the Frankish Lands (now known as France).

If you are referring to the Umayyad Caliphate based out of Córdoba in Al-Andaluz (Southern Spain), The Umayyads were unable to conquer the nascent Christian Kingdoms in the North which included but were not limited to: Leon, Castille, the Basque Territories, and the Catalonian Counties. In addition, the Umayyads were not able to prevent the fragmentation of their territory into the Taifa Kingdoms in 1038.


In 732 who defeated the Umayyads in France?

Charles Martel, in a battle near Poitiers.

Ancient History
War and Military History
History of the Middle East

Who won the battle of Damascus in 634 AD?

The Muslim army under Khalid won the Battle of Damascus. Khalid gained an entry to the city at the east gate, and Thomas then negotiated a surrender with Ubaidah at the southwest gate. There was some disagreement between Khalid and Ubaidah as to whether the city had surrendered or was conquered.

Ancient History

Who was the poet of Umayyad reign?

Jareer was the best, and there is al-Farazdaq also.

International Government

What type of government did the almoravid caliphate have?

A monarchy

Roman Empire

What was an effect trade had on the Abbasid Empire?

widened its influence and markets

Teaching Resources
Colleges and Universities

What is guided media and its types?

guided media is the transmission medium in which data/signal is guided by the cable or wire so used to a specific path. there are 4 types of guided media

--> open wire

-->twisted pair

--> co-axial cable

-->optical fibre

for more details open the link -----


What changes did the Umayyads make during their rule?

1. Establishment of the first naval fleet in the Islamic era of Muawiya

2.Unification of the Islamic country's

3.putting dots in the quran , ex : ش س

4.Open India

5.Instrument of the Islamic Umayyad money

Also, see the link below.

History of the Middle East
Arabic Language and Culture

Why did the Abbasid Caliphate decline and eventually break up?

Answer 1

There were a number of very important reasons that led to the overall demise of the Abbassid Caliphate in terms of physical size. There are very different conditions that lead to the loss of political power in Baghdad and the nearby territories as those events happen over two centuries later.

The reasons that Abbassid territory diminished between 750 to 850 CE, fracturing into the Umayyads (Spain), Idrissids (Morocco), Aghlabids (Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily), and other smaller states.

1) Religious Issues: The Abbassids came to power with the help of the Shiites and Mawali (Non-Arab Moslems like Persians and Amazigh). Even though the Abbassids did increase the rights and station of Mawali, it was never practical nor desirable for the Abbassids to become Shiite. As a result, he alienated much of North Africa, which at this time had a large Shiite and Kharijite population. (The Kharijites would have been alienated anyway as they were a very religious minority.)

2) Distance: There were no effective routes of communication between the Western Edges of the Caliphate and Baghdad. This made local administrators more powerful as they would have to make their own decisions anyway (it would take too long for a messenger to go to Baghdad and return). Many figured that they might as well make the change more permanent.

3) Political Issues: This refers specifically to Umayyad Spain which was the only part of the Umayyad Caliphate that never became Abbassid when Abu Al-Abbas As-Saffah rose against the Umayyads. As a result of the uprising, Amir Abd El-Rahman fled to Spain and set it up as a Caliphate in opposition to the Abbassids.

The reasons for the eventual fall of the Abbassid Caliphate which occurred in 1100-1300 CE are the following.

1) Corruption: The Abbassid Caliphate had become one of the richest and most prosperous states in the world at that time, changing its leadership from honest brokers of power (Amir al-Mu'aminin - Prince of the Believers used to actually mean something) to individuals more concerned with money. This created strong resentment from those who were outside of the Abbassid purview.

2) Mawali Inclusion: The Abbassids were an Arab Caliphate (as opposed to the Samanids who were a Persian Caliphate) and were expected by many Arabs to treat other Arabs better than the Mawali. However, the Abbassids consistently treated Persians equal to or better than their Arab brethren which created animosity and a sense of betrayal. Many Arabs saw the Persians as the major backers of the Caliphate and that they were a tool for Persian interests. It was also perceived that the Persians were first servants to the caliphs but climbed way up the social ladder to a place they did not belong.

3) Turkish Armies: Armies like the Mamluk (who were retained by the Abbassids for the defense of the Caliphate) were Turks who defended an Arab State. Beginning in this period, they began to realize that they had the capacity to create their own states considering how vast their powers were as a military. This idea also came to the fore for Turks outside of the Caliphate. As a result, there were Mamluk uprisings, Seljuq attacks, and other Turkish Armies turning against Baghdad.

4) Rise of the Mongols: Hülegü Khan put the final nail in the coffin by massacring Baghdad and a number of Persian cities when he conquered the territory for the Great Khanate.

Answer 2

Abbasid caliphate eventually crashed because descendents of the first Abbasids could not control politics in different parts of Empire. Lost power of caliphs as inarguable highly estimated leaders resulted in proclaimed independence of regional militia commanders. May be this process was accelerated by spread of faithlessness and disorder, the answer to which was total jihad. Peaceful sharia law was ruined to pieces by overwhelming self-destructive war.

History, Politics & Society
History of Islam

How did umayyads bring new lands into a Muslim empire?

They used their more advanced armies and tactics to suprise and overrun their unprepared and less powerful neighbors


What religious responsibilities did the sultans have in their role as caliphs?

by guiding the flock and maintain Islamic law


What methods did the umayyads use to unify their empire?

the methods that the umayyads used to unify their empire was the common language and the coinage!

Quran (Koran)
Religious Literature
Prophet Muhammad

What are the responsibilities of a caliph?

To rule by Shariaa "Islam law"

Shiite Islam

What was the advantage of moving the Safavid capital city from Tabriz to Esfahan?

Because Esfahan is more centrally located than Tabriz.


What dynasty replaced the Umayyad dynasty?

It depends on which Umayyad Caliphate you are talking about.

The Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus from 660 C.E. to 750 C.E. was overthrown by a coup d'état led by the Abbassid Family. The Abbassids remained in power from 750 C.E. to 1258 C.E. but lost a significant amount of power by the year 1000 C.E.

The Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba from 711 C.E. to 1038 C.E. ended when the final Caliph, Hisham III, died without any successors. The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba splintered into over 30 different minor city-state kingdoms called Taifas.

Ottoman Empire
Shiite Islam

What is difference between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire?

The Ottoman Empire was controlled by Sunni Muslims, while the Safavid Empire was ruled by Shia Muslims.

History of the Middle East

What is the golden age of Islam?

The years 800 A.D to 1100 A.D are considered a great period in the history of islam, also known as the Golden Age of Islam.

During this period , literature flourished, medical and mathematical knowledge increased and scientific inventions were accomplished. Hospitals were established and public libraries were given particular attentions. For example, more than 100 public libraries were founded in Baghdad , and the library of Cairo contained about 1,600,000 volumes.


What changes did Rightly Guided make durIng their rule?

Jihad was invoked in Islam during their rule after the prophet's death, when the Arabian Peninsula abandoned Islam, and when others refused to pay their taxes and few individuals declared themselves the prophet.

It means "striving" and can refer to the inner struggle against evil.


How did the umayyads built a united empire?

The umayyads built a united empire by building a standing army


Who is the first ruler of sokoto caliphate?

Usman Dan Fodio founded the Sokoto Caliphate as in 1809 during the Fulani War. The Sokoto Caliphate was the last independent Nigerian State before the British, French and Germans dismembered it in 1903.

Middle Ages

Jews under Christian rule in Medieval Europe?

catholic rule not christian

History of the Middle East
Ottoman Empire

What were the similarities and differences in the decline of the Abbasid and Ottoman empires?

Abbasids were arabs, the ottomans turks. Both Islamic societies depended on taxes collected by appointees. Nepotism and corruption kept the Caliph/Sultan from effective control of revenues, losing the ablity to fiance their armies.


Why is the abbasid rule know as the age of wealth and culture?

Learning the education in all fields were encourage . Greek and Latin works were translated and medical schools were set up . Maimoon established with 'Bait_ul_Hikmah_House of Wisdom_Baghdad . That's why Abbasid s rule know as Wealth and culture .

History, Politics & Society

How were the Umayyads different from the first four caliphs?

they ruled differently


Why was abu bakr elected the first caliph?

Cause he promised Muslims that he would closely follow Muhammad's example. Shortly after the Prophet's death, some clans on the Arabian peninsula abandoned Islam.


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