First Aid

First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a lay person to a sick or injured casualty until definitive medical treatment can be accessed.

9,431 Questions
First Aid
Death and Dying

Can you revive a dead person?

Yes but not always . Recent developments in in 2013 in America, Japan and Australia have meant that clinically dead people from 1 to 3 hours have been resurrected after cardiac arrest using mechanical CPR combined with ECMO treatment( extracorporeal membrane oxygenation - an artificial lung hat keeps oxygen and blood flowing to the brain and vital organs) . A new machine called "Äuto Pulse" uses a band that wraps around and squuezes the entire chest providing precise and consistent compressions.

Brain death is a different matter. Once someone has no activity in the brain stem or brain they are technically dead .However you can revive the body and keep it alive on a life support system BUT the person is considered dead. Keeping a body alive is occassionally done in order to be able to harvest organs or in unusual circumstances to keep a viable environment for a fetus to allow it to continue to develop until it is ready to be born when the mother has died.

Generally while health care professionals will do their best to revive someone, even then the success rate is low. Typically they'll perform CPR as long as needed or until a doctor call the time of death. But during CPR the brain is still being deprived of oxygen so if the person does survive they often have varying levels of brain damage.

The determination of death has always been a problem. In times prior to the 19th century a "'wake" was conducted for the dead. A wake is a period of lasting from 3 to 14 days so that people could observe the body to see if the victim was really dead rather than comatose. This was more than enough time for decomposition to set in which is absolute proof of death. Once decomposition begins ressurection is impossible.

Early morticians would often perform "tests" on the apparent cadavers, either something painful that might cause a response, or some act that would make sure the subject was truly dead.

In the 1980's the call on death was no EKG and flat EEG, or cessation of breathing for over 9 minutes or so. However, this wasn't always reliable either.

Sudden immersion in ice-water sometimes causes "diving reflex" to activate and victims can in rare instances be revived after appearing clinically dead . This is thought to be akin to the reflexive reaction marine mammals experience when they dive deeply and remain submerged for as much as an hour or more. During this time, blood transfuses, body processes decline sharply, breathing stops, and pulse can drop as low as 3 beats per minute, or less. In humans, the likelihood of diving reflex kicking in is dramatically improved with the coldness of the water, the youth of the victim, and the face being immersed.

Public Health and Safety
First Aid

How do you treat a sprained thumb?

== == First make sure it's only a sprain. If there is any doubt about torn ligaments or broken bones you need to be seen by a doctor. However, if you can move it around, there is no "crackling" with movement, and the only symptom is that it's sore, then do the following:

Use ice the first 24 hours after a sprain, then heat to the area after that.

(Reason: ice reduces swelling and any bruising when you apply it right away. It will help cut down on pain as well. Then using heat will help improve circulation to the area and promote the healing process.)

Immobilize/Rest your thumb with a splint for a couple of longer.

(Reason: give the sprained muscles, ligaments, tendons time to rest.

However, do not wear the splint longer than a couple of days or you

risk having the muscles, etc, get very stiff.)

It's easy to make a splint out of Popsicle sticks and tape. You can also buy

splints at the drugstore.

Finally, as the injury begins to heal, gently flex and extend your thumb to loosen it up. As it becomes less sore, exercise it more so you don't get a stiff thumb joint.


See your doctor immediately if your thumb becomes white and cold, or turns very dark. These are symptoms of a problem with the circulation and that is an emergency.
With a thumb injury there are a couple things to do to treat it. Alternating heat and ice to reduce swelling. Nsaids (like ibuprofen) also to help with pain and swelling. Also taping the thumb in such a way as to mimic the tendons of the thumb. The taping with give added strength and support to the thumb and reduce further injury. Be sure to tape it in, what is called, gross anatomical position. Basically act like you're holding a soda can and tape it in that position, if that makes any sense.

First Aid
Endocrine System

How do you activate your spit glands?

You cannot voluntarily activate your spit glands. When you put food in your mouth, they automatically begin to produce saliva to aid in the digestion of food. Sometimes just thinking about eating food can allow them to produce saliva.

Electrical Wiring
First Aid

Can an electric shock cause loss of consciousness?

Yes it can. It depends on the amount of voltage that you got shocked with.

Electric shock can put the heart into asystole (absence of heart contractions). The heart will often resume its rhythm, but the accomanying respiratory arrest lasts longer, and can then lead to a second cardiac arrest due to lack of oxygen.

Also, all electrical burns are considered to be worse than look externally (they can burn internally as well).

First Aid
Medical Supplies

Do alcohol pads expire?

Alcohol is quite volatile, and will evaporate very easily -- far moreso than water. So if the alcohol packing is in any way compromised, even microscopically, you'll find dry pads in the pack. And this is a frequent occurrance.

However, maintained in sealed stated, I don't see a way that alcohol can decompose -- so no.

First Aid

How do you make your ankle stop hurting?

Keep weight off of it, ice it, and elevate your ankle.

If it is really serious, then go to a doctor's office.


also, gently massage the area with an ointment.if the pain is still there, go to physiotherapist.

First Aid

What is the best way to remove fiberglass from your skin?

AnswersDuct tape. The hair may go away too, so be warned. Take a piece of duct tape and place it on the skin and it will stick to the fiberglass fibers that are still above the skin. Remove the duct tape and the glass goes with it. If the fiberglass has worked its way below the skins surface, nothing can be done.

Take a hot shower, not too hot as this will make your pores swell, you only want them to open. Then, take a piece of pantyhose and gently wipe your skin . This should help pull the glass out. A good rinsing after. Do not rub or scratch it . This will drive it further in . To prevent the fiberglass from getting you to begin with, buy some Invisible Glove it is a hand cream that will dry up and keep it from getting into your skin. It can be purchased at most auto paint supplies or at Ace Hardware Stores or search online.

My husband has been a yacht builder for over 30 years and he's had to deal with this all that time. Take a good cup of Epsom Salts and add some boiling water to it. Then run a bath with WARM water, add the dissolved Epsom Salts in it and soak for 20 minutes to 1/2 hour (not bubble bath, just plain Epsom Salts.) Get up and shower after the bath. Towel off. My uncle would use epsom salts to draw out steel slivers from his hands when he worked for a steel mill. If you find you have a rash on your face or any part of your body that shows then use Lanocaine (topical ointment) and the red will fade.

First Aid

Is there an alternative for gauze pads?

Low-adherence dressings (e.g. Mepitel®, Jelonet®) are used as interface layers and secondary absorbent dressings. They vary from impregnated cotton or viscose fibres to fenestrated silicone dressings, and help to make dressing changes less painful.Vapour-permeable films and membranes (e.g. Opsite®, Tegaderm®) allow the passage of water vapour and oxygen, but not water or microorganisms. They are commonly used to cover acute surgical wounds, but are not suitable for heavily exuding wounds.Odour-absorbent dressings (e.g. Carboflex®, Lyofoam C®) contain activated charcoal to neutralise odours. They are used mainly in the chronic setting for malodorous infected or fungating wounds.Hope this helps!

First Aid

What is the first aid treatment for a cracked rib?

Rib fractures are not very common but not unheard of either. As they are surrounded by lots of strong muscle, it takes quite a force to abuse them. A rib fracture/crack can be caused by a fall, getting hit by a car, or from extremely forceful coughing (i.e. due to pneumonia).

Complications can occur when the fracture breaks apart completely in half. The sharp surface is likely to protrude the surrounding organs, namely the lungs.

Some signs and symptoms of a fractured/cracked ribs include:

1. Severe sharp pain in the chest area worsened by taking a breath in.

2. History of recent trauma to the area.

3. Swelling and tenderness around the rib are (this may include that back).

4. Deviation/asymmetry of the chest area, especially when taking a breath in.

5. Crepitus (grinding and crunching sound due to the bone ends making contact)

6. Nausea and Vomiting.

7. Shortness of Breath.

8. Coughing up blood.

9. Chest wall deformity.

10. Severe pain on movement.

The treatment for a rib fracture follows the general rules for treating fractures. Immobilise the patient by telling him/her to limit movement.

Call for an ambulance or have the patient dispatched to hospital immediately in case any complications arise.

Lean the patient towards the side of the injury so that any fluid can drain and not affect the surrounding area.

Continue to reassure the patient and advise her of what you are doing and how it will help.

In rare cases, the fractured rib may protrude completely and break the surface of the skin. In this instance, control any external bleeding by applying a sterile dressing around the protrusion and padding over the bone.

Provided you are qualified, a pre-hospital analgesic may be used. Effective analgesics in this case include entonox (nitrous oxide), methoxyflurane or morphine.

Always assume that complications are present and have the patient checked by medical professionals.

First Aid

Where should you find the pulse in a stroke victim?

You can find the pulse on the body either on the wrist or the neck. When checking for the pulse on the wrist you make sure you are checking on the side of the thumb using your pointer finger and middle finger. When you are checking on the neck (using the pointer finger and middle finger as well) take you fingers and go from the ear towards your chin. You will feel a little indenct on the neck but under the jaw. You should be able to feel the pulse in that area.

First Aid

How serious is a cut to the eyeball?

It can be very serious; such as blindness in the eye results.


It is very can loose the vision for his/her whole life.

First Aid

Full form of first aid with meaning?

First aid means emergency aid or treatment given to someone injured or ill before regular medical services arrive or can be reached.

First Aid

What is an example of abrasion?

Abrasion is caused by friction or rubbing of the skin with a rough surface. Rug burns and board burns are also examples of abrasion, because they are caused by friction.

Read more:

Under Creative Commons License: Attribution

First Aid

What is the first step in healing a fracture?

Depending on the severity, the bone would need to be placed back in it's original position. It would then have to be set in a cast, hard or soft. Making sure that the bones are in a comfortable position, helps the them heal quicker and gentler.

First Aid

Where should first aid kits be stored?

Probably somewhere easily accessible- for instance, if you live in a multilevel house, I would keep mine on the main or lower level. This way, in case of a fire, you wouldn't have to rush up any staircases, which can be dangerous. If it is a very large fire, I would let the medics take care of that.It also depends on where you live. I would contact a local first aid specialist if you want specifically pertaining information.

First Aid

How much blood can someone lose before fainting?

The average healthy person has approximately 6 litres / 12 pints of blood - loss of one third, (1/3), of the total blood volume is fatal. Therefore I would say that a loss of about a litre / 2 pints would render a healthy person unconscious.

First Aid

What is best antidote for gasoline?

There is no true antidote for gasoline ingestion. The first thing you should do is call 911. Once 911 has dispatched an ambulance, call Poison Control (in the US, 1-800-222-1222) and follow their instructions.

The treatment is mainly supportive in nature as you have to wait for the hydrocarbons to clear your system.

Public Health and Safety
First Aid

What do you put on a broken thumb?

You would want to make a splint to keep the finger from moving and then ice it. Popsickle sticks taped to the finger work as great splints.

Skin Care
First Aid

What are the disadvantages of paper cuts?

Paper cuts are quite common and harmless and do not cause any problems and usually heal in a few days. There is a risk of infection but it usually heals without any treatment.

First Aid

What happens if rubber alcohol get on your hair?

Getting rubbing alcohol in your hair will dry it out and possibly damage it and it also makes it fall of like if you would have cancer so you will be bald

Waste and Recycling
First Aid

What is the liquid in an instant cold pack?

Ammonium nitrate crystals and water. When you pop the water pack, the two undergo an endothermic reaction, forming ammonium and nitrate ions (NH4+ & NO3-). Water breaks the two parts of NH4NO3 into the positive and negative parts, and it takes heat energy from the surrounding area to make the separation. When it dries it recombines and releases that heat (not observed because water gets colder when it evaporates). So if you CAREFULLY cut that bag open and dry it, it will do the same thing again. I wouldn't want to eat the crystals or the end liquid. plant fertilizers don't make good food.

First Aid
Bone Pain and Fractures

Can you make your own cast for broken wrist?

Yes, but only if you are a orthopedic surgeon.

Skin Care
First Aid

What do you do if you scraped skin off finger?

Stop the bleeding with pressure and go to the ER for stitches.

Conditions and Diseases
Military Medicine
First Aid

If there is clear or bloody fluid coming from the ears or nose why would you NOT use a nasopharyngeal airway?

A nasopharyngeal airway, (aka NPA or a nasal trumpet), is a tube inserted into the nasal passageway of an unconscious victim to provide an open airway (when unconscious the jaw muscles relax and the tongue to falls back obstructing the airway).

  • The clear, straw like fluid coming out of the ears is called cerebro-spinal fluid [CSF]. CSF is the liquid that lines the space between the skull and brain to protect this sensitive organ. In the event of a traumatic brain injury (commonly known as head trauma), this fluid may leak out from the ears or nose due to structural damage.
  • Should a traumatic brain injury be suspected, the patient needs to have medical intervention urgently. Complications of brain injury include cerebral compression among many other serious conditions.
  • Introducing a nasopharyngeal airway, nasogastric tube, or attempting to nasally intubate a person with basilar skull fractures carries the risk of inadvertently passing the device through the fracture and into the skull damaging the brain.
  • NPA is contraindicated (not used) in patients with severe head or facial injuries, or a basilar skull fracture (Battle's sign, raccoon eyes, cerebrospinal fluid/blood from ears, etc.) due to the possibility of direct contact with brain tissue.

The theory to test for this is simple enough. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood don't mix, much like water and oil. Put a dab of the patient's blood on a piece of gauze and see if the blood and CSF separate. This looks a little bit like a halo, so this test is called a halo test.
A nasopharyngeal airway, (aka NPAor a nasal trumpet), is a tube inserted into the nasal passageway of an unconscious victim to provide an open airway (when unconscious the jaw muscles relax and the tongue to falls back obstructing the airway).

NPA is contraindicated (not used) in patients with severe head or facial injuries, or a basilar skull fracture (Battle's sign, raccoon eyes, cerebrospinal fluid/blood from ears, etc.) due to the possibility of direct contact with brain tissue.

First Aid

What happens when you choke on food?

You're airway becomes obsturcted causing a lack of oxygen to circulate through the lungs.


Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.