Neurophysiology

A branch of neuroscience that studies the physiology of the nervous system. From the Greek words nerve and nature, this science looks at the way that nerves function.

1,104 Questions
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Medical Terminology
Neurophysiology

What is the medical term meaning involuntary response to a stimulus?

It's a reflex action. It's automatic, inborn/genetic, and done without thinking.

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Genetics
Neuroscience
Neurophysiology

What is the difference of surface trait and source trait?

Source traits describe the personality dimension or type of personality which underlies a person's trait personality which differs from one another. Surface traits are identified or projected by the individual according to the situation and environment.

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Barack Obama
Neurophysiology

Why do some people get aspiration pneumonia after a stroke?

Weakness and loss of coordination of the swallowing muscles may impair swallowing (dysphagia), and allow food to enter the lower airway. This may lead to aspiration pneumonia.

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Neurophysiology
Nervous System
Nerves

The speed of impulse conduction along an axon may be increased by?

By myelin sheath.

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School Subjects
Algebra
Neurophysiology
One Direction (band)

Do cells usually decode nucleotides in one direction only or in either direction?

in one direction because one ribosome cant go one way and another the other way or our proteins would be messed up

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Health
Neurophysiology

Substance that is released at axonal endings?

neurotransmitters

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Mental Health
Neurophysiology
Emotions
Brain

What is an amygdala?

It is a roughly almond-shaped mass of grey matter inside each cerebral hemisphere, involved with the experiencing of emotions. The amygdala is a section of the brain that is responsible for detecting fear and preparing for emergency events.

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Neurophysiology
Nerves

How does a synapse work?

There are many kinds of synapses in the nervous system, but I assume you're talking about the most commonly discussed type: the chemical synapse. These synapses join nerve cells (called neurons) and allow them to communicate.

Communication across a chemical synapse is called synaptic transmission. It occurs when electrical activity (called an action potential) in the first cell triggers the release of a chemical signal (called a neurotransmitter) across the synapse. The neurotransmitter travels across the synapse by a process of diffusion, ultimately reaching its target, the second cell. There, the neurotransmitter binds a special type of protein molecule called a neurotransmitter receptor, which changes its shape in response to binding the neurotransmitter. This shape change results in a series of subsequent changes in the second cell. These subsequent changes result in alterations in the electrical activity of the second cell.

The gist of synaptic transmission is that it allows the electrical activity in one nerve cell to influence the electrical activity of another.

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Health
Neurophysiology

What body system is neuritis related to?

Neuritis is inflammation of a nerve, so it relates to the nervous system.

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Neurophysiology
Nerves

What part of a neuron carries impulses towards the cell body?

The part of the neuron that carries impulses towards the cell body is called the dendrite.

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Neurophysiology
Nerves

How does an impulse travel from one nerve to another?

An impulse travels from one nerve to another by release & subsequent diffusion of chemicals called neurotransmitters across a very small gap between neurons, called a synapse.

How neurotransmitters are released: As an impulse reaches an end of a neuron (the axon terminal), the impulse opens ion pores in that axon terminal which allows Calcium ions to enter, which cause the movement of small membrane bounded packets of neurotransmitter chemicals, called vesicles (like tiny water balloons), to move to the cell membrane, where the vesicles fuse into the cell membrane, thus releasing the contents, the neurotransmitters, into the small space (the synaptic cleft) between the axon terminal and the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron (the neuron the impulse is traveling to).

What neurotransmitters do when they reach the post-synaptic neuron: The post-synaptic neuron has many receptor structures each of which are like a combination of a "well", and an open-and-closeable tunnel or pore. The "well" (or hole with a bottom surface) is a RECEPTOR for the neurotransmitter chemical, in that the neurotransmitter FITS into that well like a key into a lock. And when a neurotransmitter diffuses to and enters that well, it affects the shape of the companion tunnel (ION PORE), such that the ion pore OPENS, thus allowing Sodium ions to enter the post-synaptic neuron (normally at a dendrite, the manifold tiny input structures for a neuron).

A previous answer slightly improved: Nerve impulse traveling

The impulse is like an electrical current which 'flows' along the nerves cells, their inputs ('branches' called dendrites), their outputs (axons), and the junctions between nerves; but it is not so simple as a regular electrical wire, because a complex biochemical process is also involved. This process is responsible for the initial creation of the electrical current, to its re-creation some additional times along its passing (- otherwise it would have died out because of the long lengths such an impulse travels), and to its re-creation in any 'new' nerve cell it reaches.

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Neurophysiology
Nervous System
Nerves

How does a nerve impulse get transmitted along an axon?

By a change in polarity as sodium ions enter the cell and potassium ions exit the cell, forming a wave of depolarization that travels along the axon until it reaches the axon terminal releases the neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap.

By an action potential, which is a depolarization of the nerve cell membrane, the neurolemma.

A nerve impulse gets transmitted along an axon in 5 steps:

1) Stimulus opens Sodium ion (Na+) channels at Resting Potential

_ Must reach threshold to get Action Potential (A.P)

2) Voltage sensitive Na+ channels open

_ Na+ crosses into Intracellular fluid (ICF)

_ Depolarize the cell (which is call "Depolarization")

_ Reach +30 mV (mili voltage)

3) Na+ channels close

4) Voltage sensitive Potassium ion (K+) channels open

_ K+ crosses out to ECF (extracellular fluid)

_ Repolarize the cell (aka: repolarization)

_ Reach -90 mV

+ a hyperpolarization

_ K+ channels close

5) Na+/K+ (Sodium/ Potassium) pump restores concentrations

_ Potential goes back to -70 mV: Returning to Resting Potential

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Neurophysiology

Do neurons have mhc class 1 receptors?

All cells with a nuclei have MHC class 1.

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Microbiology
Genetics
Neurophysiology

Why can't red blood cells undergo mitosis?

mitosis is a type of nuclear division, that is to say the nucleus of the cell devides. red blood cells have no nucleus so cant undergo mitosis.

cytokenesis is when one cell splints into two. if a red blood cell were to undergo cytokenesis (even though it doesnt have the cellular machinary to do this) it would be half the size and have half as much heamaglobin as before, with no way to get back to the size it is 'supposed' to be and no way to generate more heamaglobin.

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Conditions and Diseases
Neurophysiology
Nerves

What is the neuronal basis of denervation hypersensitivity?

Denervation hypersensitivity occurs in multiple sclerosis. In multiple sclerosis demyelination of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system result in disruption of communication between upper motor neurons in the brain and the lower motor neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord. The end result is denervation hypersensitivity with physical symptoms of increased muscle tone, difficulty controlling muscles, exaggerated reflexes, and muscle spasms.

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Neurophysiology
Nervous System
Nerves
Metal and Alloys

Describe the role of calcium ion in the passage of impulses across a synapse?

The Samsung Intensity 2 is a good phone for texting. With a slide out Qwerty keyboard, this Verizon phone allows for super fast texting. Maybe that's how it got the name intensity. Ratings call it a good messaging phone (obviously) and a functional phone, which indicates that it isn't as exciting as a touchscreen. It does have a nice screen with a good resolution and a decent camera. It supports POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP, but it doesn't support Outlook or Gmail as some phones do. All in all, it's a good camera for those who don't enjoy touchscreens.

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Photography
Neurophysiology

Defferences between asymmetrical and symmetrical balance?

Symmetrical balance is when everything is perfectly and evenly balanced out.

Asymmetrical balance refers to a design that has dissimilar elements but still appears balanced, dividing a picture in half won't have the exact same elements however the elements they do have are varied and seem to balance one another out.

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Health
Neurophysiology
Muscular System
Nerves

How does threshold stimulus occur?

The "Threshold" just means the point at which something occurs, such as sound. The threshold of a sound would be the volume at which you would first start to hear the sound.

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Neuroscience
Neurophysiology
Nerves

What is the repolarization of a neuron?

The change in membrane potential returns to the original negative value of its resting membrane potential.

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Health
Neurophysiology

Where does retrobulbar neuritis happen?

The optic nerve located behind the eyeball

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Conditions and Diseases
Endangered, Vulnerable, and Threatened Species
Kangaroos
Neurophysiology

What is the Most common variation of the circle of Willis?

The proximal part of the posterior cerebral artery is narrow and its ipsilateral posterior communicating artery is large, so the internal carotid artery supplies the posterior cerebrum.

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Cars & Vehicles
Units of Measure
Physics
Neurophysiology

What unit is to measure frequency?

Hertz(Hz)

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Health
Neurophysiology

What is impulse propagation?

It is the traveling of the electrical signal down the length of a neuron.

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Translations
Latin to English
English to Latin
Neurophysiology

What is the Latin word for pain?

I believe Doleo would be the verb (doleo dolere), the word for pain ie a pain (noun) is dolor, doloris (masc)

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Neuroscience
Neurophysiology
Brain

Are there really right brained people and left brained people?

The idea that we have a dominant brain hemisphere has been generally discredited, mostly because it is not even scientifically true. The the thought that left brainers are logical, good with mathematics and language, while rightbrainers are creative and artistic has no basis in fact but has captured the imagination go the same groups that believe in other pseudoscience babble.

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