Neuropharmacology

Studying the science of drugs that effect the brain and nervous system. Ask questions about drug-induced changes both behavioral and molecular.

237 Questions
Medication and Drugs
Antidepressants
Neuropharmacology

Is bupropion a tricyclic antidepressant?

No. Bupropion (aka Wellbutrin) is known as an atypical antidepressant in that it prevents the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (to a lesser extent). Typical tricyclic antidepressants only block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. It's unique dopamine reuptake inhibition capability allows it to be used to treat nicotine addiction (marketed as Zyban) and, to some extent, attention deficit disorder. Furthermore, it lacks the classic three ring chemical structure of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).

Here are a list of some common TCAs:

imipramine (tofranil)

amitriptyline (Elavil/Endep)

doxepin (adapin)

nortrypyline (Pamelor), etc

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Health
Medication and Drugs
Antipsychotics
Neuropharmacology

What are the examples of typical antipsychotics?

  • Phenothiazines group (e.g. chlorpromazine, thioridazine, fluphenazine)
  • Thioxanthenes group (e.g. thiothixene)
  • Butyrophenones (e.g. haloperidol)

*to memorize, you can try to use this mnemonic: "Party Till Bored!" (Party = Phenothiazine, Till = Thioxanthenes, Bored = Butyrophenones)

185186187
Biology
Neuroscience
Neuropharmacology

What is a compound that contains an amino group a carboxyl group and a side group?

amino acids

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Medication and Drugs
Xanax
Antidepressants
Benzodiazepines
Neuropharmacology

Is Alprazolam an tricyclic antidepressant?

No it is not a trycyclic.

Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine

899091
Biology
Biochemistry
Neuropharmacology
Catalysts and Catalysis

Are SSRI enzyme inducers or inhibitors?

The SSRIs can be both CYP450 enzyme inhibitors AND inducers. Inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of drugs, causing the body to have increased levels of that drug. Inducers speed of the metabolism of a drug, causing the body to inactivate/eliminate to a further extent than it normally would. It depends on which SSRI you are talking about. They all have actions on various isoforms of CYP450, but the SSRIs which cause the greatest problems with inhibition/inducing are fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine. (Paxil)

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Pregnancy Symptoms
Mental Health
Neuropharmacology

What causes feelings of unreality?

Feelings of "unreality" are often called "derealization," "depersonalization," or "dissociation." This can be caused by a number of things, including depression, PTSD, anxiety, etc. A mental health professional can help determine the contributing factors and appropriate treatment. It can be helped. Although the list above are simply a list of "symptoms" inlcuding ncluding depression, PTSD, anxiety, etc., please keep in mind all that symptoms have a "cause" one cause that must be investigated and ruled out is tick borne diseases, including but not limited to Lyme Disease, Erhlichia, Bartonella, Babesia, Mycoplasma, Q-fever and others. Ticks, fleas and other insects are all thought to be carriers. Many ticks and fleas are they size of the period at the end of this sentence and more than half of all people diagnosed with tick borne diseases do not recall a bite. Since Lyme has become the fastest growing infectious disease in the U.S. is not recognized by most doctor's, as the symptoms are vast and wide and it is thought by Lyme literate Md's that any and all psychiatric symptoms could be the root cause. Since mainstream lab testing used nationwide for Lyme Disease is not "diagnostic" by admission of the creator's of the test (Center for Disease Control) and Md's in all fields of medicine are not trained to recognize these diseases. A person experiencing these symptoms should visit Lyme Disease support forums and and ask for a referral to a Lyme Literate Md in their area. Blood testing is useless unless the sample is sent to a tick borne specialty lab, there are only a few across the U.S. the best known being Igenex. These disease can be misdiagnosed from anxiety disorders, mental illnesses of all kinds and simply must be further investigated for the cause and wise place to start is with tick borne pathogens. Symptoms list and information can be found at the following reputable websites: http://www.ilads.org/PsychiatristBrochure.pdf http://www.canlyme.com/patsymptoms.html http://www.ilads.org/basic.html http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/ http://www.truthaboutlymedisease.com/ http://www.lymeinfo.net/ A search at you tube for Lyme disease is also helpful as in the link here, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGQINypsf7g Lastly, it is been suggested and unlikely that the cause of these symptoms can be caused by the fluoroquinolone antibiotic group, cipro, levaquin and others. Although there are people that swear this is at the cause of their symptoms, many Md's do not find it likely and a long standing bacterial infection is more likely the root cause.

515253
Health
Medication and Drugs
Antidepressants
Neuropharmacology

Which neurotransmitter do many antidepressants change the activity of?

The most common antidepressants prescribed today come under a class of neuroactive drugs called 'selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors', or SSRIs for short. These include: Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine (Luvox), Paroxetine (Paxil), Sertraline (Zoloft) and Venlafaxine (Effexor).

The primary mechanism of action for SSRIs to modify the way serotonin gets taken back up at the synapse. Not all SSRIs work on boosting serotonin levels though. Some like Venlafaxine also increase the amount of noradrenaline available at the synapse.

Older antidepressants like Clomipramine (Anafranil), referred to as 'trycyclic antidepressants', work primarily by inhibiting the reuptake of noradrenaline; although like some SSRIs, their selectively is never absolute, so they also have some effect on serotonin and dopamine reuptake too.

Atypical depressants like Bupropion (Wellbutrin) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors like Phenelzine (Nardil) also exert their effects via manipulating serotonin/noradreneline/dopamine levels.

Although each class differs subtly in their mechanism of action and specificity, they all essentially work to boost biogenic amine levels in the brain (i.e., serotonin and/or dopamaine and/or noradrenaline).

And then there is something like 5-HTP which is more effective then any of the SSRI's or Trycyclic antidepressants for the simple reason that 5-HTP actually helps to create more serotonine (5-HTP is the direct precursor for serotonine).

505152
Biology
Animal Behavior
Neuropharmacology

What is the sixth sense?

Depends what you mean. There are in fact 21 senses not 5 I assume you mean the following:The twenty second sense is when people sense somthing/someone around. this is under the paranormal topics, that normally includes ghosts. sometimes you can get a twenty second sense from being around something creepy, or when you are somewhere, you may feel a slight shiver down your spine, that is like a twenty second, you can feel something, but there is nothing there....
The sixth sense is your inherent psychic sense. Some describe this as your "third eye", or ESP (extra sensory perception) as in you are seeing (or sensing) beyond the ordinary.

Do you ever know who's on the phone when it rings before you answer it? (without caller ID I mean) Do you ever get a "feeling" that something is going to happen and then it does? That's your sixth sense at work.

Though, it is not our society "norm" to be accepting of this sense, to nurture and develop it, and to utilize it as a life's tool (like we utilize other senses to learn speech). In fact, we are often scorned by our families and friends if we do continue to use our sixth sense regularly. (Science & modern medicine have not yet been able to fully explain this sense, and people in general tend to fear what they do not know or understand.) So most people tend to tune this sense out as they grow, and learn to ignore it for the most part. For others, their sixth sense remains very open their whole lives - these would be the people we call psychics.

It is possible later in life to reattune to this sense that you may have mostly "shut down" for many years - but it takes a lot of hard work. Much like re-learning to walk if you've been in an accident and haven't used your leg muscles for quite some time
the 6th sense is a scary movie. Emily Osment's older brother is in that movie, but it was when he was a little kid. the movie is about a little boy and his mother having a 6th sense, which is being able to see dead people.

394041
Firearms
Remington Firearms
Questions about WikiAnswers and Answers.com
Neuropharmacology

What kind of groups can you get with a Remington 11-87 Premier Cantilever 12ga slug gun?

I RECENTLY PURCHASED AN 11-87 SPORTSMAN WITH THE CANTILEVERED SLUG BARREL,IT'S THE SAME GUN AS THE PREMIER EXCEPT MATTE BLACK AND ABOUT 100 BUCKS LESS. I AM SET UP WITH A NIKON PROSTAFF 2-7X SCOPE. ONCE I GOT ON THE PAPER AT 50 YARDS, I WAS ABLE TO DIAL IN FOR A DELIBERATE 1.5" HIGH HIT USING THE LIGHTFIELD HYBRID EXP 2 3/4" SABOT.I THEN PUT 1 MORE ROUND WITHIN A 1/2 INCH OF IT. AT 100 YARDS I HAD AN OFFICIAL 100 YD. MILITARY STYLE TARGET WITH A 6" BULL. ASSUMING THAT I WOULD HIT LOW,I HELD ON AT 12 O'CLOCK AND HIT 1" TO THE LEFT AND ABOUT A 1/2" LOW. THIS WAS OBVIOUSLY BENCHED AND WITH THE MOST DELICATE SQUEEZE I COULD MUSTER.I THEN DECIDED TO HOLD ON THE CENTER AND SEE WHERE IT WOULD HIT SINCE I WAS SO CLOSE TO MY POINT OF AIM ON THE FIRST SHOT. TO MY AMAZEMENT I TOOK THE X OUT OF THE CENTER.FURTHER SHOOTING REVEALED THE SLUG GUN I ALWAYS WANTED,VERY ACCURATE. ENJOY IT, I LOVE MINE.

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Neuropharmacology
Medication and Drugs
Antidepressants

What forms are tricyclic antidepressants administered in?

Tricyclic antidepressants are available only with a physician's prescription and are sold in tablet, capsule, liquid, and injectable forms

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Engineering
Elements and Compounds
Neuropharmacology
Metal and Alloys

What is the solubility of cerium oxide?

The solubility of oxides and other ceramic powders depends on what the solution and solvent should be. Temperature is also important. For example one definition of glass says that it is solid solution of natrium oxide, kalium oxide and silicium oxide. many kinds of steel are similarly defined as "interstitial solid solution of carbon in alpha-iron", etc.

As for the solubility of metal oxides in water, it is close to zero. The same for alcohols, ethers, alkanes, etc. The usual way of getting metal oxides into liquids is to mix suspension so fine that the powder will be hard to separate due to the brownian motion and such. Today you may order nano-powder as well.

Now to the point why somebody asked this: the cerium oxide is inert. The point when it becomes interesting is at higher temperatures when it can oxidize carbon for example at temperature much lower than the carbon will usually burn. Another useful property is that it will reduce nitrogen oxides and take the oxygen to form its ceric oxide state. This is used in car catalysts due to good efficiency and favorable price. Yet another use - which can be derived from wikipedia information already is chemical reaction with laughing gas - N2O to form really strong, orange oxidiser (forgot the name). I plan to test it in a rocket engine fuel soon.

Just to note - many combustion processes, whether in furnace, cars, rockets can not be enhanced, taken more power from them, because of the limited speed of reaction. That is where catalysts take place. Ceric oxide can act as a catalyst. When reacted with certain nitrous oxides it can take form of another chemical composition which acts as a strong oxidiser potentially increasing the speed of the reaction even further.

The maximum surface area of ceric oxide nano-powders ranges from 35-70 square meters per gram of the powder. Ordinary polishing powders do not have such large surface area since they are aimed for polishing, not as a catalyst.

P.S. if you really want more answers than this, ask me at http://zumotor.blogspot.com/

353637
Health
Medication and Drugs
Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Neurophysiology
Neuropharmacology

Can doctors test for neurotransmitters and if they can how accurate are these tests and why is such testing not routinely done with bipolar patients before prescribing medications?

there is no lab test for bipolar

293031
Medication and Drugs
Morphine
Painkillers
Neuropharmacology

What are the contraindications of morphine?

We don't give morphine for patients suffering from:

  • head injury : because it can depress the respiratory centre and increase intracranial pressure
  • bronchial asthma : because histamine release will cause bronchiol-constriction
  • pregnancy : might lead to fetal respiratory depression and withdrawal syndromes in newly born
  • impaired renal or hepatic functions
  • myxedema : because it can decrease basal metabolic rate
  • old people and infants : can cause respiratory depression
  • shocked patients : can cause severe hypertension
  • acute undiagnosed abdominal pain
272829
Science
Neuropharmacology
Food Poisoning and Foodborne Illness
Photosynthesis

What are examples of photosynthesis?

An example of photoshynthesis is in plants, which are the only organism that can do this system. It's a way for them to get food by the sunlight, which they take in and convert into energy for them.

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Neurophysiology
Neuropharmacology
Nerves

What effects does TTX have on neurons?

It blocks the voltage-gated Na+ channels.

252627
Medication and Drugs
Drug Side Effects
Antidepressants
Neuropharmacology

Which antidepressant that might cause cheese reaction as its side effect?

monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

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Alcoholism
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Medication and Alcohol Interactions
Neuropharmacology

How does alcohol effect the brain?

Acute alcohol intoxication is result of widespread changes in brain metabolism. The greater the amount of alcohol the greater the affect on your brain. One of the mechanisms by which alcohol lowers brain metabolism is via its interaction with GABA receptors. GABA receptors are an inhibitory class of receptors whose function is to reduce the activity of neurons. Many drugs used in the treatment of anxiety also work by this mechanism. Because GABA receptors are ubiquitously expressed, this explains the variety of behavioral changes ensue during inebriation; such as decreased attention span (frontal cortex), slurred speech (motor cortex/cerebellum), social disinhibition and sensations of wellbeing (limbic areas), blurry vision (vestibular-ocular reflex deficits), and poor balance control (vestibular function).

252627
Neuropharmacology

Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission in ans?

mechanism of neurohumoral transmission

232425
Neurophysiology
Neuropharmacology
Genetic Engineering

What is the harmful effect of genetic engineering?

Genetic engineering cannot be called yet an exact science, malformation and mutations inadequate to sustain normal life can be created.

232425
Antidepressants
Neuropharmacology

What are tricyclic antidepressants?

Tricyclics, e.g. Amitriptyline and impramine, were compounds that were introduced in the 1960s to treat depression by helping boost synaptic levels of serotonin and noradrenalin. They were called 'tricyclics' because their structure contains three amine rings joined together. Tricyclics are not commonly prescribed today and have been superseded by the newer and safer 'selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors' or 'SSRIs' for short. Tricyclics are more effective in treating serious depression than SSRIs, however; so their main use today would in those cases where the patient's depression is resistant to SSRIs or other types of antidepressants

One of the older class of antidepressant. They worked by destroying a chemical in the braincalled monoamide oxidators. This enzyme prevented the good chemicals , like serontonine, norepinephrine, and dopamine , of the brain from from being able to do their job
131415
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Neuroscience
Neuropharmacology

What effect does curare have on an action potential?

It blocks the receptors for acetylcholine, so the nerve cells cannot receive the signal to generate an action potential.

123
Nervous System
Neurophysiology
Neuropharmacology

What is the central nervous system made up of?

Comprised of the brain and spinal cord

The nervous system is the key to homeostasis. The nerves are what keep your body in proper working order and all of those nerves stem from your brain through your spinal cord to reach its destination, then the nerves return to the brain the same way. Therefore, if your spine and atlas are out of whack even a little bit the nerves are not transmitting correctly and that causes a lack of homeostasis.

A person may be asystematic for a while or they may experience symptoms that seem completely unrelated because they have no pain along the spinal cord.

For instance, cancer cells do not just appear, they are developed through a lack of communication if you will. Think of it as a computer, when nerve cells "files" cannot reach their destination appropriately the "file" can get corrupt. This corruption then develops abnormalities and dysfunctions. Of course other factors apply to the production of cancer, but a healthy spine is the key to a healthy body.

Another example is tension headaches; these headaches occur due to the atlas being out of place. There are multiple problems that can be helped by having a healthy spine; erectile dysfunction, chronic constipation, sinus infections, otitis media, etc. A healthy spine can also improve a person's attitude or happiness.

  • Chiropractic care is more cost effective then traditional medical treatment involving medications that relieve symptoms but do not treat the underlying problem. Do some research on what nerves travel through each section of your spine, starting from C1 down to T12. It is really fascinating.
91011
Sociopathy (Psychopathy)
Neuropharmacology
Cosmology

Is it true Pathogens can enter the body by way of air water and food's?

Yes, it is true.

012
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Neuropharmacology
Nervous System

How can neurotransmitter effects be terminated?

Neurotransmitter effects can be terminated by astrocytes or axon terminals reuptaking the neurotransmitters, enzymes degrading the neurotransmitters or the neurotransmitters themselves diffusing away from the synaptic cleft.

012
Antidepressants
Neuropharmacology

What neurotransmitter does a SNRI 'Serotonin Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor' drug work on?

The S stands for serotonin and the N stands for norepinephrine and RI stands for reuptake inhibitor. So, obviously these drugs are supposed to work on both serotonin and norepinephrine. However, some literature uses SNRI to mean Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor, and this will work better on norepinephrine. Then you have the SSRI which is Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor, which works better on serotonin.

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