Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the creation and management of systems that integrate people and materials and energy in productive ways. An industrial engineer studies industrial productivity and makes and implements recommended changes.

5,161 Questions
Industrial Engineering

What is the modulus of rigidity for brass?

modulus of elasticity = 15 Msi; poisson ratio = 0.3

modulus of rigidity = E/ ((2(1 + poisson)) = 5.8 Msi

Airplanes and Aircraft
Industrial Engineering

Are airplanes air tight?

Most small airplanes are not air tight (or even completely encased) because thy do not need pressurization. Commercial planes fly at altitudes where there is not enough oxygen to sustain life, requiring pressurization.

Industrial Engineering

Why is automation required?

Automation is virtually required in industrial engineering so that processes will occur faster, safer, cheaper, reliably, and with greater precision.

However, just because something can be automated (like programming your commode to flush every morning at 6:17) doesn't mean it's necessarily a good thing or a bad thing. Some people fall into the trap of thinking that if something can be automated, it should be. I could purchase a robotic lawn mower, but I enjoy mowing with my gas powered motor. I like the exercise and getting outside and enjoying the sun.

Industrial Engineering
Restaurants and Dining Establishments
Fast Food

What are the advantages of silver service?

what are the advantages of silver service to an establishment?

Industrial Engineering

What is the abbreviation of ABB?

asea brown broyce

asea brown Bowery

Home Electricity
Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering

What is a step-up transformer?

You will most likely see a 'step-up' transformer on neon signs. The next time you're at a restaurant or bar, look at their neon sign. You'll see a black box (4" x 4" x 6"w) connected to the sign (usually). This is the transformer, and it takes 120 volts AC and steps it up to 7500 to 10,000 volts AC. This excites the neon gas and causes it to glow.


A step-up transformer transforms voltage to a higher level. Like 120 volts to 277 volts.


It is type of transformer which is used to step up the voltage from low to high value in order to make it applicable for high rated appliances.

Not only for high rated appliances but also for transmission in power distribution systems. It is critical in this role. Power distribution systems depend heavily on step-up transformers to generate the high voltages needed for more efficient long-distance power distribution. (And yes, there are step-down transformers at the other end to make the voltages more "user friendly" and less dangerous.)

Industrial Engineering

What does a laser engraving machine do?

A laser engraving machine is the machine that is used to engrave working or art on items. A great place to view one of these machines would be at your local Things Remembered store.

Industrial Engineering

What is osmotic drying?

Osmotically dried raisins or cranberries are dried by having their moisture removed by osmosis rather than by heat drying or some other process. Some reasons for using this method include energy savings and improvement in the end product.

Electronics Engineering
Industrial Engineering

How do you measure Phase difference?

The easiest way to measure phase difference is with an oscilloscope. Connect one channel to one signal, and connect the other channel to the other signal. Display both channels and trigger off of one. Measure the time difference - best accuracy is at the zero crossing point - and represent that as a percentage of the full period of one signal, normalized to 360 degrees.

If you are building circuitry to do this, there are many options but, basically, you are just repeating in circuitry what you do with the oscilloscope. There are some tricks... Assuming you are building a manual synchronizer for a generator, you can place a light bulb between the two phases, grid and generator. The light bulb will be at full brilliancy when the phases are 180 degrees out, and it will be dark when the phases are in sync. Still assuming the synchronization problem, you can connect the two phases to a special meter with two windings - the meter turns 360 degrees - and indicates phase angle - usually 12:00 is in sync - and most generators are designed to take the load when the generator is slightly faster than the grid and it is in the hot zone for being considered in sync.

Industrial Engineering

Internal keyway is machined by?

A broaching tool - or a reciprocating machining process such as a shaper, see the link in the resources below.

Industrial Engineering

What is earth moving machinary?

This is generally large trucks, diggers, cranes and other heavy equipment that can move earth around. They are used a lot in mining, waste disposal and in construction.

Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering

What equipment is used to check phase rotation?

A phase rotation meter. Or a small three phase motor can be wired up and its rotation observed.

Industrial Engineering

Introduction of sulfur in mild steel increases or decreases the machinability?

increases the machinability

Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Industrial Electricity and Electronics

Can a 460 volt motor run on 440 volts?

Yes. It will draw approximately 5% more current than it would at 460 volts for the same power output.

Industrial Engineering

How do you select and establish a suitable datum?

Selecting and establishing a suitable Datum is critical, ensure your datum is at a fixed point. Normally a hole/slot. Holes and slots a normally lasor cut, ensuring they are at an extremely high tolorance already. Then reference the slot or hole to another near by slot or hole. Using these selected points will give you accruate points of measurement/datum.

Civil Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Bridges and Tunnels

How does the Bridge Girder Launcher Construct Bridge?

With the development of our national economy, the construction of high speed railway reaches unprecedented upsurge. For 10 years, ZZHZ has been involved in manufacturing construction machinery and hoisting machinery. Therein, bridge girder launcher and gantry crane are widely used in high speed railway construction, being awarded the national patent. Featuring reasonable design, convenient installation and dismounting, especially high safety, they are highly praised by our customers and make great contribution to safe construction of high speed railway. Construction project of Beijing-Shanghai high speed railway will be one of the biggest projects.

According to design construction specification of Beijing-Shanghai railway and hoisting machinery design specification, ZZHZ designed HZQ series bridge girder launcher for China high speed railway, combined advantages of bridge girder launchers of home and abroad. Made up of main girder, front launching nose, O type support legs, front support legs, bottom launching nose, auxiliary overhead crane, auxiliary support leg of main girder, lifting trolley, winch and lifting system, the bridge girder launcher can install 900t precast girder with span from 24m to 32m.

Steps to construct bridge:

(1). After finishing installation on the abutment, the bridge girder launcher will move longitudinally from one pier to next pier

1. Two lifting trolleys move to the end part of the main girder, then lift auxiliary support legs of main girder, the bridge girder launcher begins to move forward.

2. After front support legs moves to certain position, lift its cylinder and fix the leg

3. Front lifting trolley lifts the end of the bottom launching nose to move forwards about half distance of main girder, auxiliary overhead crane under the front launching nose lifts the bottom launching nose to the front abutment, the longitudinal movement is finished.

(2). Transport girders and Feed girders

1. Two gantry cranes lift one precast girder at the same time

2. The transporter carrys the girder to the end of the bride girder launcher, then take back its cylinder. Trolley to move girders on the transporter carrys the precast girder to somewhere below the front lifting trolley of the bridge girder launcher

3. The front lifting trolley lifts the precast girder to move forwards until the rear lifting trolley can lift the rear part of the precast girder, then they move forwards together

4. Put the girder down into designated location

(3). When the bridge girder launcher installs the last girder,

1. Fold up the bottom part of the front leg, then longitudinally move forwards,

2. Support the support leg, then disassemble the rear support leg of the bottom launching nose and remove the launching nose, put down the last girder to finish constructing the whole bridge.

Industrial Engineering

What is 2k molding?

2k Mole-ding is the noise made by a small rodent ringing a bell in the year 2000

Math and Arithmetic
Industrial Engineering

How can you calculate the length of spiral ring?

the dia meter of the pile is 750mm the pitch of the sprial rings are 100mm and how to calucualte the lentngth of the rod for the one meter lkength of pile.

Industrial Engineering

What is a foundry ladle made of?

Foundry ladles usually comprise of a mild steel shell with a refractory lining material. Effectively it is the refractory lining material that allows the foundry ladle to be used with molten metal whilst the steel shell provides support for the refractory. Traditionally the refractory material used to be firebrick, fireclay or even rammed sand. However it is more common for foundries to now use special refractory concretes that have high insulation values and last longer. Examples can be seen at Where small amounts of metal are to be cast foundries will sometimes use ceramic crucibles to hold the metal.

Chemical Engineering
Industrial Engineering

How do you separate oil from coolant?

Oil is high because of the low density of the coolant.

Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Fluid Dynamics

What is an eddy current?

In magnetism:

An eddy current is induced into a metal when magnetic lines of force move across it. A South pole causes circulating current in clockwise direction while a North pole causes current in counter-clockwise direction. These eddy currents thus buck the applied forces. Eddy currents are undesirable when induced into transformer cores causing power loss. Lamination of core material reduces current flow in the core. Current induced into the secondary winding of a transformer is a used to step-up or step-down voltages so that they can be of a correct size for end-use applications.


When time-varying magnetic field is applied to electrical machines like transformers, a time-varying emf is induced in the transformer cores. A short circuit occurs at the molecular level in the core. Due to less resistance, a large current begins to flow in the core. This causes heating in the core. Actually the path of the current is circular resembling the circular waves in a pool of water (eddy). Hence these currents are called eddy currents.

In fluids:

In water flow, an eddy is a current that flows opposite the normal flow. If on a river, an eddy is a current that will flow upstream in a side channel filling it, even if the flow is in an opposite direction of the original flow. It is equivalent to a stream's water level rising because the river it feeds has more water in it than the stream, thus making the water flow upstream. It can also be an area that seems not to have a current at all.


Just like there exists a magnetic path due to current (charge) flow in a conductor (direction given by right hand rule), the thing works other way as well...

When there is a flux path crossing a current conducting material, there exists current paths around the flux line on the conductor plane centered to the point where flux line meets the plane. These currents are eddy currents.

Commonly available in magnetic circuits. Laminations are done to minimize the ability to flow eddy currents.

Industrial Engineering
Business and Industry

What is cryogenic deflashing?

Cryogenic deflashing is a form of deflashing used to remove any excess plastic from parts that are molded. As molds wear and age they develop places where flash can occur. Typical areas for flash are along the part including parting lines and edges. Flash can be removed using various deflashing methods.

Cryogenic deflashing utilizes batch processing to remove flash from parts. If thousands of parts are molded at a time and exhibit flash, then they can be processed quite quickly. Parts are processed in a cryogenic deflashing machine that lowers temperatures and shoots media. The lower temperatures allow the flash to freeze and become heavy. Then media is shot at the parts which takes off the flash. Normal cycles are less than 30 minutes.

Cryogenic deflashing offers repeatable results again and again. The surface of the parts are not destroyed or discolored. The only thing that is removed is the flash. Cryogenic deflashing is great for rubber, silicone, various plastics, and some metals. It is also is a cheaper process due to its speed of execution and lot sizes. I have been working with cryogenic deflashing equipment for several years and I can say that they are one of the most cost-effective ways to deflash any part.

Industrial Engineering

What is the end of a tape measure called?

I've read it's called a Tang. lol.

I call it a Grab, ironically.

Not sure if that is a legit question.

Math and Arithmetic
Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Weight and Mass

What is weight of 50 mm dia MS pipe?


Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Software Engineering

What is incremental positioning in cnc machining?

A machine can measure either from the zero point, or from the last position that was. For example, when you say "X10", you mean 10mm from the zero point of the axis X, or you may mean 10mm further than the last position the machine was on the X axis. The way of measuring is decided from the G codes G90 and G91. Running the G90 command, the machine will start to measure using absolute coordinates (measuring from the zero point of the axis) and running the G91 command will set the machine into "incremental measuring".

For making matters more clear, see the following two examples. They generate both exactly the same thing, a rectangle as shown in file p7.jpg. The first code example uses absolute measurements and the second uses incremental measurements. At this point it should be said that almost all machines measures by default using G90 (absolute coordinates). For the following example, we suppose that somehow, the machines start from point 10,10 and not 0,0

REM --- a rectangle drawn using absolute coordinates ---

G90 ; Set absolute measurement

G1 Y80

G1 X80

G1 Y10

G1 X10

REM --- a rectangle drawn using incremental coordinates ---

G91 ;Set incremental measurement

G1 Y70

G1 X70

G1 Y-70

G1 X-70


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