Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the creation and management of systems that integrate people and materials and energy in productive ways. An industrial engineer studies industrial productivity and makes and implements recommended changes.

5,161 Questions
Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

What metals make up duralumin?

Aluminum, copper, magnesium, and manganese.

Industrial Engineering

What is graphite used for?

Aside from being the material in your lead pencils, graphite is of tremendous value as an industrial material. It is used to make the brushes for electric motors and generators, and it has wide use as an electrode in a number of applications, primarily batteries (like the "AA" or "AAA" cells in your remote control).

Certainly steel-making and other foundry uses demand considerable production of this refractory material. It also finds application in lubricants, brake lining materials and such. And now we demand the extremely strong and light graphite fabric components that often are termed carbon fiber. The future for this material is continuing to open up.

Graphite has been, is, and will continue to be critically important to maintaining and advancing modern civilization. And this because it is in things we use every day, and because it is used in industrial processes that provide the foundation we build our society on.

You may want to surf on over to the Wikipedia article on graphite and skim the short and easy-to-read section about the uses of this material. Will a link help? You'll find one just below this answer.

Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

What is BE stand for in seamless be pipe?

it means beveled end

Chemical Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Why centrifugal pump is not called a positive displacement type of pump?

A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Centrifugal pumps impart pressure to the fluid, to cause a pressure differential and cause flow, but even if the outlet is sealed, the pump can continue to run because it hasn't trapped the fluid. When no flow is occurring, a centrifugal pump acts like a propeller spinning in the water. If flow is stopped on a line that a positive displacement pump is supplying flow to, the pump is forced to stop since the trapped fluid prevents it from moving any more fluid.

Chemical Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Oil Refineries

What is the process they use in oil refineries?

The main process that is used in oil refineries is fractional distillation. In this process several liquids are separated each at a particular temperature. In this process materials like butane, petrol, diesel, kerosene, heating oil, paraffin wax. greases and lubricating oils, bunker fuel oil, asphalt, etc. are separated.

Other processes are catalytic cracking (which breaks large molecules into smaller ones), catalytic reforming (which joins small molecules to form larger ones), etc.

Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Difference in basalt and hornfels?

hornfels is red

Mechanical Engineering
Industrial Engineering

Define cutting ability of cutting tool?

required red hardness n wear resitence at elevated temprature

Workers Compensation
Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Disadvantages of pneumatic system?

  • High noise levels
  • Oxidation that causes blockages
  • System could be fragile and easy to damage
  • High maintenance
  • Entire system goes down if air supply shuts down.
Industrial Engineering

What is meant by plant location?

It refers to the choice of region and the selection of a particular site for setting up a Business or Factory.

Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Muscular System

What type of material are bus bar bolts made from?

Normally they are made of brass. In some instances, plated steel.

Industrial Engineering

Why iron from the blast furnace is hard and brittle?

Due to the high carbon.

Industrial Engineering
Public Utilities
Fossil Fuels

What is rat hole mining?

Mining done by family members or community which is not under government is called rat hole mining in India. This is mainly done by tribals of north-east India. This is named so because they dig holes similar to that of rat holes to mine.

Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Known value of Young's Modulus for steel?

Between 190 GPa and 210 GPa (nominal 30,000,000 PSI)

Industrial Engineering
The Difference Between

What is difference between orthogonal cutting and oblique cutting?

orthogonal cutting is a 2D cutting having 2 forces i.e cutting force and feed force where as oblique cutting is a 3D cutting having additional force i.e radial or passive force.

Industrial Engineering
Transportation and Logistics

What is plant utilization factor?

Plant Utilization usually is referring to the rate a plant is producing compared to what the plant actually could produce. (Ex.) Say a plant could produce 100 units in a year, however, management only decided to produce 70 units in that year....that year the plant was run at a 70% plant utilization

Electronics Engineering
Industrial Engineering

How do you bias a current mirror opamp?

If you go to the given link you will see the circuit of a current mirror using Op-Amp. And you can easily see how it is biased.

Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
How To

How to Design of Inertia block?

The following is taking from the 'Outline Answers' of Part (A) of the 2009 Noise and Vibration Control Engineering paper from an examination as part of the Diploma in Acoustics and Noise Control which is accredited by the Institute of Acoustics.

"Inertia blocks are massive supports used for isolating foundations beneath vibration-sources and/or vibration-sensitive machines. Inertia blocks increase the isolated mass and therefore decrease the natural frequency of the vibrating system; particularly useful for dealing with very low frequency vibration problems, e.g. isolating a recording studio from an underground railway."

It is generally considered that the equipment should be rigidly mounted to the inertia block, a view also taken by Bies and Hansen (2009). The inertia block should also be made of rigid material such as concrete.

Electronics Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering

What is pulse width modulation generator?

A pulse width modulation generator regulates the on and off times of a square wave-form.

It is commonly used in dimmer-switches and utilizes high frequency.

Example of waveform:


This waveform is 50% on and 50% off. In a light-bulb this would mean that you only get approximately 50% of the light it can give you. It is dimmed down 50%.

By modulating this waveform, we can get more or less light whilst keeping frequency the same.



As you can see, the frequency is the same, but it is more on than off.

In this example, it is 75% on and 25% off, giving you 75% of maximum light.

Another example:


Here we have only 25% on and 75% off, yet still keeping the frequency the same.

Dimmer-switches can be made in a few different ways.

We can chop off parts of the sinusoidal waveform we get from the AC outlet.

This would be the same as regulating the pulse width of the sinus curve of AC Voltage.

We can regulate the voltage. This could be an approach of a battery-operated lamp.

The problem is that voltage regulation mean a lot of heat. (depending on method used.)

If regulating a 12 volt source down to 6 volt in order to dim a light bulb, 6 volt will go to the bulb and 6 volt will "burn up" in the regulator circuitry. If the bulb is 50 watt, then 25 watt will burn in the bulb, and the rest will create heat in the circuitry.

Now for the art of Pulse Width Modulation.

We make a generator that vary the pulse width instead of the voltage.

At 50 Hertz, we will hear the bulb hiss and we might notice some flicker.

At 5 Kilo Hertz, we will hear the bulb sing at a high pitch but the flicker is all gone.

At 25 Kilo Hertz, we might hear a very high frequency sound, but for most this is not noticeable.

(It is actually possible to make a light regulator that utilizes the bulb as a speaker to play music.)

At 35 Kilo Hertz, all audible noise is gone (although your dog might notice it)

By regulating the pulse width at 35 Khz we can dim the light up and down very accurately using Power MosFets'

A Power Mosfet has got the ability to switch electricity on and off in a fraction of a second. It has got very low internal resistance and very little power is consumed as heat. (Frequencies of 100Khz is easily obtainable and is often utilized.)

Advantages of PulseWidth Modulation:

Low power-consumption (little heat)

Small circuitry needed.

Extended battery life. Dim down 50% and your battery last almost 50% longer.


As the voltage rise and fall extremely rapidly, this creates an electromagnetic pulse. These pulses might interfere with electrical equipment like radio and TV (Not limited by these)

(By introducing a coil, we can eliminate much of this radio-noise.)

It is "difficult" to make a proper working circuitry able to dim fluorescent light.

A pulse width modulator for DC as in a battery can be made using very few components.

2 OpAmp

a couple of resistors.

a couple of capacitors.

1 PowerMosFet

1 Variable resistor (for adjusting the pulse width)

1 zener diode (3,3-5,6 Volt)

Cheap to make and long lasting.

Industrial Engineering

How big is a blast furnace?

As of mid-2012 the largest blast furnace in Europe was the one at Duisberg, Germany, which is said to be about 90 metres tall. Please see the link.

Industrial Engineering

The blast furnace in a steel mill represents?

raw material

Industrial Engineering
Acronyms & Abbreviations
Symbolism and Symbolic Meanings

Full form of engineering?

full form of c and i

Industrial Engineering

What is the difference between primary and secondary transducers?

the difference between both are:

Primary transducer:The Mechanical device which converts physical quantity to be measured into a mechanical signal.

Secondary tranducer:The Electrical device which converts this mechanical signal to the electrical signal.

Industrial Engineering

How eddy current loss can be minimized?

Eddy current loss can be minimized by slotting the opening in the box used to allow the penetration of the cable, so that a current path can not be completed. Another way to do this is to run both, or all three, in the case of three phase power, conductors through the same opening.

The issue with the current path in a penetration is that, if you just run a single cable through a hole in a box, that constitutes a one turn transformer, where the one turn is shorted, causing high current, i.e. the eddy current. If you slot the penetration to the edge of the box, you reduce the current to near zero. Alternatively, if you run balanced conductors through the same penetration, there is no net current.

The same thing happens in transformers. Care is taken to ensure that the stacked lamination's are insulated from each other, and that each lamination does not constitute a complete circuit. Often, the lamination's are made in the form of an "E", and they are stacked in alternate directions so as to maximize magnetic flux, but they are insulated from each other so as to not complete a shorted circuit.

Electrical Wiring
Industrial Engineering
Electrical Engineering

How do you wire a 12 lead motor in star delta?


Industrial Engineering

What role does the reducing agent play in a blast furnace?

The reducing agent grabs oxygen or other impurities from the molten metal so making a more refined product

For example, coke reduces ZnO to Zn and Fe2O3 to Fe


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