Nationalism is a political ideology that believes in loyalty to one's nation, usually based on ethnic connections, historical ties, or loyalty to shared institutions. Nationalism was the philosophy behind the creation of the Nation-State in the 1800s, resulting in the unification of Germany and Italy and the disintegration of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires along ethnic lines. Nationalism was always opposed by cosmopolitanism and in today's global economy, the dialogue between advocates of either tends to be tense.

3,243 Questions
History of Judaism

Why do Zionists hate Christians?


History of Judaism

What is Zionism?


Zionism was (and is) the movement to establish and preserve a Jewish homeland.

It is the ideology that Jewish people should have their own state. The Land of Israel was promised to the Jewish people by God, according to the Bible. Jews lived in the Land of Israel from the time of Joshua until the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Almost all Jews were exiled to other countries, known to Jews as the Diaspora. For centuries, Jews prayed for a return to Zion. In the nineteenth century, the Zionist movement, led by Theodor Herzl and Chaim Weizmann, encouraged Jews to turn the dream into reality, and lobbied the international community to understand that a "Jewish national home" was the only solution to anti-Semitism and the "Jewish problem."

In 1947, the dream was realized when the UN voted to partition Palestine between the Jews and the Arabs. The Arabs immediately attacked the Jews and in the middle of the war, on May 14, 1948, the State of Israel declared its independence. Today, about half of the world's Jewry lives in Israel. Most Jews living in and out of Israel are supporters of Israel and the Zionist ideology, although a small percent believe only divine intervention should bring about a Jewish state.

It is worth noting that many Anti-Semites claim that Zionism is a code word for some unclear international cabal of evil Jews trying to control the world. Such a cabal does not exist and insinuations without evidence or with evidence that has proven to be a hoax that it does exist are Anti-Semitic. Aside from this, since such a cabal would not be concerned with Jewish Nationalism, it, therefore, could not be Zionism.

Additional Definitions

These are several other people's different descriptions:

  • Zionism was the movement for (originally) the reestablishment and (now) the development and protection of a Jewish nation in what is now Israel. It was established as a political organization in 1897 under Theodor Herzl, and was later led by Chaim Weizmann.
  • The English word 'Zionism' has two distinct senses: 1: a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine; 2: a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
  • Zionism is the belief that the Jews should have political self-sovereignty and is the patriotic sentiment behind the Establishment of the State of Israel.
  • Jewish nationalist movement with the goal of creating a Jewish homeland.
  • "Jewish" national movement
  • Zionism = belief that Israel has the right to EXIST, which is no different to the belief that the 22 Muslim nations have a right to exist.
  • Zionism is basically the hope and wish of the Jews to return to their homeland - The land of Israel. This is called Zionism because the land of Israel is also called "Zion". (In the Tanakh or Jewish Bible, it is referred to as another name of Jerusalem and in later eras the meaning became more general, regarding the whole land of Israel.)
  • Zionism can be described as a yearning to make Israel a homeland for Jews
  • Zionism can be described as a peaceful nationalistic movement. It is the desire of Jews to peacefully live in their ancestral lands.
  • The term Zionism refers to a national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland.

How did napoleon use nationalism?

He had a strong way of using nationalism and people would be proud to be on his side because of so many successes.

He used the feelings of Nationalism to help them defeat enemies.


Does religion enforce nationalism?

Answer 1

Not explicitly.

Popular religions (e.g., Evangelism, Judaism, Islam) promote communal support and unity among small groups of people. This may appear to promote the general understanding of 'nationalism', but if we research what it means to be a 'nationalist', we find that this ideology is not as influenced by the intrinsic values proposed by religion as it is the result of communities uniting to share and protect domestic resources.

Swaths of territory in the Middle East are occupied by both Muslims and Christians, in some parts equally shared. Lebanon, which has seen a sharp rise in converts to Christianity, maintains a number of Islamic values, but Lebanese society does not view one faith as more nationalist than another.

Answer 2

It depends entirely on which Nationalism you speak of and which sect of which religion.

Nationalism is itself an inherently areligious ideology. It does not speak to the concept of religion, neither for nor against. What nationalism does speak to is a cultural identity and the ability of a cultural group to defend its societal organization and values. However, there are a number of societies and cultural groups which define their in-groups and out-groups from current or historic religious adherence. The most common examples where this is the case is in countries that have historically been under Islamic Rule, usually because Muslim Rulers discriminated against their citizens based on class. This is in contrast to Europe, where nationalism tends to divide along linguistic lines, since European rulers historically discriminated against citizens based on languages, and Africa, where nationalism tends to divide along tribal lines, since the European colonizers would play the tribes against one another and their pre-European historic hatreds. (In the Americas, nationalism has been subborned by patriotism since most countries in the Americas define themselves as melting pots without a primary ethnicity.)

Where religion does play a role in nationalism, such as in Greece, Israel, Palestine, Turkey, Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, and in Lebanon (on both sides), a large number of nationalists have taken on a religious fervor along with their nationalism. This is most clearly visible in the Greek Wars of Independence, where the Greek Flag was a blue cross, the soldiers would come to churches for the Orthodox priestly blessing, how the propaganda painted these wars as a holy crusade, etc. In these ways, the Greek Orthodox faith served to support and unify the Greek Nationalist movement. Interestingly enough, the Bulgarians, who used to also be part of the Greek Orthodox Church, found it necessary to schism from the Greek Orthodox Church specifically because of the strong links between the Church and Greek Nationalism (which was diametrically opposed to Bulgarian nationalism).

In places where religion does not play a role, such as in Germany, religion actually promotes sectarianism and division in nationalist ranks. It took decades to unite the Lutheran north with the Catholic south in spite of their mutual "German-ness".

United Kingdom

What is Irish nationalism in the United Kingdom?

Irish nationalism is only within the province of Ulster in Northern Ireland (part of the UK). A minority of the population want to leave the UK and become part of the Republic of Ireland.

History of Judaism

Was the state of Israel settled by people fleeing the Zionist policies of Nazi Germany?

First of all, sweetheart, Nazi Germany never had Zionist policies.

There has been a continuous Jewish population in Israel for a little over 3,000 years

now, although there have been times when their numbers dropped very low.

The modern migration of Jews back to Israel began sometime late in the 19th Century

(that was the 18 hundreds). That was the time when the individual Jews and the small

communities of Jews, who always knew that they weren't actually welcome anywhere,

began to share that realization with each other. If there were any who hadn't actually

realized it yet, it was hard for them to miss the way that as soon as things began to go

bad for this country or that one or the other one, there were always loud voices high up

in that country who blamed all of the country's problems on the Jews who lived there.

So the idea began to take hold among the Jews that it might actually be possible to start

rebuilding Jewish culture and society in the place where they always belonged, in Israel.

As Czarist Russia was falling apart and things were going from bad to worse for

Russian Jews, many of those who were able to leave Russia did so. My grandparents

went to Argentina and to the US. Many other Russian Jews went to Israel. As Germany

was going downhill in the 1920s and 30s and blaming it on the Jews, great numbers of

Jews continued to ignore what was happening and believe that it would get better.

Great numbers of other Jews who were able to leave Germany did that, and migrated

to many other countries around the world, including Israel. By the time the Nazis had

solidified power and created their policies specifically aimed at Jews, in the late 1930s,

Jews were no longer allowed to come and go as they felt like it. "Zionist" policy is a

policy that says Jews should be able to establish a Jewish nation in Israel. That was

not the policy of Nazi Germany. The policy of Nazi Germany said that Jews are inferior

human beings, that it is Germany's job to clean them off of the Earth, and that special

railroad lines and death camps should be built to do the job. And that's exactly what

Germany did, from 1938 until 1945, capturing and killing millions of Jews (and others)

in Germany, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, France, and Holland. After Germany lost the

Second World War in 1945, most of the Jews who were still alive in those countries

left, and went to other places. A lot of them went to Israel. Israel became a country

in 1948, and since that time, there have been migrations to Israel of Jews from many

countries, including large numbers from Russia, from Ethiopia, from Yemen, and from

the US and Canada.

In 1937, Ze'ev Jabotinsky proposed a mass exodus of Polish Jews to Mandatory

Palestine, but before he could pitch the idea to the Polish Jewish communities

(3.3 million people ... of whom 3 million would be mass-murdered), the British

opposed the entry of any Polish Jews into Mandatory Palestine fearing Arab

reprisals. If you wish to specifically discuss immigration to Mandatory Palestine

during the height of the Holocaust (1939-1945) you should note that the British

White Paper of 1939 further minimized the legal Jewish immigration to a trickle.

This widely prevented Jews from settling in Mandatory Palestine until after 1948

when the State of Israel was declared and opened its borders.


Does nationalism have a place in the modern world?

Here are some opinions from WikAnswers contributors on the place of nationalism in the modern world.

  • That's a very personal question. It's a matter of opinion, and there's no conclusive answer. But if you want to know my opinion, nationalism will never die out. It will adapt new forms and strategies, but it will never disappear.
  • Personally, I'm not against being proud of your nation or country, but feeling you have the right to crush the others because you feel superior is another story.
  • I believe nationalism does have a place in the modern world. It is essentially pride in one's nation; not everyone should be pressed in nationalistic ideals but without nationalism, the military would suffer in size with fewer people willing to die for their nation.

What is nationalism?

Nationalism is a force which bond members of a particular state together.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

What Nathaniel Hawthorne poem shows nationalism?


History of Judaism

Why is zionism important?

it was sought to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Palestine

Newspapers and Magazines

How do newspapers help strengthen your sense of nationalism?

when you read the news in your country/city you can always relate to them


How did the Napoleonic Wars lead to nationalism?

They didn't. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 did, strictly speaking.

Well nationalism has it roots in French revolution, at late XVII and at begining of XIX century some nations began to feel it national pride, before that countries just were loyal to king, there was beleaf that kings power was given by God, that was apsolutistic monarchy...When French revolution ocured, people was angry and miserable for bad life, while aristocracy lived good, so as the church. French revolution bolished king, and putted people as prime, that is diference between monarchy and republic, republic belogns to people while monarch at least in those days were property of king and aristocracy not people...So when Napoleon came to power, people were thinking he is the descendence of French revolution...Ofcoures Napoleon disminished the Inquisition that was one of mechanism of repression and terror...When Napoleon wars happened, some of major empires that had kept other nation in bondage for many years were busy fighting Napoleon...That gave opening to some nations to form national identity, and to fight their captors....So end of XVIII and begining and middle of XIX was time of revolution and nationalism...So during 1804 to 1813 we have Serbian revolution that fights Turkish Otoman empire that lead Greece to fight also Turks and some of Balkan nations, than middle of XIX century Oto von Bismark unified Germany, than Garibald united Italy...Anyway nationalism was creation of national fealing trow Europe, thanks to Napoleon wars...

History of Germany
History of India

Why did India and Germany need Unification?

Concerning Germany

After about 1815 there was a growing movement in favour of German unification. Many in the German-speaking world felt that being divided into 39 more or less sovereign states (countries) put them at a disadvantage by comparison with nation-states like France or Britain.

Until about 1860 the German states had resisted unification. However, in the early 1860s Bismarck (and others) decided to use German nationalism as a means to creating a kind of 'Greater Prussia' (without Austria).

Concerning India

When the sardar Vallabhai Patel invaded some of the states in the present Indian Territory many of the people felt "What was the need for unification in India?" There were reasons because of which a strong need of unification of India was felt some of the reasons depended on the fore seeing of the future of the country some were patriotic whereas some of them were also feelings of oneness that had developed in the freedom struggle.

In the period of 18th century there was a vast spread of the idea of nationalism these ideas also spread to India through the colonial rule. These lead to Indian people to think they were all one-Indians. These feelings that of course developed in minority of the population then seemed to grow to majority. This mental reason was a cause for unification in India that gave a strong feeling of oneness among the people of India. Due to this unification became a need in India.

India had already learnt the strength of unity under the national leaders during its freedom struggle. Indian independence movement had actually emphasized on this type of unification. Unity had become a type of Patriotism in India and many people understood the need of the unified Nation.

Indian leaders had also been influenced by the western ideas of nationalism. The examples of many of these countries had been take as a passion by many Indian leaders. These Indian leaders preached their philosophies of the unified India. These Ideas took a deep root in the brains of many people and this led to dreaming up of the unified India.

India had also learnt many lessons from its ununified past. These lessons included the reasons for the establishment of the British Empire in India by a small country Britain's trading company called British East India Company. This knowledge of the prior fault in the administration of India led the national Leader to Emphasize on the need on unification in the Country.

These Ideas of the Nationalism actually created the need for unification of the country under on name "INDIA".


How did nationalism begin?

independence day


What are 5 positive effects of nationalism?

National unity: political stability, economic stability, cultural improvements.

International Regocnition: hegemony, either more or less influence in global polictics.

History of Europe
History of Germany

How did unification affect Germany?

== == After unification, Germany was the strongest military power on the continent. Germany's position geographically was between large military powers. Otto von Bismarck had to be as sure as possible that no one would attack Germany, at least no coalition. First, in 1879, Bismarck made a secret alliance with Austria-Hungary. In 1881, Bismarck signed a tri-treaty with Russia, Austria, and Germany: the Alliance of Three Emperors. In 1882, Italy joined this alliance, making a triple alliance along with Austria and Russia. Under Bismarck, Germany maintained a stable and reliable foreign policy, because Bismarck maintained an anti-imperialistic stand and maintained diplomacy. Germany managed to stay on good terms with just about everyone but France. Industrialization progressed dynamically in Germany. German manufacturers began to capture domestic markets from British import. The German textiles and metal industries surpassed those of Britain in organization and technical efficiency and usurped British manufacturers in the domestic market. Germany became the dominant economic power on the continent and was the second largest exporting nation after the US. By the turn of the century, the German metals and engineering industries would be producing heavily for the free trade market of Britain. By the time of World War I (1914-1918), The German economy switched to supplying its military with the proper equipment needed to fight the war. This included the production of rifles (Gewehr 98), pistols (P08 Luger), and heavy weaponry (Maxim machine gun, Minenwerfer mortar, and several other heavy and light artillery pieces). Additionally, Imperial Germany was leading in the sectors of Physics and Chemistry so that one third of all Nobel Prizes went to German inventors and researchers.


How did industry benefit from nationalism?

Nationalism encouraged the development of large corporations


How did nationalism cause imperialism?

To answer this question one must first assess the subtle differences between the terms, 'Nationalism' and 'Imperialism'. Nationalism is the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other whereas imperilasim is a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries.

Thus, it is easy to assert that nationalism in a country would cause them to want to gain more power - power leads to wealth, more stability and prosperity. As power comes from many things but mostly from wealth as it is a thing that everyone, armies, citizens and governments alike, need. Therefore, we arise to the conclusion that countries in Europe in the early 1900s were looking for ways to further their wealth. The consequences of their quest for wealth can still be seen today, much of the developing world having been pillaged as European powers sought to take over countries in Africa and such to harness their resources.

Imperialism, in this new light, you could consider as a product of nationalism. Indeed if there is no desire to further your country, why would you bother to invade countries?

However, all this argument is based upon event before the 'Great' War although during the war these same aspects can be seen. What else but nationalism, with all Britain's pomp from their golden era bursting forth, caused Britain to go and try to defeat Germany (-and do you not usually fight to conquer and to imperialise). What else but the combined wants of three empires bustling with Nationalist feelings caused the war?

Nationalism could be called patriotism but this suggests love and a feeling of pride in your country. Rather, Nationalism is an intense and lustful desire to further your country-a feeling much more intense.

History of India
Mohandas Gandhi

What was the role of Mohandas Gandhi in nationalist movement?

Mahatma Gandhi played an important role in the Indian nationalistic movement. He promoted non violence and was the leader (not politically) in the Indian freedom movement

History of Judaism

Does Zionism represent all Jews?

One of the main problems in answering this is that there are several different definitions of Zionism that are used.

1) Believing that the Jews have the right to a State on the historic Land of Israel.

2) Believing in a Jewish-dominant State where Non-Jews are relegated to a second-Class status.

3) Being part of a world-controlling cabal.

The third, is, of course, simply another form of Anti-Semitism where the cabal is called "Zionists" instead of "Jews" since people immediately recognize the "Jewish cabal" claims to be Anti-Semitic and have a harder time recognizing the same thing with a different label.

The second is a view by those who accept Israel's existence, but want to create a line between Left-Wing Zionism and Right-Wing Zionism. The latter is more akin to the types of nationalism we see in Europe currently.

Even assuming that the first definition is used, not all Jews share the same understanding as to what Israel means. Many of them are Zionists, and live in Israel. Others are anti-Zionists (this group is primarily made of ultra-religious Jews who do not recognize a Jewish right to a State and very liberal secular Jews who see Israel's Jewish Nationalism to be inherently problematic). They are Jewish, and share the same believe as the Israelis, but they don't see the point in having a Jewish state. These Jews cherish their ancestry, but just practice Judaism in other countries. The majority of Jews are pro-Zionism, and a much smaller minority are against Zionism.


How did nationalism spread?

It depends entirely on the country in question. Sometimes it was on account of patriotic fervor in the wake of a war (South-North German Nationalism), sometimes is was based on religious crusades (Greek Nationalism), sometimes it was on account of conventions and political dissertations (Jewish Nationalism), sometimes it was in response to colonial repression and a search for identity (Arab Nationalism), etc.


What does nationalism mean related to music?

Nationalist music uses themes and motifs specific to a people, such as folk music or rhythms and harmonies inspired by them. Nationalist composers can sometimes have political goals, but not always. See related links for the wikipedia article on nationalism, which is rather good and gives many examples.

Business & Finance

What are 5 basic factors that affect the success of a nation-state?

Corruption - the easiest way to destroy an economy

Democracy - the best way to get the people and their government on the same track

Freedom - a limit to democracy. Protect the rights of unpopular minorities from the mob.

Frugality - spend less than you take in

Peace & Justice - without justice there is no peace, without peace there is no justice


What are the positive and negative effects of nationalism?

+ : the people feel they re important/in control. it gave Germans hope in a society with high unemployment. generally i think its good.

positive effects of nationalism are it brings together nations that are within a nation and negative effects are that it could lead to war, genocide and ultranationalism

nationalism is one of the main causes of WWI


What is the difference between nationalism and colonialism?

Nationalism: Devotion to the interests of one's nation.

Colonialism: A nation's policy of exerting control over foreign nations/territories.

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