Nationalism is a political ideology that believes in loyalty to one's nation, usually based on ethnic connections, historical ties, or loyalty to shared institutions. Nationalism was the philosophy behind the creation of the Nation-State in the 1800s, resulting in the unification of Germany and Italy and the disintegration of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires along ethnic lines. Nationalism was always opposed by cosmopolitanism and in today's global economy, the dialogue between advocates of either tends to be tense.

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