WW1 Naval Warfare

WW1 naval warfare was characterized by the efforts of the Allied Powers to blockade the Central Powers by sea using the advantage of having larger fleets and better position. To break the blockade, the Central Powers utilized submarines and raiders.

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WW1 Trench Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare
WW1 Homefront

What does BRAT stand for in World War 1?

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WW2 Naval Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare
Submarines

What does Unrestricted Submarine Warfare refer to?

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (URSW) is a Naval doctrine in which a submarine will attack any vessel carrying a flag of its enemies, its enemies' allies, or others suspected of giving aid to an enemy, without warning or provocation. The doctrine applies to any vessel, whether it is civilian or military in nature, large or small.

HISTORY

Prior to WWI, belligerents observed "Prize" or "Cruiser" rules, which stated that the ship couldn't sink a passenger ship, only a merchant vessel of an enemy nation, and that the crew/passengers aboard any vessel must be clear and safe before it was sunk. These rules were from the days of sailing vessels, and with WWI and the advent of submarine warfare and modern weapons, it didn't take long to determine that those rules were obsolete. This was essentially the basis for Germany's initial submarine warfare policy.

Though Germany initially tried to comply with Prize Rules, as WWI submarine warfare progressed, it became apparent that those rules were outdated and even dangerous. With its practice of warning ships and allowing passengers and crew to leave prior to sinking, it meant that the attacking submarine would be a sitting duck to any enemy vessels or aircraft. The ship's crew only needed to summon military assistance by radio, and the passengers and crew could take their time to evacuate the ship, giving time for aid to arrive.

URSW & THE SINKING OF THE BRITISH PASSENGER LINER RMS LUSITANIA

On May 1, 1915, the British passenger liner RMS Lusitania departed New York for Britain. Just a few days earlier, Germany had released this notice via its embassy in Washington, D.C.:

Notice!Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk.

Imperial German Embassy

Washington, D.C. 22nd April 1915

On May 6, 1915, the British passenger liner RMS Lusitania was torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20, just 11.5 miles off the coast of Ireland, sinking in 18 minutes. Of the 1198 passengers who died, almost 100 were children, and she also carried 139 Americans, 128 of which died in the sinking. Among the passengers were many American and British dignitaries and luminaries of the day.

The resulting world public backlash pressured the German leadership to revert to a policy of Restricted Submarine Warfare. They reverted back to URSW in 1917 to counter the British blockade of Germany, hoping to break the back of British shipping and to delay the U.S. entry into the war, but by then it was too late. Had they held fast and continued their policy of URSW after the Lusitania, WWI may have turned out much differently, as URSW and advancements in submarine warfare in general were relatively new during WWI. As a result, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) techniques had not yet significantly progressed enough to deter a significant submarine threat if Germany had continued.

Their reversion back to a URSW policy was also one of the key elements leading to the entry of the United States into WWI.

UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE DURING WWII

Until the advent of the escorted convoy system and improved Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) techniques, German U-boats during WWII conducting URSW in the Battle of the Atlantic caused devastating losses for Allied shipping. However, contrary to Hollywood fiction and wartime propaganda, it is well known that many U-Boat commanders would give aid (including food, water, and blankets) to survivors and point them toward the nearest land, despite official Nazi policy.

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and its declaration of war on America, one of the first commands to deployed Pacific-fleet U.S. submarine commanders was to "Execute Unrestricted Submarine Warfare" against Japan. It was this policy that bought the U.S. enough time to repair the fleet at Pearl Harbor, and help reinforce the Carrier Groups that had survived to counter the Japanese expansion into the Pacific. Japan's failure to deal with the U.S. submarine threat helped speed her defeat in the Pacific Theatre.

LEGACY

Even today, the mere threat of URSW can tie up a fleet's resources. During the Falklands War in 1982, the sinking of the Argentine Navy Cruiser ARA General Belgrano by the British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror, had a chilling effect on Argentine Naval operations. After the sinking, the entire Argentine Navy fleet retired back to port for the remainder of the war, save for their one remaining conventional DE submarine, the ARA San Luis.

The British, having captured and scuttled the only other Argentine submarine, remained on the defensive as a result of the San Luis' presence. Though the San Luis failed to successfully attack 2 British ships (some torpedoes missed, others were dealt with by torpedo countermeasures), the threat from the San Luis tied up one carrier, eleven destroyers, five nuclear-powered submarines, one diesel submarine, and over 25 helicopters.
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WW2 Naval Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare
Submarines

What did the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare do?

In WW1, the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare irritated neutral nations such as the United States and eventually helped public opinion to support the US entry into the war.

In WW2 the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic irritated nominally neutral nations such as the United States and provided a rationale for increasing US support of Britain and its allies.

In WW2 the American policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Pacific probably contributed to the degradation of Japanese economic capabilities as the war progressed.

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WW1 Naval Warfare

How did the blockade on Germany's ports help the Allies to win World War 1?

Germany did not have a large enough agriculural production to feed her population by itself nor enough supplies of raw materials to produce all the finished goods necessary to sustain a war effort. She had to import these things primarily by sea. The blockade prevented them from being imported. this would have almost ended the war had the Haber Process not been discovered, this process developed by leading German scientist Fritz Haber. turned nitrates into ammonia, which was what the explosives in the artillery shells was composed of. artillery was the key weapon of the first world war. The Germans also imported goods through holland. This could not be stopped as Holland was a neutral country.

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World War 2
World War 1
WW1 Naval Warfare
Gallipoli Campaign

Did the United States enter World War 2 in the thirties?

Answer

No, not until the attack at Pearl Harbor (1941), did America provide finances and munitions to the Allies fighting Germany and Italy.

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World War 1
War and Military History
WW1 Naval Warfare

What happened to the Lusitania?

The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that belonged to the Cunard Line. On May 1, 1915, she departed New York en route to Britain, that day, there was a notice in newspapers that warned passengers taking the Lusitania of German U-boat activity in the waters surrounding Britain. 6 days later, on May 7, a German U boat caught the Lusitania in it's scopes. At 2:10 in the afternoon, the Lusitania was struck by a torpedo on the forward starboard side, a second explosion occurred shortly thereafter, the reason for which has come under intense investigation regarding whether the Lusitania carried ammunition and gun powder aboard and whether the torpedoing was justified. At 2:12, the order was given to abandon ship, by this time panic on the decks were prevalent; at 2:14 the ships power went out, trapping most passengers in the dark depths of the ship with no way out. Only a couple of boats were able to be launched on its starboard side as the ship listed and flipped on its side. The boats on her port side were rendered useless as boarding them was possible but launching them would result in them being sucked under the ship as she lifted out of the water. At 2:28, she finally went under, sinking in around 18 minutes and taking 1,198 of her 1,959 passengers with her.

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WW1 Air Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare

What new weapons were invented or first used in World War 1?

Here is a list of those weapons and military items which were invented either during the course of the war (1914-1918), or which were invented shortly before (roughly 1900-1914) and saw their first military action during WW1:

  • Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR)
  • ASDIC & Hydrophones
  • "Hedgehog" anti-submarine weapon
  • Depth charges
  • Poison gases - the first military use of Chlorine, Phosgene, Cyanide, and Mustard gas
  • Aircraft - very minor experiments in aerial bombing had occurred prior to WW1, but WW1 was the "coming out" party for air power, even if the overall impact of airplanes on the war was minor.
  • Armored Tanks
  • Portable Flamethrowers
  • "Trench" mortars
  • Motorized transport - while not technically a weapon, WW1 saw the introduction of gas- and diesel-powered tractors and trucks, which replaced a good deal of the logistical transport that horses and mules had provided for millenia. It revolutionized logistics in the same manner that railroads had.
  • Lightweight machine guns - guns which could be used on the move, rather than require a fixed firing position - for instance, the Lewis gun. This is the beginning of the squad fire-support role, rather than company-level fire support as provided by heavy machine guns.

These are a list of weapons which, while neither invented during or first used in a military setting during WW1, nonetheless had their first significant use during the war - that is, the real effectiveness of the weapon was first demonstrated to a large audience of military

  • Submarines - while submarines had been invented in the mid-1800s, they were not technologically advanced enough to be usable as a weapon of war until the maturation of the Whitehead torpedo and reliable diesel engines, which mean that the first militarily-useful submarine was not build until close to 1910.
  • Hand grenades - small hand-thrown "bombs" date to antiquity, but the modern fragmentation grenade saw its large-scale debut in WW1.
  • Semi-automatic pistols - WW1 was the first time that the large-scale use of semi-auto pistols by militaries; however, trench warfare's hideously dirty environment made for a relatively poor debut, with revolvers remaining the favorite sidearm.
  • Modern steel helmet - while not technically a weapon, and while helmets were thousands of years old in design, what we now recognize as an essential part of a soldier's gear was re-introduced with a whole new design.
  • Amphibious infantry assaults - WW1 saw the first attempts at very large-scale combined-arms assaults from the sea across a beach.
  • "Special Forces" teams - while militaries always had had elite units, and sometimes picked small groups for special assaults, WW1 saw the first organizational creation of small assault groups which used tactics, weapons, and equipment different than the traditional infantry. That is, these units were distinguishable from the ordinary infantry. The German strosstruppen were leaders in this new field.

Finally, here is a list of weapons which, while commonly associated with use in WW1, were nonetheless widely used before the war, and the military strategists either knew or should have known of their impact:

  • machine guns - the Maxim machine gun (the first gas-recoil automatic gun) was designed in the 1880s, and was deployed by all armies well before WW1. It was notably used in the British Colonial Army during various colonial wars in Africa. Sadly, military circles severely underestimated the defensive power of this weapon when used in Europe.
  • Whitehead Torpedo - the first practical modern torpedo was demonstrated in 1870.
  • Wireless Radio - radio was a late 1800s-invention, but was only beginning to be deployed to naval vessels before WW1, and was not fully utilized well by land-forces (mostly due to the large physical size and power requirements of radios at the time).
  • Efficient Diesel Engine - particularly in submarines and small naval vessels, compact, powerful, and long-range diesel engines changed the balance of naval architecture.
  • Large-scale Siege Artillery - the use of massive-size artillery ( 300mm+ bores) firing indirectly was well known.
  • Artillery barrages - the scale to which massive numbers of artillery would fire continuously upon an opponent's fixed position was wholly new to WW1, where the volume and scale of such bombardments dwarfed anything prior.
  • Barbed wire - while barbed wire had been used in several smaller wars before, the extensive use of wire to restrict large-scale unit movement was entirely new to WW1
  • Shotguns - these had been used since the early 1800s, and were in declining use in militaries by WW1. However, trench warfare brought back their popularity (particularly by the Americans).
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WW1 Naval Warfare

How did Germany get around the british blockade?

U-boats aka submarines

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WW1 Trench Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare
WW1 Homefront

What was the consequences of the battle of the somme?

there were 57,000 casualties on the first day, about a third of them were killed. it was the worst in the history of British army. There was no order to prepare the soldiers for the situation they found themselves in. The British casualties were around 420,000, the French around 200,000 and the Germans around 500,000

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World War 2
World War 1
WW1 Naval Warfare

What was the reasons behind Albert Einstein's saying that he did not know about the weapons used in the third world war but in fourth world war stone weapons would be used?

He believed that the weapons used in World War Three would be powerful enough to wipe out humanity as we know it, essentially forcing it back into what we call the stone age. Therefore the fourth world war would hypothetically be limited to the weapons available after the destruction of so much human knowledge, which would be sticks and stones.

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History of Maritime
WW1 Allied Forces
WW1 Naval Warfare

How many people died on the Britannic?

30

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War and Military History
American Revolution
Japan in WW2
WW1 Naval Warfare

Who won the war at sea?

Im pretty sure the french did... :D

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WW1 Naval Warfare

How many survivors of the Lusitania have dided?

1,198 people out of 1,959 people died on the Lusitania.

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WW1 Naval Warfare

How many U-boats did German have in World War 1?

Germany built 360 U boats during WW1, they started the war with 19 in service.

178 were surrendered at the end of the war.

Courtesy of WIKI Pedia

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World War 1
Definitions
WW1 Naval Warfare

What was the dreadnought?

It referred to the battleships of the early 1900's. These massive war machines were pretty much invincible and "feared nothing," in otherwords, they were in 'dread of nought.' They were armed with large-caliber guns in turrets. The name alludes to HMS Dreadnought, a ship launched by Britain in 1906.

A dreadnought was a British name for an large ironclad, steam-powered warship with a lot of big guns on it. Later the term was changed to battleship.

A dreadnought is type of battleship, built after 1906, that utilized an "all-big-gun" arrangement. Dreadnoughts usually only had eight or more, 12 inch guns, where pre-Dreadnought battleships usually only carried four 12 inc guns, and an assortment of smaller guns.

One good example of this new type of battle ship was the HMS Tiger.

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World War 1
Example Sentences
WW1 Naval Warfare
The Difference Between

What was the steamer Falaba?

A British Merchant ship topedoed on March 28th 1915 slightly over 100 southeast of the Old Headof Kinsale in th Irish Channel by U-28. Mike Fowler

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WW1 Naval Warfare

Why did the German U-boat sink the Lusitania?

There isn't a confirmed reason, but it is widly believed that it was due to the fact that Germany wanted to provoke war, and the U-Boat captain was convinced that the Lusitania was carrying armaments from America to Britain, which evidence suggests it was.

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World War 1
WW1 Trench Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare

How many people are alive from World War 1?

only one im pretty sure...hes 108

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World War 2
Pearl Harbor
WW1 Naval Warfare

How many ships participated in World War 2 and how many were sunk?

There were 105,127 ships participated in WW2. 36,387 ships were destroyed at the end of the war.

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WW2 Naval Warfare
WW1 Naval Warfare

How many battleships are there left in the world?

Active duty? None.

There are no battleships in any current navy, anywhere in the world. The last country to have them was the USA with 4 Iowa Class Battleships that had been upgraded over the years since WW2. USS Iowa, USS Missouri, USS Wisconsin, and USS New Jersey.

All were decommissioned in the early 1990's

The closest thing (categorically) to a Battleship is Russia's Nuclear powered "BattleCruiser".

There are many Battleships still in existence as Museum ships, and a few in mothballs.

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World War 1
WW1 Naval Warfare
Walt Whitman

Who was the captain of the Lusitania?

William Thomas Turner

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History, Politics & Society
History of Maritime
New York City
WW1 Naval Warfare

Where would you find a list of ships physicians from 1854-1859 on ships from Liverpool to New York?

How were carvels different from other ships? How were carvels different from other ships?

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World War 1
WW1 Allied Forces
WW1 Naval Warfare

What was the Lusitania?

A British ship carrying hundreds of American passengers and weapons that was torpedoed by a German U-Boat. This helped America enter the war as the population began to view Germany as an enemy.


    Lusitania is a ship that was sunk in World War One by one German U-boat. It was an English ship manufactured by the Cunard line and is considered by many as a major reason the USA entered WW1. It was a passenger vessel and therefore should not have been a military target, although it is suspected that it was used my England to illegally smuggle explosives into the country from America. This is based on reports of two huge explosives that caused the ships sinking. One from the torpedo from the U-boat and one from the explosives in the hold blowing up as a result of the U-boats attack. This theory of arms smuggling has never been fully proven though the English or Irish Navy were responsible for depth charging the remains of the wreck in the 1950's - as underwater recovery and diving technology improved meaning further exploration of the disaster would be possible. This is seen by many as an attempt to cover up evidence. Thousands of people died the night the ship sank many of them Americans and that is one of the reasons the US went to war in Europe.

    On further review the Lusitania was carrying war weapons to Great Britain.

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    Korean War
    World War 1
    WW1 Naval Warfare

    How many nations were involved in World War 1?

    there where 6 nations involved in WW1

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    History of Europe
    Rainforests
    Forests
    WW1 Naval Warfare

    Why is the HMS Lusitania so named?

    Named after a province in Spain in the Roman Empiere

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