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Britain in WW2

Questions regarding British participation in World War 2, in both the European and Pacific theaters of the war.

19,562 Questions
World War 2
Britain in WW2
Winston Churchill

Who was prime minister after Winston Churchill?

Winston Churchill served as Prime Minister twice. 1940 - 1945 and 1951 - 1955. In between those two reigns was Clement Attlee. After Winston's last reign it was Anthony Eden.

A sovereign (king, queen, emperor, empress, czar, czarina) reigns.

A prime minister holds office.

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France
English to French

Which piece of water do the french call la manche?

The English channel is called "la Manche" in French language.

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Winston Churchill

How old was Winston Churchill when he died?

Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) died on January 24, 1965 at the age of 90.
Winston Churchill died, aged 90, on 24 January 1965 and was given a state funeral.

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Acronyms & Abbreviations
US Air Force

What is the Air Force acronym for OPR?

Officer Performance Report

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Germany in WW2

How did the policy of appeasement affect World War 2?

Policy of AppeasementHere are opinions:
  • Appeasement allowed the British and French to ignore an imminent threat and produced a fake peace which led to many deaths.
  • Appeasement bought Britain the precious time it needed to prepare for an inevitable war.
  • Appeasement led Hitler to believe that no one would oppose his expansionist policies. In short, if Europe had abandoned its appeasement policy by 1935 WWII probably could have been averted.
  • Britain, already economicaly damaged and knowing that a war was impossible to avoid, tried to buy vital time. She had stepped up production ao arms but was still unable to realistically fight another great war in a quarter of a century. What Chamberlain brought back from his talks was time and it proved the balance between winning an unprovoked war.
  • England under the premiership of Chamberlain, I believe, made the correct deision to appease Germany, a weakend, abused country deeply buried in debt after its ill-treatment in a post treaty of Versailles Europe. Slowly climbing out of debt, England had not the economy, or gun power to rsk and survive an all-out war with any country. Chamberlain also upheld beliefs about peace and felt that diplomacy, not mindless slaughter, was the answer in dealing with a responsible leader, as Hitler was to his German people. (Jews and other minorities were not threatened at the time.) Hitler was not the epitomy of evil, and should not have been treated as such, at that time.
  • The policy of appeasement used by Neville Chamberlain, while intended to preserve the peace, hindered the Allies and help Germany when WWII broke out. Letting Germany increase its navy, army, and air force, reoccupy the Rhineland, and give it the Czech Sudatenland all helped to strengthen the German postition in Europe. It would lead to Germany taking over most of Europe with relative ease in a matter of months.
  • Appeasement refers to the foreign policy of England and France toward Germany in the years prior to WWII. They let Hitler rebuild the German army and navy, occupy the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia. If they had put up a fight at the beginning, perhaps Hitler would not have kept pushing until the situation turned into a World War. Or maybe not.
  • Originally Appeasement was a positive concept, it had started in 1919 after the Treaty of Versailles. During the 1920's Britain had control however by 1930's Hitler had seized the intiative. Appeasement was apopulare concept especially among British policy, there were several reasons as to why Neville Chamberlain favoured this policy- people in Britain during the early 1930's had voted against war and favoured collective security, this could also be down the economic problems that had arised after the Great Depression such as high unemployment which the treasury had wanted to improve rather than muntions armament. Due to the econonmic problems this led to military weakness as the country virtually had no airforce and the navy was insufficient as was the army. In light of all these problems Neville Chamberlain had seen the effects of Hitler and the Nazis however he had believed that by getting Hitler to sign compromise documents that this would successfully bind Hitler into keeping his promises. Was Chamberlain naive? Chamberlain persisted with appeasement well after it had been crushed i.e. the Czech Crisis. However in doing so he had stepped up rearmament to give him more time. So did Hitler take advantage of Chamberlain's naivity? Subject to evidence it can be almost certain to say the answer is yes, the evidence is seen clearly right from the remilitiarization of the Rhineland up to the Munich Conference. Historians say that Chamberlain appeased Hitler in order to avoid war, others say that he was propelling Europe into war by basically allowing Hitler to do as he pleased. As Hitler prepared fo invasion of Poland, Chamberlain had no choice but to issue an ultimatum to Hitler over Poland- invade Poland and risk war with Britain or step back from Poland and reintroduce peace? Hitler did not think that Britain would go through with its 'ultimatum' so invaded Poland sept 1939. Had Britain and France resisted German aggression world war II might not have broken out.
HOWEVER:1. The policy of appeasement predates Chamberlain's premiership. Already in the early 1920s many British politicians believed that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh and were, in principle, willing to make adjustments in favour of Germany.

2. In 1933, when Hitler came to power, the official British policy was multilateral disarmament and talks were in progress to try to achieve this. Britain and France were caught out at the time.

3. It's not clear how well informed Baldwin and Chamberlain really were about the intentions of the Nazi regime.

4. The ultimate irony is that in many respects the policy of appeasement continued well into WWII. Britain and an even more reluctant France declared war on Germany supposedly in order to uphold Polish sovereignty - but did absolutely nothing to give any practical assistance to Poland. Viewed coldly, the declaration of war in 1939 bears the hallmarks of grandstanding, of an empty gesture. In many ways it was a barely rational act ... Among some British grandees there was talk of making peace - until the Nazis bombed civilian areas of London in September 1940.

5. Britain never had much influence in Eastern Central Europe. It was an area where Britain could only have acted by proxy.

6. There's a widespread belief that all Britain needed was to "do something", but very few are realistic about what that something should have been. A thunderous roar of condemnation (for example, in 1935 or 1936) might well have strengthened, not weakened Hitler, as Germans would have rallied round. A few minutes with a good atlas of Europe should make it clear that Britain would have had to act *through France*. In the mid and late 1930s France was bitterly divided into Left and Right and not well placed to take decisive action, as the events of 1940 made very clear.

7. Although Britain had a vast empire at the time it was rather weak in Europe.

8. As for Chamberlain being 'naive', people seem to think that politicians operate in a vacuum, which is not the case. Chamberlain had become Prime Minister in May 1937 and inherited a very difficult situation. Moreover, Britain was (and is) a democracy, and fighting a major war without broad support is very foolish.

Appeasement gave Germany and other Axis powers an opportunity to build strength before attacking the rest of Europe.

[It also gave Britain more time, too.]

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How did penicillin help win world war 2?

Penicillin helped fight the infections of the wounds of the soldiers, In the British Army it was normal for it to take up to fourteen hours, this period of time would allow a wound to intensify. With the use of a penicillin dressing, the chance of a wound getting infected was vastly reduced and survival chances greatly increased. It It contributed to 95% recovery rate for wounded Allied soldiers. - KR.

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WW1 Allied Forces

Why was the German kaiser jealous of Britain?

Wilhelm II was a frequent visitor to Britain when he was young as lots of his relatives were members of the British royal family. His grandmother was Queen Victoria of Britain, his uncle was King Edward VII and his cousin was the future King George V.

Growing up he would have seen the richness of the British Empire and it was only natural to try to emulate this for his own country.

Germany did obtain an empire in Africa and the western Pacific but not as large as Wilhelm wanted. The Great Naval Race of the early 1900s was an extension of his need to do better than his relatives by trying to build more battleships than the British Royal Navy had.

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World War 2

What is Blitz Cree?

Blitz KREIG is translated as "lightning war" in German. Used to describe a type of attack using planes and fast moving vehicles followed by infantry to surprise and overwhelm an opponent.

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Clothing
Winston Churchill

Did Winston Churchill wear a top hat?

Winston Churchill has had Photos taken of him wearing a top hat so a guess so.

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Germany in WW2

Who was General Bernard Montgomery's batman?

Stone

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Britain in WW2
Winston Churchill

Where did churchill live in World War 2?

During WWII Churchill lived where British Prime Ministers still live, in the official residence of the Prime Minister, at 10 Downing Street in London.

Churchill also had a nice home of his own in the country, called Chequers, where he liked to get away when possible.

Churchill directed the war from an underground complex near his home in central London. These "war rooms" have been partially restored and are open to the public.

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Britain in WW2
Germany in WW2

What was the significance of the convoy system?

AnswerThe convoy was large group of shipping, with a smaller number of destroyers and similar protecting them. If a ship was attacked, the remainder just kept going.

If a destroyer could engage the attacker, well and good, but the safety of the convoy was of over riding importance. Often the ships of a convoy would be out of sight of each other - they just followed a communal sailing pattern.

Answer

The significance of the system is simple: groups are easier to protect that those alone. As the number of defenseless civilian cargo ships greatly outnumber that of potential protecting warships, it is more effective to group those cargo ships together and protect them as a group.

That is, if each cargo ship travelled independently, and the warships attempted to individually patrol the shipping lanes, hunting for U-Boats, then the following would happen:

  • Every time a U-Boat discovered a cargo ship, the cargo ship would be sunk.
  • If a U-Boat came upon a warship, it would generally flee. Few U-Boats would be sunk.
  • It would be modestly easy for a U-Boat to find a cargo ship, as the shipping lanes were well known, and all the U-Boats had to do would be lie in wait for one to come along
  • Warships would have a very difficult time finding U-Boats, because the U-Boats were far fewer in numbers than cargo ships, and the shipping lanes were vast areas.
  • The result is that the vast majority of U-boat attacks could be done safely (for the U-Boat), with very few chances for the warships to sink a U-Boat.

When putting several dozen cargo ships in a group, and protecting them with 10 or so warships, the following would happen:

  • U-Boats would be forced to attack convoys, as there were no other targets
  • When attacking a convoy, the U-Boat would have to expose itself to detection; since there were warships with the convoy, they would then automatically have a chance to sink the U-Boat.
  • Thus, U-Boat attacks always ran the risk to the U-Boat of being sunk
  • When U-Boats attacked convoys, they would be forced to fight the warships, giving valuable time to the cargo ships to flee the area. Thus, the total amount of "exposed" time would be significantly lower

Overall, the convoy system did two things: it lowered the loss of cargo ships to U-Boat attacks, and it significantly increased the losses to the U-Boat force, which in turn reinforced the first effect.

Overall, prior to the convoy system being put into place in both WW1 and WW2, the U-boats were winning very significantly - cargo ship losses were atrocious (well above replacement capabilities, and critically impacting delivery of desperately needed war material and food), and the U-Boats had few losses. After the convoy systems were put into effect, cargo ship losses were reduced to acceptable levels - while significant, the losses were not so much as to exceed replacement construction or endanger delivery of enough material. U-Boat losses after the convoy systems started, however, became exorbitant, and eventually unsustainable.

This made all the difference in both WW1 and WW2 for Great Britain. In both wars, prior to the convoy system being used, the UK was in critical danger of being starved into submission, or, at the very least, being rendered militarily impotent due to the strangulation of its ocean trade, which the UK depended on to survive. After the convoy system was implemented, the UK was able to resupply sufficiently to regain its fighting strength and make a war-winning contribution.

For an opposite situation, Japan in WW2 never bothered to implement a convoy system, allowing the US Pacific submarine force to virtually annihilate Japanese shipping by the end of the war, with devastating effects on the Japanese industrial output.

For comparison: in WW2, by the end of the war, allied shipping losses in the Atlantic accounted for about half of the pre-war total available ships, but less than a quarter when taking into account all mid-war ship construction. Almost 75% of the losses to allied shipping were in the pre-convoy days. On the other side, roughly 75% of all U-Boats (both pre-war and constructed) were lost, with most of the losses in the post-convoy days.

In the Pacific, the Japanese merchant marine lost close to 95% of all ships it had or built, while the US Submarine force lost roughly 18% of its subs. No convoy system was ever used by the Japanese for merchant ship protection.

The end result is that the convoy system saved Great Britain (not once, but twice).

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Britain in WW2

What did RDF mean in World War 2?

Radio Direction Finder

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WW2 Homefront
Britain in WW2

What effects did World War 2 have on women in America?

Women began to do the jobs that the men used to do. They worked in factories, steel mills, and on fighter planes. A woman who worked in an industrial or manufacturing job was refered to as "Rosie the Riviter". More independent, less willing to lose their new gained power, managed America when men were at war.

Also set new standards of female participation in Wars, pilots, shippers and nurses. Women married earlier in life, had more children and relied much less on their husbands after the war. The divorce rate in the United States and Britain skyrocketed, compared to previous years. Women held higher paying jobs than in pre-war years, and this caused some conflict when men were discharged from the military and wanted their old jobs back, which were now held by women.

Women went into the workplace and never looked back. They took over factory jobs, drove trucks, flew military aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean to England, and numerous other jobs that had traditionaly been open only to men. Once the men returned from the war the women were more independent than ever and would never be content to sit at home again. Women played the role of helping fabricate weapons and bombs and all the equipment the soldiers would need.

Women never set foot on the battle field but they also were nurses and assistants and that helped alot since they needed medical treatments The above answer about women " never setting foot on the battlefield" is dead wrong.

Canadian Army nurses were about 5 to 8 miles behind the front lines in Italy, and later in France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany. They worked in advanced aid stations and advanced medical care stations, and DOZENS of them were killed by enemy fire. They assisted in the operating rooms, and were trained as "gas passers" or anesthetic nurses, as well as x-ray techs, and cast techs.

Many other nursing sisters were lost in ship sinkings on the passage to Europe, when their ships were sunk by U-boats. They were just as dead as any one else. During WWII it was womens time to shine. Their men were gone fighting on the frontlines while they were left to fight on the honefront. It was up to women and their long hours spent in war factories and their scarafices that ensure American Soldiers the necessary euipment to achieve victory. Thank You ladies for all you did for our country and thank you soldiers for giving it all. God Bless

It is important to note that while during the war women did amazing work in the factories and service in all branches of the military, the post-war conditions for women did not reflect all that it might seem they should have gained. The late 40s and 50s saw an almost complete reversion to previous gender norms. Among other effects, women typically were replaced by men in the factories and the ideal of stay-at-home domesticity gained even more strength (bolstered by the strength of the U.S. economy at the time). While divorce rates skyrocketed, indicating the beginning of greater gender autonomy, it wasn't until the 1960s that any real, tangible change could be seen for women beyond a few specific demographics.

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Britain in WW2
Mice and Rats

What do desert rats use their fur for?

they use it for to keep cool

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Britain in WW2
David Cameron

What are David Cameron's qualifications?

David Cameron has a first class honours degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics from the University of Oxford. He achieved 12 O-levels and three A-Levels from Eton College.

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Britain in WW2

Was evacuation a failure?

No evacution was not a failure because most children in fact all got evacuted safely on train but some had bad experinces and others good. children didnt wear underpants or even know how to use a toilet or toothbrush. on the other hand all the children were safe even though they had missed their parents but at least they didnt get bombed. there was a fake war so the government thought he should evacute all the children, pregnant women, disabled children etc. the neeky looking kids with spots and glasses they were picked till last and the good ones that were healthy and strong were picked first.

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Example Sentences

How can you use ordeal in a sentence?

her year stay in the hospital was quite an ordeal

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Britain in WW2
Japan in WW2

Who invented the World War 2 bouncing bomb?

Barnes Wallis.

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Britain in WW2

How scary was it when a air raid siren went off?

as I understand from my parents who were working in London at the time of WW2 before my father went to war...it was very scary, because when you came out of the shelter, you did not know if your home was still there or flattened.

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Britain in WW2
Scientists

What country was Dimitri Mendeleev from?

Tobolsk,sibera

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Britain in WW2

What did raaf mean in world war 2?

RAAF: Royal Australian Air Force.
RAAF: Roswell Army Air Field (more commonly 'Roswell AAF')

Another possibility, with similar pronunciation but different spelling and meaning:

In Britain, WRAF meant the Women's Royal Air Force. 'A WRAF/wraf' means a female member of the WRAF.
e.g. "A WRAF serving in Afghanistan had a problem with her boots." ~Telegraph.co.uk Sept 25, 2009
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  • For more information, see Related links below.
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Britain in WW2
UK Prime Ministers

Who was the British Prime Minister during World War 2?

Britain had three Prime Ministers during World War 2. The first was Neville Chamberlain who attempted initially to appease Hitler to prevent a second world war. However Hitler invaded Poland in September, 1939 which prompted Chamberlain to declare war on Germany.

Following the failed Norwegian campaign against Germany, Chamberlain resigned as Prime Minister, and was replaced on the 10th of May, 1940 by Winston Churchill. The European war finished on the 8th of May 1945 when the allies declared VE day (the surrender itself having been signed on the previous day).

Churchill remained Prime Minister until the 27th of July, 1945, when he was replaced by Clement Attlee after Labour won a landslide election victory.

On the 14th of August 1945, Japan agreed to surrender and ultimately signed the surrender papers on the 2nd of September 1945, marking V-J Day and the end of World War 2.

Clement Attlee remained as Prime Minister until the 26th of October 1951 when he was replaced by a re-elected Conservative party led by Winston Churchill.
The priminster from ww2 is , Winston Churchill and Neville Chamberlain , Neville Chamberlain came out of office 2 weeks after England commit ed war on Germany , then Winston Churchill came in .

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War and Military History
D-Day
Britain in WW2
VE Day

What does VE day stand for?

VE Day (or, more properly, V-E Day) was and still is a celebration of the Victory in Europe during World War II. It is celebrated on 8 May, since 8 May 1945 was the date the Allied Forces accepted the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers in Europe.

Related is V-J Day (Celebration of the unconditional surrender of the Japanese forces) which is celebrated at different days in different countries.

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Britain in WW2

What did British government do in World War 2?

Winston churchill was about the only brit who made a commitment to ww 2 and that was on a executive level. The rest of Briton worked in factories and such for the war effort . Many young men joined in the war as soldiers, etc, England also served as an aviation contributer as most planes were able to refuel there and get some r&rSo England did pretty much what the Americans and other allied countries did.

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