Some factors in William's victory, which was not a foregone conclusion:
Harold having to bring a good number of his troops on a long march from the battle of Stamford Bridge against the vikings (and some of the forces involved there staying in the north)
Harold's possible impetuous commitment to battle, when another day's wait would have increased his numbers.
The battle site was not badly chosen by Harold, and his lack of archers not a major problem.
Mid-way through the battle, one flank of the Norman attack (The Bretons) had crumbled and retreated, but a counter-attack by the Saxons had left them out of formation and exposed, suffering very heavy causalities.
It was this tactic repeated deliberately which seems to have turned the battle. A faked retreat (dangerous, in case it turns into a real one) tempted the Saxons from their shield wall and hill.
Whether this was the ill-discipline of troops acting without orders or a terrible decision by Harold is not known.
Apart from the immediate losses, against a disorganized formation the re-deployment of archers was more effective.
The battle which need not have been lost, was.
Here is more input from others:
Here is a summary of what happened in 1066:
The state of Harold Godwinson's army before the Battle of Hastings:
Harold Godwinson's army wasn't in a great state for the battle. The weaknesses in Harold Godwinson's army were that they had all just marched 226 miles (363 km) so they were tired, they didn't have as many soldiers as William, they had just fought so some soldiers were down and some were wounded, their weapons weren't as good as Williams army's weapons and some members were giving up.
The state of William of Normandy's army before the Battle of Hastings
William of Normandy's army was in a good state for the battle. The advantages in William of Normandy's army were that they were well relaxed (they'd been waiting in the South for 9 days), they had around fresh soldiers who were all ready for battle.
There are a number of various reasons why William Duke of Normandy won the Battle of Hastings. William and his army had landed on the South Coast expecting the enemy there, waiting for them. But they were over joyed to find out that nobody was there to meet them. William and his troops were expecting Harold Godwineson and his army to be there, waiting to meet them and start the battle. But instead, Harold and his army were at the North, fighting Harald Hadraada and his army. No wonder they were over joyed. So they decided to have a feast and get a good night's rest.
They now knew that Harald Hadraada and his army had attacked Harold and his troops and were fighting a battle, so they knew that Harold couldn't reach them quickly. So they had the feast and had a good night's sleep, and woke up the next morning, fresh and ready to fight the battle. Meanwhile Harold and his army were up at north, fighting Harald Hadraada and his troops, and then, very luckily, Harold gave his enemy, Harald, a blow that killed him. He sent his army home. Then, on this very triumphant day, Harold received very bad news: the William and the Normans had reached the South Coast and were getting ready to fight Harold. So Harold had to gather his army again, just as they were all tired out from fighting the battle and winning it for him. And he still had to pay them taxes. Harold's army weren't at all happy when he sent for them.
He and his army got ready to fight William, and they set off, marching, to get to the South Coast. So Harold and his army were tired out from all that fighting and now they had to go and fight another battle, which was just too bad luck! When Harold and his army reached Hastings, and stopped there to rest for a bit, they found out that William and his troops were there. So they met William and fought the Battle of Hastings, and, very luckily for him that was, William struck Harold in the eye, which made him stumble around in pain for a while before he was killed.
William had been promised the throne by Edward, or so he claimed. After Harold beat the viking army of Harald Hardrada at Stamford Bridge, he had to march to Hastings to meet William. The Saxon shield wall of Harold held strong, but Williams men feinted a flee. Harolds men followed to route the Normans, breaking their shield wall. The Normans turned and caught the Saxons off guard defeating them. Another important issue was the Norman mounted knights. The development of steers for the Normans gave them a superior advantage over the unmounted Saxons.
Harold had to march his men to Stamford bridge near York and battle the vikings then take them south again. Harold lost some of his best men at Stamford and he was just unlucky. William had more and better men. Harold's men were not disciplined. Harold was killed in the middle of the battle.
The area Hastings was fought in was very different then to now, being almost entriely Fenlands. William landed in a cul de sac and it was important for him to break out. Harold rushed down from Stanford Bridge to hem William in. At the only exit to the Fenland was a high hill, Harold won the race and occupied it. Harold had 6000 troops arriving the following day if William waited a day he had lost the campaign so he chose to attack Harold at a huge disadvantage. It was one of the closest battles in history, for six hours the Normans attacked and the Saxon shield wall held. Until at dusk the Normans launched one last desperate assault on the Saxon left flank. It enjoyed a little success and Harold was forced to commit his reserve, Huscarls led by himself. It was during this assault he was struck by an arrow and killed. Effectively a lucky shot not only won the battle and the war but saved the Normans from annihalation on the following day.
William won the battle of Hastings because his troops were well prepared. Wiliiam used clever and well planned tactics to fool Harold's army. Part of the victory was down to luck. While Harold Gowinson was up near York At Stamford bridge, The Normans were able to cross the channel. This meant that Harold had to march his troops down to the small village, Hastings to fight the battle against William. This put Harold at a disadvantage, because some of his best fighters had died at the battle of Stamford bridge, and all Harold's troops were tired.
My uncle who used to work as a tour guide at battle abbey said that William had an idea for some of his army to look like they were running away from the battle, so a large chunk of Harold's army followed the people who were fleeing, but little did they no a trap was set. When the people who were following the fleeing people got to a point, some of Williams army surprised them and killed them. Leaving Harold's defenses small and out numbered.
Harold had been waiting on the south English coast for William to make a move from Normandy, then amassing his multi-national army. William waited until Harold's army had almost depleted their food reserves, etc.
But a huge Norwegian Viking army of '300 ships' (maybe 12-18,000 men)under the fearsome King Harald Hardrada('hard ruler') invaded northern England, with Tostig(Harold's own brother, still irate that his brother didn't help him keep his earldom a year earlier), advanced to near York and routed a Saxon army in battle, at ''Fulford Gate''(20th Sept 1066) Harold agonized, but decided to speed-ride north 190miles to beat the Norse, then dash back hopefully in time to defend the realm against William, who might invade anytime. This Harold did- he surprised the Norsemen and in a bloody and costly victory at ''Stamford Bridge''(25th Sept), the English slaughtered the Norsemen, Hardrada & Tostig.
Harold dashed back south again, having just got word of the Norman's landing on the south coast(29th Sept), and made for London to arrange for battle. His messengers had already ridden ahead to the western and southern shires to raise another fyrd(farmer/soldiers owing 2mnths annual war service). Crucially, he had had to leave his archers and many infantrymen- who were marching the hard slog on foot, and would be weary/late for battle.
On the 13th October, Harold uncharacteristically ignored the wise advice of his brother Gyrth(who said he instead would lead the half-prepared army, then Harold could lead a second)ordered every available man to follow him, and again marched, this time the 58m south to Senlac hill- originally intending to meet the fyrdsmen there(still coming in from the north/shires) before a possible night attack on the Normans then in their wooden stockade at Hastings harbor, 7m south.
But William's scouts found the gathering English there, and William marched north quickly. Now the two armies would fight here(Senlac, wrongly called the battle of Hastings), the Normans/French/Bretons on the low, marshy ground and the English/some Danes tightly packed atop the narrow, steep ridge above, half-mile wide. Harold's men were in a great position, guarded on their flanks by marshes/woods, and a steep incline ahead- but they were exhausted after their recent marches and previous battle.
King Harold of England had traveled to the far North of England to do battle with the invading Vikings, whom he defeated at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. He was making his return to Winchester (then the capital of England), and disbanding his army as he went, when he got news that William, Duke of Normandy had invaded at Hastings on the South Coast. Harold immediately recalled his men and made a forced march South. The speed with which Harold's army moved took William by surprise and as a consequence Harold was able to choose his ground to his best advantage. Harold had the high ground, but he suffered from two disadvantages; First, he had just fought a battle in the North and had lost many men that he had not had time to replace, and Second, having marched the length of Britain his men were exhausted. In spite of this he managed great discipline and fought off charge after charge from the mostly mounted knights of William. His shield wall proving impossible to break.
William then made a mass charge with 75% of his cavalry, instructing them to break off quickly and appear to desert the field. This they did. Many of Harold's men, convinced they had finally won the day ran down the hill after them, on foot. By the time they reached the bottom of the hill Williams remaining cavalry cut them off while the 'retreating' horsemen turned back and slaughtered them. This seriously weaken Harold's position and he was no longer able to withstand the repeated cavalry charges. It is almost certain that the story of Harold being shot in the eye with an arrow is a myth. However, he was certainly killed on the battlefield that day in 1066 and William had his victory.
The main reason often given for why Harold should not be king was because he had promised his support to William of Normandy. Oaths (promises) were taken very seriously in Medieval times and Harold was considered by William and the Pope to be an oath breaker, which was a very serious accusation in those days.
harold was keshas fiance but he died in a car accident in a taxi because the taxi driver was drunk
Harold said: "my family are the most powerful in England. We have controlled Wessex for years. We intend to control England one day. Fifteen years ago we tried to take over. We rebelled and tried to get rid of king Edward the confessor. But he beat us and threw us out of England..."
The Tennant in chief was the next important person after the king.
By the end of the tenth century England had become one united country ruled by Anglo Saxon kings from the house of Wessex. Since the year 991, the King was Ethelred II, dubbed "The Unready".
For a short time, 1013 to 1014 Sweyn I, a Danish King ruled England and had intended his son, Cnut to succeed him. Ethelred drove Cnut out of the country and was re-instated as King. Ethelred died on 23 April 1016 and was succeeded by his son Edmund II Known as "Ironside."
In October, 1016 England was invaded by Cnut, (also known as Canute), who became King of England. He was already King of Denmark, Norway and parts of Sweden.
The north western part of France, nearest to England, is the Duchy of Normandy - a Duchy is an area ruled by a Duke. The then Duke of Normandy was Richard I, known as "the fearless" and in July 1017 Cnut married Richard's daughter, Emma. Emma was the widow of the previous English King Ethelred "the Unready."
At Christmas 1017, Cnut murdered all of the supporters of the previous king who he could find.
The rightful heir to the throne was a son of Ethelred and Emma, named Edward, and he and his brothers fled to Normandy for safety where they were taken in by Duke Richard II, who was the son of Richard I and was also their mother's brother. Richard II was followed as Duke by his eldest son also called Richard, and after a short time by his other son Robert. Robert was Robert II, "The Magnificent" and was also called "Robert the devil" because of suspicions that he had murdered his brother.
Robert died in July 1035, leaving only illegitimate children, the oldest of whom was William who then became Duke William II of Normandy.
It was this William who invaded England in 1066, becoming King William I of England. One part of his claim to the English throne, therefore was that he was related to the Anglo Saxon kings - Emma was his great aunt.
Meanwhile in England, under the kingship of Canute, the Godwin family prospered and became wealthy and important landowners. One, Harold Godwinson, had become Earl of Wessex.
Canute had a son Harold, whose mother was Aelgifu of Northampton and another son Harthacanute whose mother was Emma of Normandy. When Cnut died in 1035 his son Harold, known as "Harefoot" became King of England.
On Harold Harefoot's death in March 1040 Harthacanute became King.
In 1041, Harthacanute invited his half brother, Edward (the above mentioned son of Ethelred and Emma) to return to England and, it is thought, made Edward the heir to the throne.
Edward became king, as Edward I, when Harthacanute died in June 1042. He later became a very devout Christian, and was known as "Edward the Confessor." He was made a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church in the year 1161.
William of Normandy visited London in 1052 and later claimed that Edward had promised he would become king on his death.
Harold Godwinson also claimed that Edward had promised the throne to him - both claims may well be true.
Edward died on 4th January 1066 and Harold was appointed king as Harold II, the matter then being resolved by William's victory over Harold at the Battle of Hastings in October 1066.
William also later claimed personal ownership of all the land in England "by right of conquest," a claim he would not have been able to make if he had not taken the crown by force.
He didn't reward the English. However he did start a revolution. He introduced new things like the Domesday Book, Castles and the Feudal System.
The Battle of Hastings
William won the battle of Hastings so he could be regarded as 'better'.
yesAnswerNo after the battle of hastings he wiped out whole villages of Saxons and the population of England plummeted? Answerno becaus ha started an un provoked attack AnswerYes because he was nice enough to save Harold from a shipwreck and he had many heirs to the throne that could be his successers. He was a blood relation of Edward the confessor and so he must have been a nice man for the throne to be promised to him twice (supposibly) AnswerHe was a successful Duke and was knighted at the age of 17 so he must have been seen to have potensial. By starting an un-provoked attack, he was saving the country from a test of power which frequently happened during this time.
No: His response to rebellion after the conquest was the systematic " harrying of the North".This laid waste an area 150 miles square. Villages burnt, families wiped out, animals destroyed and crops razed.
He did his level best to destroy all signs of English culture, language and traditional religion. In the years before the invasion England was an adherent of the orthodox church, this was, like so many other beliefs suppressed and the practices of the church of Rome enforced.
Had the battle been won by Harold II England would still speak a Nordic language and have close links with it's Scandinavian cousins.
I believe William was known as William the illegitmate before he came to England, the French knew him very well.
cholas cheras and pallavas
This was a battle between King Harold II of England and King Harald III of Norway for the English crown. the English won and Harald was killed. A few weeks later Harold himself was killed at the battle of Hastings and William, Duke of Normandy, became King of England. The contenders for the throne were, Edgar 'The Atheling' , Harold Hadrada, William Duke of Normandy and Harold Godwinson. The new king was needed because the past king (Edward the Confessor) had died. The wittan chose Harold Godwinson to be the new king of England. Edgar 'The Atheling' just gave up because he was only about 14 when this happened. But the other contenders wanted a fight. The fight of Stamford Bridge Involved Harold Godwinson (the new King of England) and Harold Hadrada (one of the other contenders).
after his rein the king went to stay in barking for a while
Happened on the 14th October 1066. (Started around 9am.)
It ended the same day at around dusk (6pm) when the English' defensive shield wall was broken through by one last push of the Normans. Harold Godswinson (of the English) died because of an arrow that landed in his eye. When the Normans won the battle, the remaining English troops deserted to the North.
It is one of the most famous battles in the Middle Ages.
King Edward the Confessor's closest relatives were his mother and his brother. After that, William, Duke of Normandy, known as "The Conqueror" was closest blood relative, a cousin.
Harald Godwineson was 20 years old when Edward married Harald's aunt, Edith. Thus, Harald and Edward did not share a drop of the same blood.
They was Normans that are french and there were Saxon's that were English fought by the Normans was a bloody Battle
Originally they ate only in a refectorium (refectory, also called the "frater") which was usually sited on the south side of the cloister range, next to the kitchens and with facilities for washing hands just outside in the cloister walk (ambulatory).
Inside the refectory the long tables were arranged around the edges of the room, with the monks sitting close to the walls so that those appointed as servers could move freely around the central space.
Meals were always eaten in total silence, with a monk appointed as "weekly reader" standing at a reading desk with a Bible or other religious text at one side of the room - he would read passages throughout the meal so that the monks not only fed their bodies, but also their souls.
As time went on many monasteries began to relax the rules forbidding the eating of meat, but this was never permitted to take place in the refectorium. Another room called a misericord ("a mercy" in Latin) was reserved for the eating of meat when this was allowed, which was generally limited to a few monks at a time.
During meals and at other times when silence was imposed, communication was entirely by sign language. The Monastic sign languages are the oldest recorded sign language in the world.
See links below for images:
Edward the Confessor was King of England from 1042 to 1066. His reign was somewhat turbulent with various powerful families and groups trying to influence or even control Edward. One of the families, and most powerful, was the Godwins. Depending on the different historians, the Godwins may have exercised a great deal of power over him, and many of them were exiled. Some tried to raise an army and invade England, but for several reasons their efforts failed. Never the less Edward married Edith Godwin in 1045. but antipathy with the Godwins increased when Edward refused to accept one of their relatives as Archbishop of Canterbury. There was also antipathy between the Godwins, especially Harold, and Wiiliam Duke of Normandy for various reasons, one of which was their activities in raising the envasion army.
That background is important because Edward died in 1066 without leaving an heir. Many thought that since Edward had made Edith his queen , she should rule. But most thought that a woman could not rule and a king should be chosen. Harold Godwin thought he was the logical choice, even if he was not of royal descent, he was Edith's brother after all. The Witenagemot, a council of high-ranking clergy and nobles, ( many of whom were Godwins or their supporters) elected Harold king, he reigned as Harold II.
But.. ( big but) before he died Edward had told or hinted that he chosen more than one man to be his successor, either as a matter of statescraft, to keep the factions at each others throat instead of his, or unintentionally, he was ailing and somewhat "unworldly" at times. William the Norman was of those men, or at least thought he was. And of all the men he had the strongest claim to the throne by royal blood, he was of distant royal descent, 2nd cousin to Edward, and his wife, Mathilda, was of even closer descent. ( To further complicate things, Mathilda's sister was married to a Godwin.)
So, William thought he had a legitimate claim to the English throne due to royal inheritance and Edward's possible promise. Not only that, England was now ruled by the already disliked Godwins, who had shown more than a little interest in taking Normandy as their personal Duchy, the throne itself was occupied by the especially disliked Harold. In addition, not only had the Godwins cast greedy eyes on Normandy, English monarchs of the past had wanted to add it to their kingdom.
So, because of a perceived legitimate claim, personal animosity, and to protect his holdings, William had all the validation he needed to invade England. Add to that Papal approval, assitance from others the Godwins had offended, and complicated political and family relationships and animosities. Thrown into the bargain, he could add Normandy to the English Kingdom without losing personal ownership.
Of course any one who tries to usurp a thrown has got to be a power seeker for one reason or another, political or personal egotism, or what have you.
That's a long answer, I have seen longer. Short answer, especially for the times, the Divine Right of Kings. Witenagemot or not, God chose William as king and God helps those who help themselves.
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION SHOULD BE ADDED TO THIS ANSWER:
William the Conqueror had a distant blood claim to the English throne through his great-aunt, English Queen Emma. Emma's son, King Edward, was William's first cousin once removed. Therefore, William had as strong a blood claim to the English thrown as anyone else with the exception of one other person.
William the Conqueror had his sights on England as a young man due to his father's intended invasion, an invasion that never came to fruition.
Many years before William became the Conqueror, he visited English King Edward who promised to name William as his successor to the kingship. Edward made this pronouncement publicly at least one more time in future years. In fact, Edward executed two wills naming William as his successor. William expected that he would peaceably become King of England.
King Edward had married into the ambitious Godwineson family who held great estates and political power in England. At some point, King Edward sent his brother-in-law, Harald Godwinson to Normandy on a diplomatic mission with William. During that mission, William obtained a promise from Harald that the Englishman would not stand in the way William's path to kingship and that Harald would support him as the heir-apparent to the throne.
King Edward and Harald betrayed William the Conqueror. On his deathbed, King Edward the Confessor, who had no son, was pressured into naming Harald, his brother-in-law as his successor. In essence, Harald usurped the throne from William the Conqueror, who intended to take it peaceably.
William the Conqueror appealed to the Pope and received a papal banner authorizing the Engliash invasion, which was undertaken in 1066.
Harold was a foot soldier so he couldn't control his soldiers. Please note that all the English fought on foot, horses were used to get to the battle and were not used by them in it.Harold's mistakesHarold made mistakes by having two battles in the same period of time, and using the wrong weapons. Harold should have waited before engaging battle with the Normans; The Normans burned the lands they pillaged through and consequently would have eventually had to return back to Normandy in order to get food. AnswerIn the Battle of Hastings, Harold was a foot soldier and he couldn't keep an eye on his men from where he was standing.
His men ran after the enemy when they faked retreat, and broke the shield wall - which was until then protecting them extremely well!
When the shield wall broke and Harold's army ran straight ahead, the Normans split into two columns. These then closed on Harold's army. That is called an envelopment.Then Harold Godwinson fought Harold Hadraada just before the battle.Answer:
Harold's men were not only tired from marching up and then down the country again after taking on and defeating Harald Hardrada but they were also disaffected (fed up) with the terms of their involvement - many of them were not career soldiers but ordinary farm folk who had been rounded up and pressed into Harold's army in leiu of taxes (which he apparently then made them pay anyway). Those that were not killed during the Battle of Stamford Bridge with the Norse King (Harald Hadraada) had marched nearly 250 miles in a couple of days - perhaps if Harold had waited for his men to recover or if he had been a better tactitian he may have been luckier but maybe it was just down to that... luck.
Probably a thousand or so.
The battle of Stamford Bridge was between Harald Hardraada, a tough viking, and the new King Harold Godwinson. Before Harald Hardraada fought Harold Godwinson, he fought two English Earls: Edwin and Morcar, I believe, in York.
To the point, in the battle of Stamford Bridge the English fought in tight ranks while the vikings where split up. Harold Godwinnson used a formation called the ramming formation to break to the vikings. after that an archer shot Hardradas throat and most of the vikings fled. the rest swapped sides.
After the battle of Stamford Bridge, only about 200 soldiers/ships went back, despite the thousands he brought over. Harald Hardraada lost whilst Harold Godwinson claimed victory but later had to go and fight William of Normandy and his Norman army in the battle of Hastings
Both the Battle of Stamford Bridge and The Battle of Hastings were fought in England. The Battle of Hastings is said to be the most famous English battle ever.
Luscious Lopez was born on September 11, 1981.
The Tapisserie de Bayeux is not a painting but a tapestry, woven probably in the 1070s. It is debated whether it was made in England or in Normandy.
The Person who had the best claim to the throne is Harold godwinson. This is because he had the stingiest relationship to King Edward. Also Harold was the only One that was declaired King by the Wotan. The witan were the kings advisitory council
Put's himself first
Thinks about himself not his army
Listens to him army
Puts others first
Thinks about his army
These are my opinions but read the Battle of Hastings and you will see why I think these things!
(Sorry about Spelling Mistakes) Hope this helped
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