Unanswered | Answered

Nuclear Physics

Parent Category: Physics
Most commonly known for its applications in nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, Nuclear Physics also has applications in medicine and archaeology. This category is for questions about the branch of physics that deals with the study of the forces, reactions, and internal structures of atomic nuclei, Nuclear Physics.

Subcategories

A light and a heavy object have the same momentum .find out the ratio of their kinetic energy . which one has a larger kinetic energy ?
E=MC2 When energy gets to a certain level, it creates a particle and an antiparticle, and this process is called pair production Mr_Adams:E is energy and M is mass, but the surprise (and explanation behind the existence and creation of antimatter) is C is not a variable, it is a constant: the speed...
First light is not a mechanical wave and so its velocity will not  be affected by the speed of any material medium.
Depending on the energy you can simply use varying thickness sheets  of metal or plastic.
Proton: 1,007 276 466 77(10) atomic mass units (u) Neutron: 1,008 664 915 6 (6) atomic mass units (u) Electron: 5,485 799 094 3(23).10-4 atomic mass units (u) If you set the mass of an electron as 1 Then the mass of a proton is 1835 (Approx) The mass of a neutron is 1836 (Approx)
The total of all electromagnetic waves is called the  electromagnetic spectrum.  The electromagnetic spectrum includes radio waves, microwaves,  infrared radiation, visible light waves, ultraviolet radiation,  x-rays, and gamma rays. Only visible light waves, which humans see  as the band of...
Once radioactive decay has finished, the atom will be a new element, and will be a lot more stable
As alpha comes out then the atomic number gets reduced by 2 and  mass number by 4   If beta comes out then no change in mass number but with an  increases in atomic number by 1   As gamma ray comes out there is no change in both atomic and mass  number but a change in the energy level.
Due to a large number of Nucleons (protons+neutron) the nuclear  binding force is not enough strong to hold the nucleons unite.
It gets split into elements of lesser atomic number with production  of neutrons
The equation for the beta decay of 60Co is: 2760Co --> 2860Ni + -10e where the -10e is a negative beta particle or electron.
Involving fission & fusion at the same time? These reactionsare completely different from each other and have no physical ormathematical relationships. I suppose you could claim that ahydrogen bomb that uses a fission trigger is an example of such anequation, however, the fission occurs before the...
daughter: Thorium-234granddaughter: Protactinium-234great granddaughter: Uranium-234great great granddaughter: Thorium-230great great great granddaughter: Radium-226
The "strong force," or sometimes called the "strong nuclear force." This is the exchange of gluons between the protons and neutrons.
Yes, a nuclear reactor produces nuclear radiation. Nuclear reactions in the core produce energy, and they also produce different types of radiation.
By a particle accelerator, which speeds atoms up reeeaaaallly fast,  which makes them more massive according to E=mc^2.
They emit radiation as they decay. That radiation is not generally detectable by human senses (unlessit glows in a color range we can see). We need lab instruments to detect the radiation such as: . Geiger Counter, with Geiger-Mueller (GM) Tube orProbe- A GM tube is a gas-filled device that, when a...
One of the primary uses of Americium-241 is as an alpha emitter in the ion chamber of a smoke detector.
After the beta decay of the isotope magnesium-28 the isotope aluminium-28 is formed. 28Al has 13 protons and 15 neutrons - the mass number is 28.
Perhaps you can't, but carbon dating is not used on mineralized fossils. The igneous rock above and below the fossil strata is radiometricly dated, Carbon dating is only good on material containing carbon; material less than 40,000 years old.
Quarks are fundamental particles, and three of them make up the particle group we call the baryons. The two common baryons we encounter are the proton and the neutron, which are composite particles made of of three quarks each. The proton is composed of two up quarks and a down quark, and the...
The mass of a proton is 1.672 621777(74)x 10 to the power of -27, in grams.  
The ticking of a clock is constant, occurring at a steady  rhythm/frequency.   While the decay of radioactive elements cannot be determined at a  particular point in time, they do decay at a fairly steady rate  over time. This allows you to statistically determine the rate at  which a mass of...
Radioactive decay only changes the number of nucleons ( i.e.  protons or neutrons ) or the energy of an atom to form an isotope.  Changing the number of electrons would form a ion.
part of actinium radioactive
No two physical objects can occupy the same point in space at the same point in time. therefore when they meet the result is a collision instead of passing through one another.hoped it helped, ;) Lia x
The individual protons and neutrons are basically  indistinguishable; they don't have different names.
Nuclear fission has advanced science in that it has led to the  development of the most powerful weapon ever created, the atomic  bomb. Also, nuclear fission is used in nuclear power plants to  evaporate water to move turbines.
Certain isotopes of some elements can undergo fission. In nature, the only substance that does this is uranium-235, which is less than 1% of all uranium.When U-235 undergoes fission, it makes two much lighter new atoms, and three neutrons. When one of these neutrons hits an atom of U-235, it causes...
The first nuclear reactor was in former Soviet Union that operated  in year 1954 at obninisk.
  The island of Komodo, a small island off the west coast of new guinea
Uranium is not lighter but heavier than many of the other elements; the density of uranium is 19,05 g/cm 3 and the atomic weight is 238,02891.
alpha and beta radiations do not travel at the speed of light,but gamma rays and the rest of em spectrum rays do.
A quarter! After 12.32 years the remainder is one half After another 12.32 years (so 24.64 in total) the remainder is one half of the former half, thus 1/2 * 1/2 = 1/4 Formula:   mto = mt * 2 {t / t(1/2)}   mt = mass on time t (in this calcul 24.6 year) mto=mass on time 0 (begin) t(1/2)=...
fission rate is slowed in nuclear reaction by using neutron control materials that having high neutron absorption capacities (like Cadmium and Boron).
The risks associated with fission reactors have been greatly exaggerated, with funding from other interests in the energy industry.Even if the risks were to be as great as suggested by the coal industry, they are only risks. The damage to forests, and people's lungs, from acid rain is an established...
Since the positron is the antiparticle of the electron, it follows  that the electron is the antiparticle of the positron.
The equation for the beta decay of 165Ta is: 73165Ta --> 72165Hf + 10e + ve where the e is a positive beta particle or positron.
When helium reacts with fluorine it gives neon and proton
The Higgs boson was first theorized in the 60's, and now, at CERN, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has just reopened after some technical difficulties. This machine will collide particles up to 3.5 Tev. The hope is that in the debris, a Higgs boson will materialize, probably for a very, very short...
This reason is, simply, very obvious. Compare the numbers: 238 and 16. Since the orbitals are more full, and the nucleus is packed tighter, and Uranium is located after atomic number 84, it is unstable. All of the elements after 84 are unstable. But that doesn't count isotopes of the earlier...
-Down and anti-Down quark, -Up and anti-Up quark or -Strange and anti-Strange quark
Nuclear fission is now commercially available in nuclear fission  reactors since the fifties of last century. Nuclear Fusion is still  under R&D. Nuclear fission reactors are clean energy source.
The difficulties involved in producing a sustainable nuclear fusion reaction focus on the enormous temperatures and pressures, energy in other words, required to initiate and maintain the reaction. It is the same as the inverse of Einstein's equation E = MC2 - if the yield of conversion of mass to...
The positron is the antiparticle of the electron. So, it is positive. Antiparticles are always the opposite of their matter particle. They are of the same mass and of opposite charge. When a particle and antiparticle meet, they annihalate each other in a blast of energy in the form of photons, a...
Much of the heat in the core of the Earth is residual from heat created billions of years back, and some of this was created in fusion reactions in stars.There are other nuclear actions at work in the core of the Earth, however. The more important of these is nuclear decay, which is what most...
Forever and a day. 200g of C14 will never decay to a mass of 100g.C14 decays to C12. The final product of the decay of 200g C14 is ~172g C12.
Hydrogen, and only Hydrogen. Other gasses may be present, but theywould work against the fusion reaction by being in the way andabsorbing energy. In nuclear physics, things that impede thenuclear reactions are called "poisons" and have to be calculated infor their overall effects. As a star ages and...
231 Th------------- 231 Pa + ? - 234 Th------------- 234 Pa + ? -
There are three primay ways to limit exposure to radiation, and they are time, distance, and shielding. By decreasing the time you are exposed, you limit exposure. By increasing the distance between you and the source, you limit exposure. And by placing shielding between you and the source you limit...
There are actually more than two elements that could undergo a fission reaction. There are two that are particularly important, and these are uranium and plutonium, both of which can be used in types of conventional nuclear reactors and in bombs. Not all uranium and plutonium isotopes can be used...
No. Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, so they are relatively large. They also have a large ionising effect, which means can damage cells making it cancerous. However, since it is so large, it can be stopped by such thin surfaces as skin or paper, so is only dangerous when...
Yes. The process proceeds at the same rate for any given sample of an isotope, such that its mass is reduced by half at some regular interval, called its half-life. The type of decay is also predictable. Making a graph by plotting the atomic number vs the mass number of stable isotopes can be used...
Both gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic energy. Also, they are both forms of ionizing radiation. Further, they are found at the very top end (the highest frequencies) of the electromagnetic specturm.
Most nuclear reactors are thermal-neutron reactors. A few fast breeder reactors have been built, but not many.
Living things are relatively made out of a lot of carbon while  other things that aren't living or weren't don't have a lot.
Ionizing radiation is "stopped" by passing the radiation through matter which becomes ionized. By definition, ionizing radiation will ionize material that it passes through. Ionization involves transferring energy, so the entity doing the ionizing loses energy. That is the simple answer. A closer...
They aren't removed and cannot be, they are part of what happens. However shielding is used to prevent the radiation produced from escaping the reactor: alpha is stopped by any material as thick as a sheet of paperbeta is stopped by almost any metal 1/4 to 1/2 inch thickgamma and x-rays are...
Alpha particles have a mass of about 4 and a charge of +2, while beta particles have a mass of about 5x10-4 and a charge of -1. As such, the alpha particle interacts much more easily than the beta particle, and spends its energy more quickly.
A Libby half-life is another name for the half-life of carbon-14, used in carbon dating, which was a process invented by Willard Libby and his colleagues. The numerical value of a Libby half-life is 5568±30 years.
a cosmogenic isotope is an isotope that is created in space by cosmic rays
Selenium 82 has the longest recorded half-life at this point in time. It has a half-life of approximately 1.08×1020 years.
Strictly it is the half life of a particular isotope of the element. The half life of a radioactive isotope is the time taken for the number of radioactive atoms in the sample to decay to one half. Half lives vary hugely, from times like 10-21 seconds, to the very long, approaching the age of our...
Deauterium and tritium are used in the nuclear industry (mainly for fusion reactions) and can act as radioactive tracers. Tritium is also used in self-powered lighting.
Mathematically, The half life T 1/2 = (30 x 0.693)/ ln e (40/5) days = 30 x 0.693/ (3 x 0.693) T 1/2 = 10 days Knowing that the half life is defined as the time for the activity (and correspondingly the material amount) by half. Since the material is reduced from 40 to 5, it means it...
A GM counter is a counter, and not a detector, because it counts ionizing events, rather than quantifying the amount and energy of those events. It has to do with avalanche mode (GM counter) versus linear or proportional mode (ionization detector). The electric potential (higher than that in an...
Yes.There are different kinds of detectors for neutrons. Some are better at detecting high energy neutrons, and some are better at detecting thermal neutrons. There is no detection method that is equally good for detecting neutrons at all energy levels.
Radioactive decay allows an unstable nucleus to become stable
Nuclear fission is not bad. It is merely a physical process by which an atomic nucleus is torn apart to form newer ones and release some energy. Some of its uses are certainly bad, although that is not the fault of the process itself.
These have not been determined because a nuclear fusion plant has not been built.Most attempts at nuclear fusion provide a great deal of energy to start the fusion process, so much that ordinary containment vessels would vaporize. In order to deal with this, it is necessary to contain the reaction...
The costs of nuclear fusion energy are indeterminate, bacause we have not yet successfully generated a sustained fusion reaction.
Within this power station, what are the control rods: What are they made from? What do they do? How do they do it?
Ionising power is the energy the particle has that is capable of 'knocking' electrons off an atom
An isotope of thorium is obtained.
Nuclear fission happens spontaneously in nature. Uranium-235 does this, and is the only commonly occurring natural isotope that does.Nuclear fission can be induced by crashing a neutron into a fissionable atom. Some things other than Uranium-235 are fissionable, notably Uranium-238. Fission has been...
See this link for relatavistic mass:   hyperphysics Dot phy-astr Dot gsu Dot edu/hbase/Relativ/tdil.html    It is not letting me put the link in as normal, so I put the "dots"  in.    Remember that momentum is conserved. Since initial momentum is zero  (since it is at rest) the net...
No, or at least almost none because well, the radiation/shock wave/emp/extreme thermal heat would probably have anything around it screwed anyway.
The Sun gets its energy from fusion, not from fission. Ocassionaly an atom of a heavier element might go through fission, but that's hardly relevant for the working of the Sun.\n The Sun gets its energy from fusion, not from fission. Ocassionaly an atom of a heavier element might go through fission...