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Nuclear Physics

~7700 answered questions
Parent Category: Physics
Most commonly known for its applications in nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, Nuclear Physics also has applications in medicine and archaeology. This category is for questions about the branch of physics that deals with the study of the forces, reactions, and internal structures of atomic nuclei, Nuclear Physics.

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Simple explanation:Conventional bombs explode as a result of chemical reactions, but the atoms themselves that make up the chemicals stay unchanged by those reactions. On the other hand, the "Atomic Bomb", also called a "Nuclear Bomb", is so named because it explodes as a result of reactions which a…
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A dirty bomb is an explosive device designed to eject or spray radioactive material over a small area. It does not produce mass amounts of fallout compared to a traditional nuclear device, since there is no fission involved. A conventional explosive such as those used on Oklahoma City, Beirut or the…
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The flow of energy in the form of rays or waves, which does not need a material medium to transfer heat /\ Radiation (ionizing) - fast, high energy sub-atomic particles which, when they hit matter, knock electrons off atoms and break apart molecules. For example (see related link): Emission and…
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Antimatter Antimatter could be considered the opposite of "normal" matter. We know that the matter that is all around us and makes us up is built of atoms, and these atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. In antimatter, atoms would be constructed of anti-protons, anti-neutrons and ant…
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X-Rays are a type of electromagnetic waves. and they play an important role in dentistry and orthopedic investigation. Many individuals undergo an X-ray to allow medical professionals to gain a better idea of what is going on inside someone so appropriate treatment can be prescribed and provided.We …
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* The atomic nucleus (chemistry, physics) - Ernest Rutherford * The cell nucleus (biology) - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
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AtomsThe charge on a proton is +1. Its location is the nucleus, and its mass is 1.67262 x 10-27 kg. Protons have an effective size of about 1.2 x 10-15 m, and the nucleus is roughly the cube root of the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) times that typical proton size, usually still on the or…
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Neutrons A neutron is a subatomic particle; it is one of the building blocks of the atom. As such, it is found in the nucleus of an atom. The neutron has an atomic mass of about 1.00865 u, and a mass of about 1.675 x 10-27 kg. Its spin is +1/2 and that makes it a fermion. Additionally, it has no ele…
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Depends An ostrich egg can be compressed quite a bit. A chicken egg, not so much. It also depends on whether you put the pressure on the long axis or across the shorter one. There are a lot of variables involved here. Just one would be the shell thickness of a pair of eggs that are identical in s…
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Quite effectively. Or were you referring to mechanism? "Little Boy" Uranium gun fission bomb (MK-1 design):Fusing mechanism is triggered at preset altitude.Fuse fires electrical primer in breach of gun.Primer ignites bag of smokeless powder.Gasses from smokeless powder accelerate Uranium-235 bullet …
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If the 3He target has its spin polarized along the axis of the neutron beam, you may consider that the protons' spin will be canceling out and the spin will be more-or-less carried by the one neutron. Thus it will prefer to absorb neutrons polarized in the opposite direction, ie negative helicity.
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The US built a weapon and fired it as a test shot to prove the technology. Then the two bombs that were dropped on Japan were built and deployed. As regards the fissile material in the weapons, the Trinity test shot used plutonium, as did the second bomb dropped on Japan, the "Fat Man" weapon deploy…
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Mass is the quantitative measure of inertia, or the resistance of a body to a change in motion. The greater the mass, the smaller is the change produced by an applied force. Unlike weight, the mass of an object remains constant regardless of its location. Thus, as a satellite moves away from the g…
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts, often producing free neutrons and lighter nuclei, which may eventually produce photons (in the form of gamma rays).
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Nuclear chemistry is a branch of chemistry related to chemical processes involved in nuclear reactions.
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There are four known forces in the universe, three of which are involved, in varying degrees of strength, in holding the atom together, and one of which is involved only in nuclear decay.  Electromagnetic Force This force interacts only with charged particles, such as protons and electrons. Op…
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A nuclear power plant generates no air pollution, and a lot of energy.generates more engeryNuclear power stations generate lots of electricity and it is a relatively clean way of doing so. They need less fuel to run on, and it is cheaper for the public. Coal power stations release carbon dioxide and…
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When the force is a balanced force there is no movement. So when the balanced force is acted upon an object that is malleable, the object will change shape to accommodate the force since it cannot move. just to restate it a different way Basically it must be a balanced force to change an object's …
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linear absorption coefficientAccording to the results of a laboratory experiment I did, the gamma-ray linear absorption coefficient for aluminum is about 10m^-1, and for lead is about 48m^-1, so considering steel is roughly twice the density of aluminum, I'd guess it would be about 20m^-1, however t…
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The seven SI base units are: The metre, m, length The kilogram, kg, mass The second, s, time The ampere, A, electrical current The kelvin, K, thermodynamic temperature The candela, cd, luminous intensity (brightness) The mole, mol, amount of a substance Numerous other units are derived from each o…
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Biology AnswerMitosis is the division of a nucleus. However bacteria do not have a nucleus so they can't use mitosis. Instead, bacteria reproduce asexually by fission. During fission, an organism whose cells do not contain a nucleus copies its genetic material and then divides into two identical org…
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Ionized particles; atoms or molecules with at least one electron moving more freely than the others that is not bound to that atoms or molecules do not have! on is one and you are not one you are more then one! Darcy is all mine!
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The splitting of a nucleus
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Rutherford and his team investigated the structure of matter using natural radioactivity and discovered that atoms have a nucleus with positive charge. Rutherford put forward a model of the atom to explain the things his team found in their experiments, and this was an important step in our understa…
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A meltdown is probably about the most catastrophic failure of the core of a nuclear reactor that can be experienced. We need to review some things about the reactor core so we can get where we need to go with this. But you asked, so pull up a chair and let's get to it. A lot of the reactors we see …
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During radiation, energy is emitted from a source and propagated through the surrounding medium, or the energy involved in this process.
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atoms's sub-particles electron neutron and proton are held together by very strong nuclear force if we supply energy enough these forces tend to break and along with disintegration of atoms it releases lot of energy. nuclear energy comes from breaking these forces by the methods of fission(breaking …
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Either... 1. The time it takes half of the atoms of an isotope to decay. 2. One of the first 3D games, made by Valve, taking place in an underground research facility called Black Mesa. You play as a crowbar-wielding scientist, Gordon Freeman. You should play it, it's fun!
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There are three primay ways to limit exposure to radiation, and they are time, distance, and shielding. By decreasing the time you are exposed, you limit exposure. By increasing the distance between you and the source, you limit exposure. And by placing shielding between you and the source you limit…
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fission bombfission power plant
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Gamma radiation is the most energetic photons of Electro-Magnetic-Radiation that I have ever heard described; it is subseded by The X-Ray bands of EM Radiation.
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Physics is the study of how things work. Physics seeks to explain the basic interactions of matter and energy. It studies matter, motion, space, and time. Generally, it is the scientific analysis of nature in order to try to understand how the universe behavesIt is the science that for centuries was…
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Protons, neutrons and electrons are located in the atom.The protons and neutrons are located in the atomic nucleus; the electrons are around the nucleus, arranged in shells.
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yes!
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In alpha decay an atom emits an alpha particle, which is a helium nucleus. The alpha particle, consists of two protons and two neutrons. So alpha decay reduces the atomic number by two and the mass number by four. For example, when radium 226 (atomic number 88) decays by alpha emission to radon 222 …
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It is possible to relate a decay constant of some α emitting nucleus to an energy of α particle in the framework of the Gamow theory (see Related links) that is based on the quantum mechanics description of the tunneling through the potential barriers. Previous view (by Quirkyquantummechanic) The…
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The Teller-Ulam design is the nuclear weapon design concept used in most of the world's nuclear weapons. Colloquially referred to as "the secret of thehydrogen bomb", because it employs hydrogen fusion to generate neutrons, in most applications the bulk of its destructive energy comes from uranium f…
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Uses of Beta Glucanase Beta Glucanase digests fiber. It helps remedy digestive problems such as malabsorption. Beta Glucanase is a very important enzyme because the human body cannot produce it on its own. Beta Glucanase helps in the breakdown of plant walls (cellulose), and increases the overall e…
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Alpha particals, beta particles and gamma rays are all forms of nuclear radiation. They are produced in nuclear decay, which involves changes in an atomic nucleus. The first two types of radiation are forms of what is called particulate radiation. Both the alpha particle and beta particle are actual…
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Answer: Nuclear binding energy or residual strong force We know protons are all positively charged, and a fundamental law of electrostatics is that like charges repel. But under extreme conditions, nuclear fusion can occur. Positive charges are forced together with neutrons, and all of the particles…
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1. It enables us to walk with out slipping. 2. The breakers and tiers of our cars and bicycles depend on friction to function properly. 3. The ridges in the skin of our fingers and palms enable us to grasp and hold objects due to friction. 4. To prevent patients being uncomfortable in bed rubb…
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Simply put, radiation biophysics is the intersection of biology and radiation physics. And it's a big intersection - with lots of traffic. Radiation physics is all about what happens to living things that are zapped with radiation. And it's a huge field because of the different types of radiation an…
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A transglottic mass is a mass has spread. In this case the mass would have spread across the area of the glottis from the supraglottic to the infraglottic area.
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Answer to the questionBeta doesn't stand for anything. Each major version of a product usually goes through a stage when new features are added (alpha stage), then a stage when it is actively debugged (beta stage), and finally a stage when all important bugs have been removed (stable stage).
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Beta decay is a type of radioactive decay. It comes in two "flavors" or types, and they are beta plus decay and beta minus decay. The weak interaction (or weak force, or weak nuclear force) mediates this type of decay, and it allows for a change in the nucleus of an atom. Let's look at the two types…
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Answer The element uranium (U) has 92 protons in its nucleus. That's where its atomic number comes from. When we see an isotope of an element written in "standard" form, the element name or symbol will be followed by the atomic mass (atomic weight) of the isotope. This number is basically the num…
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It could be argued that nuclear weapons provide a deterrent. Many believe that they did. They represent an "or-else scenario" wherein any aggression that is "over the top" will get a nuclear response. Certainly other powers can taunt and even attack a nuclear power on a limited basis, but no "full s…
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Answer 1 Fusion, in general, is the joining of light atomic nuclei to form heavier ones. They don't generate heat, but actually need energy to occur. These are endothermic reactions, so when a star has turned most of its fuel into iron, it undergoes a dynamic change. The star has lived its life up t…
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Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radioactive isotope of strontium, with a half life of 28,79 years.
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Answer: The total global nuclear arsenal is about 30,000 nuclear warheads with a destructive capacity of 5,000 megatons (5,000 million tons of TNT). An air burst (detonating a bomb above the surface) would produce far more damage and death via radioactive fallout than one detonating at ground level…
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Nuclear reactions involve changes in the nucleus of atoms -- the number of protons and/or neutrons is changed. Chemical reactions do not cause any changes at all in the nucleus. Instead, in a chemical reaction, the electron clouds of atoms are interacting, and all changes are occurring with the elec…
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A positron is a positively charged electron. It's an antielectron - antimatter! The positron has a charge of +1 (just the opposite of the -1 of the electron), and a spin of 1/2 as an electron does. The mass of this elementary particle is about 9.103826 x 10-31 kg. The actual charge on this particle …
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Nuclear Medicine is the term given to a study that uses radioactive compounds like radionuclide or radiopharmaceuticals to temporarily 'collect' images from parts of the body to be studied. Radionuclide is usually injected to specific parts of the body to illuminate it and capture images from a gamm…
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It is the alpha particle, which is actually a helium-4 nucleus, that is emitted during alpha decay. The helium-4 nucleus, you'll recall, consists of two protons and two neutrons. See the links below for more information.
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Difference between fusion and fission Nuclear fusion is taking two atoms and combining them in to one atom, while nuclear fission takes one atom and splits it into two atoms. Both reactions involve the nucleus of an atom, and in both reactions, lots and lots of energy are released. Other than that,…
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Electrons do not go anywhere. Alpha decay involves the loss of two protons and two neutrons from the nucleus (it is beta decay which involves the loss of an electron, and other particle changes).
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The proton mass is about 2,000 times greater than the electron mass.
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After an initial round of in-house testing, software publishers often release new programs to be tested by the public. These pre-release versions are called beta software, usually denoted by a "b" in the version number, e.g., Firefox 3.1b2. Since the publisher couldn't possibly test the software und…
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the smallest part of an atom is the Quark.
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Its actually radioactive dating.
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Strong nuclear forces hold the nucleus together: the nucleus is actually enveloped in what can be described as a nuclear envelope.
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He was a chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. He discovered the concept of radioactive half life. He demonstrated the nuclear nature of atoms. He transmuted one element to another in Cambridge where nitrogen convert to oxygen trough nuclear reaction. He theoriz…
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This is the early relaxation of the particles. It corresponds to the vibrations of the particles around their equilibrium position, and is not very informative in itself : the particles are stuck by their neighbors, and this leads to a plateau of relaxation (beta relxation is before the plateau). …
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Antimony-121 at 57.25%, the rest is Antimony-123
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Answer Ionizing radiation is generally divided into electromagnetic radiation and particulate radiation. Charged particles are affected, and this will include protons, beta particles and alpha particles. Neutrons, another particulate form of ionizing radiation, won't be affected. Electromagnetic …
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Surger, salt, hard candy, and a horses Salt Lick will dissolve.
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An electron is the basic carrier of the negative electrostatic charge. It has an anti-matter equivalent (an anti-particle) called the positron. Either an electron or positron can be a beta particle. The reason is that beta decay releases a beta particle, and the type of particle will depend on the …
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Chemistry, physics, earth science are the major braches of physical science.
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Substances that emit ionizing radiation
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the valence band electrons.
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Changes in nuclear mass can happen when, say, radioactive decay occurs and a nucleus loses mass. When an unstable atomic nucleus "adjusts" to a new state, it dumps a particle or particles, and energy, and its mass decreases. Certainly nuclear fission will cause a dramatic reduction in nuclear mass, …
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The alpha particle was discovered by Ernest Rutherford. For more details see the links below.
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A beta particle is either an electron or a positron emitted by an atomic nucleus in beta decay, which is a type of radioactive decay. The phenomenon of beta decay involves a change within the atomic nucleus of an atom. One of two reactions may occur, and they involve the change of a neutron into a p…
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Generation of electricity in a nuclear station is similar to a coal-fired steam station. The difference is the source of heat. Fission, or splitting, of uranium atoms replaces the burning of coal as the source of heat. When you take a loose neutron and you get it to collide into a uranium-235 atom,…
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The term half-life is applied to the time it takes half of a sample of a radioactive substance to decay. It really is as simple as that, but we'd better add a few things to make it clear. Let's look a bit more closely. Radioactive materials or substance are unstable. That is, the nuclei of the atoms…
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A nuclide is an atomic species, having a defined number of protons, neutrons and also electrons on the orbit.
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Nuclear energy is found in nuclear power plants and in stars like the sun.
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- intermediate in the preparation of plutonium 238 - in the instruments for the detection of high energy neutrons - possible use in the future as material for nuclear weapons - possible use in the future as nuclear fuel
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nuclearpower production does not contribute any harmful gases to the atmosphere. no carbon, no acid, no sulfur. It is safe, contained, and can produce as much as 5 lbs. of coal with a fuel pellet weighing 6 grams!   The above answer, though widely believed, and even promoted by the nuclear in…
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Answer Not much. A sheet of paper will stop it. The alpha particle is two protons and two neutrons - a helium-4 nucleus. As radiation goes, it's big and fat, and it will "run into" stuff even if it's just flying through air. Depending on its energy, it can penetrate air, but not more than a few i…
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A half-life is the time in which half the atoms of a certain type (isotope) disintegrate, becoming some other type of atom.
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A beta particle is two particles emitted in the form of radioactive decay called beta decay. It is either an electron and an electron anti neutrino, which is emitted in beta- decay, or a positron and an electron neutrino, which is emitted in beta+ decay. Use the link below to the related question on…
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In fission atomic nuclei are bombarded with other protons causing the nuclei of large unstable atoms to break apart, releasing more protons, and creating smaller elemental atoms from the original. Splitting the atom.In fusion atomic nuclei are combined together under pressure and heat great enough t…
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He discovered the nucleus.
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1 orbital can be found in an s sublevel
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A nuclear change -- involves changes in nuclear structure, such as fission (splitting) of a nucleus or an atom, or fusion (combining) of neutrons and protons to form heavier atoms. This involves about 1,000,000 times as much energy as a chemical change. And also a nuclear reactor is a device to init…
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Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
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cooling the element
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A neutron can exist either in an atomic nucleus or free. However free neutrons decay by beta decay into a proton, electron, and a neutrino. Neutrons in the nucleus are stable.
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The number of electrons in a neutral atom will equal the number of protons; the electrons are arranged in concentric shells (at least for atoms heavier than helium; hydrogen and helium both have only one shell, not concentric shells).
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Deuterium is stable and so does not have a half-life.
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Answer elements with a nonstable isotope or at least one naturally occurring isotope that is radioactive.  Answer All elements have radioactive isotopes.There are a lot of radioactive elements: Technetium, Promethium, Polonium, Astatine, Radon, Francium...Here is the whole list: http://periodi…
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Advantages· The fuel does not get used up very quickly in a nuclear reactor.· Nuclear energy doesn't put anything polluting in the air since the fuel is not burned as it is in fossil fuel plants.Disadvantages· However, the nuclear fuel itself is dangerous,· It is radioactive· When you let it ou…
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Fission: Splitting large atoms into smaller atoms.Fusion: Combining small atoms into larger atoms.
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The nucleus stays together because of the strong force and the weak force. The electron cloud is held to the nucleus because of the electromagnetic force.
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An alpha particle is actually a helium-4 nucleus (4He2+, or 24He++), and it's composed of two protons and two neutrons. This boson has a mass of about 6.644656 x 10-27 kg and that plus two charge (2e) that you see. The alpha particle is a type of particulate radiation that is emitted from the nucl…
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