was the concordat of worms a fair compromise for both the emperor and the church? Why or Why not?
My suggestion is to work your way up.. start with a 50cc and next go no higher then a 125cc.
This bike will easily go 55mph or a little higher~ not fast by automotive speeds go..
But can cause alot of problems if you fall off the bike. Another bonus for a 125cc is the fact that they are very cheap if you buy used on eBay or at a local bike store..
As you get more comfortable riding the 125cc ... which shouldn't be very long... resell the bike and use the money to make a downpayment on something larger...
Even the accounts of people who were there at the time are not consistent, which is not surprising given the shocking circumstances.
One of the most reliable sources is the account written by Edward Grim shortly after the murder. He was injured trying to protect the Archbishop, so his testimony is first-hand and from his own knowledge.
He tells us that there were five attackers, one of whom was not directly present at the murder. They were the knights William de Tracy, Reginald fitz Urse, Hugh de Morville and Richard le Breton, together with a chaplain named Hugh de Horsea (who was himself a clerk or churchman). Becket initially had a small group of clerics and monks with him, but most of these appear to have fled before the fatal blows were struck.
The knight Hugh de Morville was apparently detailed to guard a small doorway, as the murderers were concerned that the good people of Canterbury would rush to the defence of the Archbishop (in fact an armed mob did arrive, but too late). This means that only the remaining three knights and Hugh the chaplain took part in the murder. Becket was accompanied by Edward Grim and William fitz Stephen, two secular clerks who both later wrote accounts of the murder. If any monks remained to witness the murder, their names are not recorded.
The chaplain, Hugh de Horsea, was afterwards called "Mauclerc" or Bad Cleric because of his involvement in the crime.
Medieval sculptures portrayed harsh images of human life. The church conceptualized the secular world as a miserable existence, and therefore most medieval sculptures portrayed masses of miserable human beings lifting their hands upward in the search for salvation.
Ano Domino, or after Christ, the better and more politically correct suffix to a date is CE meaning "Common Era" or BCE meaning "Before the Common Era".
the local lord but more often than not they needed protection from him too
Assuming you mean local people as in peasants?
In that case, yes, the above would be true. But the "lord's" services were not free. They came at a price, and a quite hefty one at that.
The peasants usually had to protect themselves if the lord was too "busy" with other matters to "help." This usually did not work too well, as to why the mortality rate back in the Middle Ages was so high.
The novitiate was essentially a probationary training period for anyone wishing to become a monk and during this time the tonsure was not appropriate.
The tonsure was only given once the novice became a professed monk and a full member of the religious community; at that time he made a will, had his hair cut in the Roman tonsure, took his vows and was welcomed with the kiss of peace. He also received the cowl, celebrated Mass and in some Orders spent three days in silence and solitude.
The names of the four knights were Reginald FitzUrse, William de Tracey, Hugh de Morville, and Richard le Breton. It was on the 29th of December, 1170, and the knights came barging into Canterbury Cathedral. They stuck three swords into him, and with the forth they cut of his head. And, as gruesome as it is, they scattered his brains around the cathedral.
The degree of freedom medieval people had is a complicated issue. There was slavery in the Middle Ages, but it was condemned repeatedly by the Church. It was made illegal in England by King Henry I in the early 12th century because of these condemnations. It also fell out of use in other place, though it continued to be common in the Byzantine Empire and Muslim lands.
Aside from slaves, everyone in society had his or her freedoms curtailed through a set of mutual obligations. People's freedoms were restricted, but they got something in exchange for this.
Most medieval Europeans were peasants, and in much of the Middle Ages most peasants of France, Germany, and England were serfs. Serfs were free to the extent that they could do as they chose much of the time. They were required to work one or two days per week for their manorial lords at jobs assigned to them. And they were not allowed to move away from the manor - though this was not quite as it might be made out, because in exchange for this lack of freedom, they were guaranteed a home, land to farm, and protection.
Many peasants were of the yeoman class. They were largely free, but they owed service to their overlord or king. This service was very often a requirement that they serve as archers during wars. The king or overlord had to protect them in difficult times, however.
Similarly, members of the nobility had freedom, but obligations to the king, usually to serve as knights. The kings had freedom, but obligations to the Church, and they were obliged to protect their nobles and often to obey earlier laws and customs. Merchants were free, but had obligations to guilds, the king, and others.
Really, the most free people of Europe were probably minstrels. But you can count on it; most were very poor.
Women did not have the same legal status as men, but the relative degrees of freedom varied widely from place to place. In some places, when a woman married, anything she owned passed to the control of her husband; in others this was not true. In some places, a woman could not be a monarch, but there were many countries where women could be monarchs. In most places, an adult woman was allowed to chose her own husband, but also in most places, wealthy women were married based on the desires of their family leaders, before they were adults. Some guilds allowed women members, but others did not (in fact some only allowed women and excluded men).
One thing worth pointing out was that any woman who was in an abusive relationship had the ability to take refuge in a convent. Though this might not sound like much, it was a place where she would be able to live without the abuse she had suffered. And anyone who attempted to remove a person who had taken such sanctuary was bound for trouble - probably more than he could handle.
I have put a link below to a related question on what medieval women did. It speaks to their possibilities.
Music would be played by entertainers at the royal court, which travelled around the country in a long cavalcade as the king stayed at various manors and palaces. It would also be heard in the manors of the knights who could afford to pay for musicians and entertainers.
Wealthy merchants and craftsmen might employ a travelling musician to entertain guests at a wedding or christening party, but ordinary farming peasants would rarely hear any music unless it was at a weekly market or annual fair, making those events very special for them.
Prime is the first hour of the day, meaning the first hour of daylight, or 6:00 AM. Lauds was earlier, and Terce came after Prime. There were eight Canonical Hours, and they came three hours apart by the clock.
First Christianity was brought to each nation's kings. The king would convert from pagan to Christian. Once the king and his court were officially Christian then Christianity would be imposed upon the population. How it was unifying was that it was the only religion permitted within it's sphere of influence. Clergy would have close ties to royalty and noble. This would enable the kings of each country to impose it's will through the church. Likewise the church would influence the king who would impose law accordingly. Unification was never actually complete however. Kings fought kings and each would have their own bishops those bishops having direct communication with Rome. However often a king would not go to war without the pope's permission. Charles I (Charlemagne) was the first of many Holy Roman Emperors who imposed rule upon most but not all of Europe. He ruled with the blessing and cooperation of the pope. In a sense, the Holy Roman Emperors were the pope's enforcers. Bottom line in all of this is that if you were anyone or wanted to be someone or just plain wanted to remain alive you needed to be Christian.
They seldom used plates. Most of the time they used a hard chunk of bread to hold the food and either ate it or threw it to the dogs when they were done.
Becket was not a pilgrim.
He was exiled to France from 1164 to 1170 and several items of his clothing are still preserved today at the Cathedral of Sens which became his base in France.
After his death in 1170 Becket was declared a Saint and a shrine was erected in his memory at Canterbury cathedral in 1220; many pilgrims travelled to Canterbury to visit the shrine and pray to the saint.
the desire to eliminate wealth and corruption from the church
We cannot know the age at which most medieval women died, but we can guess it was something over the age of fifty. During most of the middle ages, no records were kept of births, and no records were kept of people who died without achieving some sort of importance.
I have read that the life expectancy at birth was 37 or so. But I have also read that the infant mortality rate was about 30 to 35%. If we do the math, then what it comes to is that the life expectancy at age two was over fifty. If we consider the life expectancy girls who live to be women, adults, then the life expectancy would have to be higher yet.
Religious orders will not accept people for membership until they have reached 18 years of age; many require that applicants be older. The process takes several year before full membership is achieved, and can be anything from 7 years to 12 (for a Jesuit). Postulancy: 6 months Novitiate: 1-2 years Simple vows: 3-5 years Final vows: after simple vows
Martin Luther, who formed Lutheranism and led the Protestant Reformation.
Thomas Becket came to the notice of the king when he worked as clerk and accountant to Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury. Becket showed such great promise and worked so diligently that Henry made him Chancellor of England with responsibility for supervising the king's Chancery (writing office) as well as a role in the royal administration.
the arch bishop of canturbury controled the church and the king controled the arch bishob so basicly the king BY ALEX HODSKINSON
The Catholic Church was split in 1054 in the East-West Schism, into the Roman Catholic Church, in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The reason for this split was a disagreement over what authority the pope had in eastern dioceses. Put simply, the Western Church held the pope was a ruling authority, but the Eastern Church would only accept the pope as a symbolic authority.
You should remember that there were other Churches aside from the Catholic Church at the time, including the Oriental Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, and others, so the entire Christian Church was not involved.
There is a link below that you can use for more information.
The most important dispute that split the Church was over the supremacy of the Pope, versus the independence of the bishops, particularly of the East. This produced the East-West Schism of 1054, which divided the largest body of the Church into the Roman Catholic Church, in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Church, in the East.
There is a link below.
The pope is regarded as the successor of St Peter. As one of the apostles, Peter was subject to the same privileges and obligations as the other apostles (equivalent to a Catholic bishop today). However in addition to this according to the Gospel according to St. Matthew (Ch 16) Jesus gave the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven to Peter alone. As key-holder to the Kingdom of Heaven where Christ is King the role of St Peter and his successors is to provide access to the benefits of the Kingdom of Heaven for those authorised to receive them ("feed my lambs", "feed my sheep"). In order to create harmony between heaven and earth Scripture also provides that whatever he binds or looses on earth, apparently in the execution of this duty, will also be bound or loosed in heaven. The most important duty is to guide and support the whole of the Church. He is the Leader of the Church.
I would have to say the Middle Ages was not a time of regression.
At the start of the Middle Ages, at the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, literacy had already been on the decline for two hundred years. The political unity of the Roman Empire had been crumbling at the same time. The Roman Empire was gradually getting more chaotic, with some periods of renewal, though they were never enough.
The fall of the Roman Empire was not a complete collapse of Roman Society. And as the Germanic groups that moved into the lands of the old empire, they came to regard themselves as land owners rather than land occupiers. They came to appreciate a written legal tradition, as opposed to an oral tradition, and they came into the Christian Church.
The first system for primary education was introduced in the Byzantine Empire in 425, and it became standard until the Empire was conquered in 1453. During that time, it was a requirement that military personnel be able to read and write, which had never been the case in the Roman Empire.
The oldest school in England was founded in 597 AD, only 120 years into the medieval period. Schools were being founded in Viking lands before the Viking age ended, at least two of which still exist. Universities started to open in 1088, and by the end of the Middle Ages, there were over 70 in Europe.
The Hagia Sophia, one of the worlds architectural triumphs, was buitl in the sixth century.
In the High Middle Ages, there was a great burst of energy in architecture with the introduction of the Gothic period.
The Late Middle Ages saw a rise in the middle class with the merchants of the Hanseatic League, the great banking families of Italy, such as the Medicis, and the Medieval Communal system, which was often ruled and regulated by primitive democracies.
The inventions of the middle ages form a long and impressive list.
As a juror, we sentence a guy (Texas) 12 years for arson, no one was hurt but it was in unincorporated city with business structures nearby. Our sentencing mandate was anywhere from a minimum 5 years to 99
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