Optics

Optics covers the properties of light and its interactions with materials including refraction and polarization. In particular it covers the behavior of optical lenses.

1,860 Questions
Computer Networking
Optics

Does fiber optics suffer from attenuation?

Yes, but the fiber attenuates light signal much less than wire attenuates electrical signal in the same length.

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Science
Optics

What property of light is used in fiber optics?

a signal is beamed as a light through the fiber optics and when they are relayed to the other side a computer decodes the signal that's also how fiber optic TVs work

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Physics
Energy
Science Experiments
Optics

What are examples of refraction of light in daily life?

When you wear glasses, the light is refracted so that your eyes can see images better.

Microscopes and telescopes use refraction to change the perception of images.

When you look into water and see objects in the water appear distorted, that is refraction.

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Cable Television
Pool Building and Repair
Electronics Engineering
Optics

Should you use fiber optic lighting?

Less expensive - Several miles of optical cable can be made cheaper than equivalent lengths of copper wire. This saves your provider (cable TV, Internet) and you money. Thinner - Optical fibers can be drawn to smaller diameters than copper wire. Higher carrying capacity - Because optical fibers are thinner than copper wires, more fibers can be bundled into a given-diameter cable than copper wires. This allows more phone lines to go over the same cable or more channels to come through the cable into your cable TV box. Less signal degradation - The loss of signal in optical fiber is less than in copper wire. Light signals - Unlike electrical signals in copper wires, light signals from one fiber do not interfere with those of other fibers in the same cable. This means clearer phone conversations or TV reception. Low power - Because signals in optical fibers degrade less, lower-power transmitters can be used instead of the high-voltage electrical transmitters needed for copper wires. Again, this saves your provider and you money. Digital signals - Optical fibers are ideally suited for carrying digital information, which is especially useful in computer networks. Non-flammable - Because no electricity is passed through optical fibers, there is no fire hazard. Lightweight - An optical cable weighs less than a comparable copper wire cable. Fiber-optic cables take up less space in the ground. Flexible - Because fiber optics are so flexible and can transmit and receive light, they are used in many flexible digital cameras for the following purposes:

  • Medical imaging - in bronchoscopes, endoscopes, laparoscopes
  • Mechanical imaging - inspecting mechanical welds in pipes and engines (in airplanes, rockets, space shuttles, cars)
  • Plumbing - to inspect sewer lines

Because of these advantages, you see fiber optics in many industries, most notably telecommunications and computer networks. For example, if you telephone Europe from the United States (or vice versa) and the signal is bounced off a communications satellite, you often hear an echo on the line. But with transatlantic fiber-optic cables, you have a direct connection with no echoes.

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Cameras
Visible Light Spectrum
Optics

How does light travel through a camera?

The Lens is the image-forming device on a camera. The lens bends light rays to project an image onto a light sensitive medium, which may be any of several forms, including film, sensitized glass plate, or electronic sensor.

The Diaphragm is a variable opening which controls the quantity (brightness) of light falling on the light sensitive medium.

The Shutter controls the length of time light is permitted to fall on the light sensitive medium. It can take many forms, but usually has some method for precision adjustment of the time it is open.

Light passing through the lens, aperture, and (when open) the shutter forms an image of specific brightness for a specific duration on the light sensitive medium.

Light also passes through a viewfinder system, which may be a part of the optical system of the camera, or separate from it. In the most complex cameras, some of the light passing through the lens is diverted into a viewfinder by means of a mirror or prism. By using some of the same light passing into the camera, these systems permit the user to see essentially what the camera is seeing.

(See discussion)

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Science
Optics

Light travels three-fourths as fast through water as it does through a vacuum What is water's index of refraction?

1.33
1.33

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Science
Optics

Is a curved piece of glass or other transparent substance that is used to retract light?

A lens is a curved piece of glass or other transparent substance that is used to refract light.

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Optics

What are the examples of polarization of light?

A good example of polarized light is polarized sunglasses. when you look at something head on the glasses work light regular sunglasses. However if you angle them, the sun goes right through.

Another Answer

The polarization of light refers to the plane the electric field of its electromagnetic wave is oriented. Sunlight is comprised light waves polarized in all orientations.

Polarized sunglasses allow only one orientation of light to pass through their lenses, thus limiting the amount of light that passes through them.

LCD displays use the polarization of light to display their segments, or actually block light from passing through their segments. They work because the bottom layer (layer 1) of a passive display is reflective, layer 2 is a vertically polarized filter, layer 3 is a common electrode with vertical ridges, layer 4 is the liquid crystals, layer 5 is the shaped electrodes on a sheet with horizontal ridges, and the top layer (layer 6) is a horizontally polarized filter. The bottoms of layer 4's liquid crystal molecules align themselves with the vertically aligned ridges in layer 3. The tops of layer 4's liquid crystal molecules align themselves with the horizontally aligned ridges in layer 5. The liquid crystal molecules in between are helically oriented, or twisted. At rest, only the horizontally polarized part of the ambient light passes through layers 6 and 5 (this is why passive LCD displays look grey). Its polarization then follows the twist in the liquid crystal chain to end up oriented vertically. It then passes through layer 2 and is reflected off layer 1, and its travel reverses back out of the display. When an electric charge is applied to a segment, the liquid crystals between the electrodes untwist blocking the light path for that segment, which makes that segment appear dark.

102103104
Science Experiments
Scientific Method
The Difference Between
Optics

What is the difference between refraction and dispersion of light?

When a light's path is bent, it is refracted. And dispersion is when a refracted white light splits into its component colors.

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Physics
Technology
Optics

What is the importance of physics in optics?

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.[1] Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.[1]

Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces. Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics. Historically, the ray-based model of light was developed first, followed by the wave model of light. Progress in electromagnetic theory in the 19th century led to the discovery that light waves were in fact electromagnetic radiation.

Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties. Explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering light's particle-like properties, the light is modeled as a collection of particles called "photons". Quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems.

Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields, photography, and medicine (particularly ophthalmology and optometry). Practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and fiber optics.

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Computer Networking
Optics

What does ST stand for in fiber optics connectors?

ST is a bayonet-style connector that had the advantage over previous screw-on connectors because it could be mated with a "Single Twist" hence ST.

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Computer Networking
Physics
Optics

What does the word fiber optics mean?

Fiber optic cable is called optical fiber. Fiber optics have three main components core ,cladding and sheath. It further divided in to three categories and they are more flexible than any other cable.

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Physics
Optics

What are the day to day examples of refraction of light?

-- Eyes

-- Eyeglasses

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Physics
Optics

Is refraction or refection of light is responsible for mirage effect?

Either of those processes can result in seeing something that's not there.

Refraction is the cause of the image of a flying horse or a magic carpet in the sky.

Reflection is the cause of the image of water on the ground.

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Education
Optics

Why do mirrors reflect?

MirrorsBecause if they didn't, they wouldn't be mirrors; they'd be windows -- or walls!

Perhaps you wish to know how they reflect or why some surfaces reflect whereas others don't.

There are basically three types of surfaces: those that absorb light, those that reflect it, and those that neither reflect it nor absorb it. Not counting "black holes," there are no objects that absorb all light perfectly or reflect all light perfectly or pass light perfectly. All objects reflect and absorb light to some degree. Some reflect more than absorb, some absorb more than reflect, and some -- like windows -- let light pass right through them. Mirrors are highly reflective, whereas black cotton or wool fabric doesn't reflect much at all.

So, let's take a look at stuff that reflects. A mirror reflects, but so does a piece of loose-leaf paper. If the paper did not reflect some light, it would be invisible to the human eye. If it absorbed all the light that struck it, there would be nothing for your eye to see, because when you "see" the paper, you are actually detecting the light reflected from it. But a piece of paper is not a mirror, is it? So, what's the difference?

The difference is the amount of "scatter" or diffusion caused by the surface of the paper. When the light rays hit the surface of the paper, they don't bounce off in the same direction; they scatter in many directions. We characterize that phenomenon as diffuse reflection. This occurs because the surface of the paper, when viewed under a microscope, is uneven, granular, and bumpy. See the nearby link for a diagram of light rays hitting a surface and scattering. The rays are bouncing off in all different directions. Objects that produce diffuse reflections don't make very good mirrors.

But when light rays hit a very flat, smooth, polished surface, they bounce off at very predictable and consistent angles. They don't bounce off in all directions. In fact, the measure of the angle at which the light hits the surface (the angle of incidence) is the measure of the angle at which the light bounces off the surface (the angle of reflection). When this happens, you have a mirror. See the nearby link for a diagram depicting reflection.
the back of a mirror is a thin layer of metal. well polished metal reflects images.


Mirrors show reflection by light will reflect at a mirror surface so that the angles of incidence and reflection are equal.

Mirror has at least one reflective object so that shows the image, that you put in front of that mirror. And how they work is that light helps you see your reflection in a mirror ; Light is energy traveling at high speed.

And when it hits ah object all the energy has to go somewhere.

- Melissa Lindsay (:
The back part of the mirror is made of of metal. They polish the metal. Because metal reflects light if shows your reflection.

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Physics
Optics

How do fiber optics transmit light?

There is a phenomenon in optics called "total internal reflection". Suppose a light ray is in some medium like glass and is about to exit into the air. If the ray is incident on the glass/air surface at a large enough angle then it gets totally reflected back into the glass. This phenomenon is used in fibre optics. Light is sent into the end of the fibre at an angle, so it travels a short distance and hits the side of the fibre glass tube. Because it is basically a glass/air surface it gets reflected back into the tube and ,of course, promptly hits the other side. But again it is reflected, rather then escaping into the air. So the light travels down the tube, bouncing off the sides as it goes. This is a really neat way of guiding the light along a path you want it to go. The "internal reflection" is highly efficient (meaning almost none escapes). The phenomenon only works when light is in a more dense medium (glass) then the surrounding medium (air). Another words it doesent work if the light is in air and about to enter the glass. In that case some light gets reflected but most of it will travel into the glass. You might try this effect in a swimming pool. Some night take a flashlight under water. First shine the light directly up. It will have no trouble escaping. Now slowly turn the flashlight so the beam hits the surface at an angle. There will be an angle ,called the critical angle, at which the beam is all of a sudden reflected from the surface, back into the pool. The water surface has to be nice and still for this to work but you should be able to see the beam go thru this change. And a person outside should see the bright spot on the surface almost dissapear, since the light is no longer escaping from the water.

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Science
Optics

A glass device that can be used to separate light?

A prism.

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Inventions
Telecommunications
Optics

How has the technology behind fiber optics advanced since it's introduction to the telecommunications industry?

Not much, except mabey clearer glass and better reflecters. Reflectors? That doesn't make sense to me, as light in optical fibers is transmitted by refraction not reflection.

616263
Roses
Optics

Why are roses red?

Because the chloroplasts are red.

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Astronomy
Speed of Light
Optics

What happens to the light rays when light passes from air into glass at an angle?

The phenomenon is called refraction; but also reflexion and absorption occur.
During refraction the wave speed is changed but the frequency not.

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Astronomy
Optics

Why light at long distance looks flickering?

The air in the atmosphere causes light to flicker.

Its called atmospheric distortion. Its why the sun and moon are larger, the closer they are to the horizon. Its why lights and stars flicker. The reason behind this is because in the atmosphere, there are pockets or air, laden with moisture. These pockets act to magnify and distort light as it passes through, thus flickering the image. Hooweestik.

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Technology
Solid State Physics
Spectroscopy
Optics

What is meant by Fresnel distance in optics ie diffraction how is it related to validity of ray optics please do make it simple as i am a beginner?

An aperature OS size a illluminated by a parallel beam sends diffracted light into a angle of approximately ~y/a. This is the angular size of the bright central maximum. In trevelling a distance z, the diffracted beam therefore acquires a width zy/a due to diffraction. this gives distance beyond which divergence of the beam of width a becomes significant. Therefore, z ~ a2/y we define a quantity ZF called the Fresenls distance by the following equation ZF= a2/y

For distance greater than ZF the spreading due to diffraction over that due to ray optics. The above equation shows that ray optics is valid in the limit of wavelength tending to zero.

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Physics
Waves Vibrations and Oscillations
Optics

How do you find the refractive index of a liquid by using total internal reflection?

Using Snell's law, n(1)=(n(2) x sin angle (2)) / sin angle (1).

n(1)= The refractive index of the more optically dense medium.
n(2)= The refractive index of the less optically dense medium.
angle (1)= The critical angle of the two mediums.
angle (2)= 90 degrees since when light is at the critical angle it undergoes total internal reflection.

Since sin 90= 1, this can be ignored, resulting in n(1)= n(2) / sin angle (1)

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Optics

How did fiber optics improve life?

Coz it has nearly zero loss in transmission of signals (information) as compared to conventional copper wire based system as here light is used to carry signals as compared to electric signals in copper wire based networks...

hence higher bandwidth are also supported.

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Optics

What is an eyepiece graticule?

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