Age of Enlightenment

Also known as the Age of Reason, this period of Western Philosophy lasted from the mid 17th Century until the 18th Century and brought about concepts and ideas that govern today's society.

2,873 Questions
Age of Enlightenment

How did salons help to shape and spread the ideas of the Enlightenment?

Salons were a common place to civilly discuss recent events and/ or new ideas. They helped shape the Enlightenment because new ideas and events were discussed, keeping people "in-the-know" and spreading the new ideas in a civil, philosophical way.

Age of Enlightenment

How do the ideas of enlightenment thinkers effect government today?

They helped create the laws and constituionwe have today in the United States.

Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment started in what country?

France. somewhat Germany, depending if you include the reformation.

Age of Enlightenment

What are two musicians in the Enlightenment that aren't Bach Mozart or Beethoven?

Joseph Haydn

Famous People
Age of Enlightenment

What did Denis Diderot have to do with the Enlightenment?

Denis Diderot (1713-1784) is best known as co-founder and chief editor of the Encyclopedie (a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts and Crafts).

Age of Enlightenment

How did the doubting of Greek authorities help authorities help usher in the Scientific Revolution?

The obeservations the Europeans made did mot fit with what the authorities

had described. This helped lead to the Scientific Revolution.

History, Politics & Society
Age of Enlightenment

Which was the most important concept in the enlightenment?

Scientists, literary men, and thinkers believed in the supremacy of reason. They demanded practical changes against injustice and so that people were considered as equal. They often attacked the government, the church, and the judicial systems of their country.

I consider Montesquieu's theory very important. He claimed that the judicial, executive and legislative branches of government should be separated.

I also found Rousseau's Social Contract one of the most important theories. He described a society in which each person could keep personal freeedom while at the same time behaving as a loyal member of of a community. =freedom is obedience to law. He also demanded the social equality of human beings.

Age of Enlightenment
Absolutism (Political)

What is the meaning of 'despotic'?

The common meaning of "despotic" is an adjective referring to the tyrannical use of power, such as many dictators are known to do. It is also used, to a lesser degree, to refer to non-political authority figures who have an oppressive method of maintaining order (such as company bosses who are belligerent).

The word comes to us from the Greek word "despotes" which referred to a lord within the Byzantine Empire, often who ruled over a European country-sized piece of land for the Byzantine Emperor. Some despotates eventually became independent. At that point, the word had no negative connotation, but would gain it as these despotates would become increasingly autocratic prior to the Ottoman conquest.

Age of Consent & Underage Relationships
Teen Dating
Age of Enlightenment

What if your new man flirts with every girl he encounters?

I'm surprised you've put up with it for this long. This is extremely disrespectful towards you. If a guy did that to me once I'd be long gone and you wouldn't see me for my dust. It's time to kick this jerk to the curb and find a guy that appreciates you. Stand strong, accept nothing less than you would give in a relationship and keep hunting!

Good luck Marcy

AnswerThough it is in fact extremely disrespectful, bear in mind that a guy might not necessarily think he is in a committed relationship yet. Many people believe in "open dating", which is the concept that they will date several people at once in order to find someone they are truly close to. He could honestly have no idea that his behaviour is bothering you and may think that you aren't boyfriend and girlfriend yet. Talk to him about it, and gauge his response. AnswerIf he's like that, then the other two answers are right it's disrespectful for you and insulting. I'm going to be frank with you but this is a sign that he has or is capable of cheating on you, find a man who treasures you and makes you feel your worth every Penny because this guys no worth your time
Age of Enlightenment

What are two ways the achievements of the scientific revolution contributed to the enlightenment?

The scientific revolution was a time of revolutionizing equipment, mainly farm equipment and the people who thought up these great machines had to think about how the people would use them.

Age of Enlightenment

What was 'The Enlightenment'?

The Enlightenment or the Age of Reason: The enlightenment was a philosophic movement of the 18th century marked by a rejection of traditional social, religious, and political ideas and an emphasis on rationalism.

Founding Fathers
Philosophy and Philosophers
Age of Enlightenment

How did the Enlightenment influence the founding fathers?

The era which brought into being the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution is often referred to as the "New Enlightenment" because it so realized and reflected the values and beliefs of the European Englightenement or Age of Reason as it is alternately called. There are two things that can be said without equivocation about the men who declared our land's independence from England, who breathed life into a new nation, who shaped and formed its constition. The first is that they were the heirs of this Age of Reason, they were rational men who created a rational system of government which allowed for the free and unfettered development of what they perceived to be a rational economic system. There are those who might argue to the contrary,who would have us believe that they were Christians who sought to establish a Christian state based on faith in the Bible. But the fact of the matter is that our Founding Fathers did not turn to the Bible but rather to the great works of Englightenment philosophy when the time came for them to write the constitution. They turned to Hobbes who in his Leviathan argued that man in the state of nature existed in a "war of all against all." This view of man as constantly in a state of struggle with his fellows is balanced by a view of him as an essentially rational creature, for this war of all against all is brought to an end by the rational judgment of the men who war against each other. They elect one from amongst them to stand above them and be their sovereign, whose task it is to ensure that the war of all against all is held within acceptable limits and constraints. Human beings thus, as a rational act, elect their ruler. This view of man as both rational and competitive is conjoined with Locke's view of man as a creature possessed of certain natural and inherent rights which it is the duty of government to ensure. In addition to the thought of Hobbes and Locke the Founding Father's were influenced as well by the writings of Adam Smith, who believed that there was an invisible hand guiding the economic development of society which was best left to function independently. At the core of his belief as well, was the view of man as an essentially rational creature who was able to identify and pursue his needs. We might add to the list other Enlightenemnt thinkers such as Rousseau and Diderot, but suffice it to say the ideas of these men are reflected in the thoughts of our founding fathers and in the doctuments which they wrote. The statement "We hold these truths to be self evident...." implies that man is able to grasp truths, and beyond this, that all men are equally rational and thus equally able to pursue live their lives, pursue their happinesses, and live freely. The heart that beats in the body of democracy is reason, for only beings who are inherently free and rational are able to live in a democracy...or rather, democracy is a system of governemtn which was created to correspond to human nature, which is inherently free and rationa. Freedom without rationality gives us terror, anarchy and fear. Reason without freedom leads, as our founding father's demonstrated, to rebellion and revolution. But democracy is the raimement of a free and rational people. This is the primary influence which the Enlightenment had on our founding fathers.

The second thing that can be said of the men who shaped our nation, is that they did so without and doubt as to their right to do so. They were by and large educated men, mostly lawyers, they were men who had led and governed this nation before it was a nation, they were the economic and political and educational elite of this country. As such they established a nation which best suited their political and economic and personal class interests. In this way too they reflected Enlightenement values in the sense that the Enlightenement was a turning away from the values and social and political structures of a feudal and aristocratic society. The thinkers of the Enlightenment were the spokesmen of a new and rising class, a class of educated and wealthy merchants and businessmen. It was this class as well, to which the majority of our founding fathers belonged and whose interests they upheld and spoke for (See James Beard's work on the economic foundations of the Constitution.

In conclusion, both philosophically and actually, the founding fathers were representative of the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason.

While it maybe said that our Founding Fathers "did not turn to the Bible," they were influenced by its contents. Refer to Thanksgiving Proclaimation.

School Subjects
Age of Enlightenment

Why did people oppose the enlightenment? reminds us that enlightenment was "a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and man were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Learn more at

Opposition to that movement came from Christian Church mainly, for political reasons.

Age of Enlightenment

What is Marie Antoinette's real name?

Her Real Name Was Maria Antoino But At Hall She Was Called Madame Antoine

Entertainment & Arts
Books and Literature
France in WW2
Age of Enlightenment

How does literature affect art?

Literature's Affect on Art

The FAQ Farmer's have said that both literature and art are and always will be affected by: what time the artist/author lived/lives in, the political world and mostly by the personal experiences that the artist/author has gone through at the time. Art can have influence on literature, and works of art can influence other artists; in some rare cases a book can inspire an artist to make a unique piece of art.

Obviously the Bible (if you can treat it as a work of literature) has inspired numerous pictorial representations. Also works of classical literature (by Homer, Ovid) were treated as inspiration by many painters. This was mainly before the 20th century, when art tended to be illustrative. In the case of modern/contemporary art, the direction of influence has been rather from art to literature.

French Revolution
Age of Enlightenment

What factors lead to the french revolutions?

first of all, there was a breakdown of the old order of the government as by the 1780s, the french government was nearly bankrupt. their banking system couldn't cope with the fiscal problems so the monarchy had absolutely no choice but to raise the taxes. also many french soldiers that were over in america were impressed by the ideals of the revolution so that idea became very appealing to them. as well as now with all of the taxes being raised, the people began to revolt and then the french revolution set off. there are more details to it, but thats the basics.

American Revolution
Age of Enlightenment

How did Enlightenment philosophies impact the American Revolution?

It motivated the colonists to unite and stand up for their rights.

History, Politics & Society
History of the United States
Age of Enlightenment

Which American leader best exemplified the Enlightenment through his scientific discoveries and inventions?

Benjamin Franklin is the American leader recognized for his scientific discoveries and inventions during the Enlightenment period.

History of France
Industrial Revolution
Age of Enlightenment

Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?

Textiles and the World of Factories

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and it started textiles. Cloth is another name for textiles. Cloth was first created by hand, but man could not keep up with the rising demand for more and more cloth. There were many advancements in the textile industry that took production from man-made to machine made. Following are three of these inventions:

  • Flying Shuttle- A British inventor created this. It was a machine on a roller used to weave cloth. It reduced the time needed to weave cloth in half.

  • Spinning Jenny- This was invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. It made it possible for a person to spin numerous threads at the same time.

  • Cotton Gin- The workers in Great Britain used cotton from America, but the cotton was hard to clean. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which greatly increased the amount of cotton that could be cleaned in a short time.

History of the United States
Age of Enlightenment

What were the causes of the enlightenment?

The destruction the war made. Also the fact that the during that time people needed change. People started to think for themselves and started disregarding the idea of following God's laws and started following their "own" laws and thinking for themselves.

UK History
Industrial Revolution
Age of Enlightenment

Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain?

The Industrial Revolution began in Britan due to the sudden population growth.

Age of Enlightenment

Who embraced ideals and principles of the enlightenment?

The Enlightened Despots were rulers that used the principles of popular enlightenment figures in their everyday ruling. The 3 Enlightened Despots were Joseph II, of Austria, Catherine the Great, of Russia, and Frederick the Great, ruler of Prussia. These 3 rulers made laws to benefit the people of their countries. Some laws passed by these rulers included:

The abolishment of serfdom

Reduction of censorship

Freedom of the press

Religious Toleration

Age of Enlightenment

When did age of enlightenment occur?

From beginning of the 18th century till the French Revolution of 1789 or the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1804-15).

Middle Ages
History of Japan
Age of Enlightenment

What cultural traditions have survived from the middle ages in Japan?

The cultural traditions that have survived from the middle ages in japan is its poem haiku,and its legacies

Founding Fathers
Age of Enlightenment

The enlightenment philosophers believed that the power of government is derived from?



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