History of Islam

The history of Islam goes back over 1400 years to Prophet Muhammad and his creation of the first Islamic State in Medina Munawarra. Since that point, Islamic culture, custom and tradition have spread all across the world in numerous empires and by peaceful conversions. Muslims have been prominent in science, government, religion, philosophy, literature and numerous other areas of human endeavor. If you are interested in learning more about the history of the Islamic World, its development over the centuries and its contributions to society, here is a good place to start asking your questions.

3,547 Questions
History of Islam

Who was the founder of Islam?

There are two major opinions on the matter. There is the Islamic Theological View and the Secular Historical View. The Islamic Theological Views will be presented first and the Secular Historical Views second, but this has no bearing on which one is correct. (That decision is up to the reader.)

Islamic Theological View

Answer 1: No Founder

Islam is not something to be founded or established. Islam is a God revelation to people and mankind through prophets and Messengers from Allah (or God in English); the almighty who created this universe and created mankind.

Islam is a religion. Islam is an Arabic word that means submission and surrender to God (as the one and only one God). In this sense Islam began by the universe creation where all God creatures were created under their submission (Islam) to God. Upon start of mankind, they are taught through God prophets to be on full submission (Islam) to God.

All prophet missions; including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, was to hold submission (Islam) to the one and only one God, the Creator, with no partner, no son, no father, no companion, no associate, and no resemblance (defined as monotheism).

In this sense:

  • Islam per God revelation of Torah to Moses is called Judaism.
  • Islam per God revelation of the bible to Jesus is called Christianity.
  • Islam per God revelation of Qur'an to Muhammad is called the very name Islam.

Islam religion per Qur'an revelation to prophet Muhammad began in year 610 AD by God revelation of first verses of Qur'an to prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibril). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born in Makkah (or Mecca) and lived from approximately 570 AD to 632 AD. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is revered by Muslims but as a man, not as a God or son of God. Islam teaches that there is only One God, whom Muslims call "Allah" in Arabic (or God in English and same God worshiped in Judaism and Christianity).

Answer 2: Allah is the Founder

Islam religion is founded by Allah Himself. Allah tells in Quran that Islam has always been the right religion since the 1st human on Earth Adam and Eve (Peace be upon them). The last prophet sent from Allah was Muhammad (Peace be upon him). So he's the last prophet of Islam.

Mohammad was born in Mecca, the capital of Arabia, of mother Amina and father Abdullah, on the 20th August 570 A.D. His father died before his birth.

Answer 3: No Founder

Islam is not founded. Islam is a revelation from Allah "God" the almighty who created this universe and created mankind and knows exactly what he needs to be straighten.

Over the ages, Allah "God" the almighty, the Creator sent thousands of messengers to his creation "mankind" informing them of their Creator who should be worshiped alone and not to worship any of his creation like animals, trees, mountains, idols...etc.

People tend to either disbelieve these messengers and prophets or even kill them.

Adam hims self, peace be upon him all God's messengers, was a messenger to his sons.

Then Abraham, his sons too until Jesus who according the holy Qur'an and the old scripture told his followers the same message "to worship God alone" and that a last prophet "Mohammed of Islam" will come after him.

Islam came with the same message, but with broader boundaries, of the previous celestial religions from Adam to Christ, the ONENESS of God the Creator and no other gods are to be worshiped beside him.

The holy Qur'an of Islam is the true word of God which no man can every put one sentence like it. God used to send messengers with miracles which suit their time and environment. Moses time was famous of magicians, Christ has miracles such as bringing life to the dead, curing lepers...etc. and Mohammed's miracles were many including the Qur'an, language miracle as the Arabs were very strong in language and they poets... but Allah challenged them to make one sentence equal to the Qur'anic verses and they could not and will never do.

No human is responsible of founding, creating, or establishing Islam religion. Islam religion is God religion. Islam religion is per God (Allah) revelation of Qur'an to prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. Qur'an revelation started in year 610 AD and continued until year 632 AD (year of death of the prophet).

Islam religion, as defined above, should not be confused by Islam, as an Arabic word, that in its universal sense means peace and full submission to God (Allah), the one and only one God with no partner, no father, no son, no companion, and no resemblance. Islam in this sense is the main God mission to all prophets since start of mankind; including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. However, Judaism and Christianity are the God religions per God revelation of , respectively, Torah and Bible to Moses and Jesus as well as the very name Islam is God religion per God revelation of Qur'an to prophet Muhammad.

Refer to related questions on why Qur'an was revealed and the golden rules in Qur'an.

Answer 4: Shiite View -- Allah is the Founder and Ahl al-Bayt is Protector

There is only one founder of Islam. Allah is the founder of Islam.

salaam of course Allah nominate Hazrat Muhammad (saws) as messenger of whole universe and to safe of Islam only the family of Hazrat Muhammad named imam Ali, Bibi Fatima ,Hassan and special imam Hussein in karbala.

Secular Historical Answer

Answer 1: Distinction between islam and Islam, which Mohammed Founded

For many Muslims the term "Islam" has two meanings: the Divine Religion of Submission to God's Will (often called Islam with a small "i") and the Institutionalized Belief as Found in Qur'an and Revealed by Muhammad's Prophecy (often called Islam with a capital "I").

islam with a small "i" is a concept that comes out of Islam with a capital "I" and projects the Established Religion of Islam back into the period before would have identified as Muslim. The purpose of said belief, in a functional sense, is to gird Islam in the history afforded by the Judeo-Christian prophetic lineage and ensure its authenticity. islam also affords the believer in Islam a continuity of tradition which Mohammed only continued and corrected as opposed to having the religion of Islam be an affront or disagreement with other divinely-inspired religions. Since islam is derivative of Islam, it does not actually exist prior to Islam.

Islam, as an Established Religion, was organized and directed by Mohammed, who was born in 570 C.E. at Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, he received revelations from God in Mecca in from the year 610-632 C.E. He was supported by several family members like his uncle Ali Ibn Talib and his first wife Khadija to pursue these prophecies. He converted other members to his nascent religion before being expelled from Mecca to Yethrib (now known as Medina) in 622 C.E. When Mohammed became the Chief Hakam or Judge/Administrator of Yethrib, he received many new revelations and began to ask members of his community to memorize these revelations (along with prior ones). These memorizers (in Arabic Hafeths) would eventually be responsible for the creation of one unified Qur'an. By Mohammed's death, he had conquered all of Arabia and converted most of Arabia to his new faith, establishing the grounds for an Islamic Caliphate, which succeeded him.

Answer 2: Mohammed Founded Islam

Islam was founded by an illiterate trade merchant named Muhammad ibn Abdallah. Until approximately 25 years of age he was Pagan, like his parents and grandparents. He never worshiped an idol. Then in the cave of Hira he was approached by angel. He was scared . however, his wife Khadija convinced him he was approached by an angel who ordered him to recite the first verses of the new religion. The new religion is called "Islam" that means "submission". this means submission to Allah (or God and same God worshiped in Judaism and Christianity).

However, after trying to spread this new religion in his home town of Makkah (or Mecca), Muhammad found that 10 years later his followers could be counted by the fingers of two hands. This did not satisfy his ambitions and he fled to Medina and started to rob caravans from Mecca. These raids quickly brought him enough money to recruit new followers with whom he started to raid other tribes subduing them and making them his allies.

Very soon his wealth grew as well as the number of his followers, and then he started the expansion on other lands. This process was followed by his companions after his death and in less than 150 years, Muslims subdued and made islamic the vast territories from Arabia, through Egypt and Palestine to the North Africa and then to Europe in the North to Persia and India in the East.

Additional Comments on the Secular Historical View from the proponents of the Islamic Theological View

  • Prophet Muhammad didn't escape from Makkah but was invited by some forty people from from Medina; who converted to Islam; to migrate to Medina. He accepted per Allah (or God command to him as the Meccas planned to assassinate him and surrounded his home to assassinate him in the morning when he comes out from home. However, by God miracle to him, he left in morning while they didn't see him when he dispersed some sands on their heads.
  • Many Muslims followed him while he was in Mecca (or Makkah) but they migrated to Ethiopia to avoid the tyranny of Meccas who didn't convert to Islam.
  • Prophet Muhammad never worshiped an idol before being a prophet and God messenger. He followed his grand grand father Ibrahim (or Abraham) and worshiped; as prophet Abraham; Allah (or God) as the one and only one God).
  • Prophet Muhammad never forced anyone to convert to Islam. This was by God teachings and commands. He never raised wars against any neighboring areas but just was obliged to defend his territories against outside attacks. even Makkah (or Mecca) he entered it without war and removed the idols around Kaaba and then returned back to Medina even without claiming all the properties belonging to him and/or any of his Muslim followers.)
  • As any God religion, the founder of the religion is Allah (or God in English and same God worshiped in Christianity and Judaism and same God who founded Judaism and Christianity religions
  • Islam is a religion. As all God religions, it should be written with first letter in capital. Never, heard about the saying above to be written occasionally with a capital letter and occasionally with small letter. The contributor to answer 5 above is persuaded to read the Quran and to read about the proofs of Quran divinity and that it is not a human authored text as claimed. Prophet Muhammad was not expelled from Makkah (or Mecca). He was informed by God that the non believers of Makkah (the idols worshipers) planned to assassinate him and was commanded by God to go to Yethrib (that called later Al-madinah or Medina) where there are many Muslim believers. The contributor to answer 5 above is called to read about the Christian Waraqa Ibn Nofal who told Muhammad that what Muhammad saw during worshiping in the Hiraa Cave is an angel and what he received from him is God words and that Muhammad is written in the Bible as the forthcoming and last God prophet. 5) Muhammad never attacked any Arabic site in the Arabian peninsula but he was attacked many times by them and he defended himself. Even Makkah (or Mecca) he returned back to it without war and just because the nonbelievers prevented Muslims from practicing pilgrimage (or Hajj). 6) Qur'an is recited daily by Muslims day and night and during their prayings immediately after the Qur'an verse God revelations in life of Muhammad and till now. Accordingly, there was no way of any alterations of Qur'an verses. It is the only God holy book that was not subject to any human alterations since its revelation by God through the angel Gabriel (or Jibril). All what was done after prophet Muhammad death is its compilation. Otherwise, how do you justify that Qur'an after more than 14 centuries still the same without single letter change contrary to other holy books.
  • It is to be emphasized that Islam is interpreted in two aspects. The first is the universal Islam that is the call of all God prophets (peace be upon them all) since start of mankind creation and it calls all people to full submission to God; the Creator; as the one and only God with no partner, no associate, and no equivalence. The second is Islam per Quran revelation to prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and was called the same name Islam as it is the last God religion and Quran is the last God holy book. It could be referred to question below on why Islam was founded.

It was revealed from God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be upon him)

The founder of Islam was Prophet Muhammad (P.). Born in 570 A.D., Ubu'l Kassim founded Islam in 610 A.D. and then changed his name to Muhammad.

Islam teaches that all of God's prophets, from Adam to Muhammad, God bless them and grant him peace, were prophets of Islam. The modern Islamic movement began in Makkah in the 7th century A.D., and was started by Prophet Muhammad, God bless him and grant him peace. Islam teaches that all of God's prophets, from Adam to Muhammad, God bless them and grant him peace, were prophets of Islam. The modern Islamic movement began in Makkah in the 7th century A.D., and was started by Prophet Muhammad, God bless him and grant him peace. Muhammed (s.a.w) let peace be upon him.

Muḥammad bin Abdullah (the son of Abdullah), was the founder of Islam.

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Islam
Creation
History of Islam

In what country did Islam begin?

Ksa

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History of Spain
History of Islam
Amazigh Language and Culture (Berbers and Moors)

Why were the Moors driven out of Spain?

They were driven out because the Christians who were displaced in power when the Moors invaded wanted their power, lands, and lifestyle back.

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Islam
Roman Empire
History of Islam

Which famous battle stopped the tide of the Islamic Empire advancing through all of Europe?

The Islamic invasion of Europe was stopped by Charles Martel in the famous Battle of Poitiers also known as Battle of Tours on October 10, 732.

This battle was the turning point of 23 years of Muslim imperialist agression and considered the decisive historical event in the struggle against Islam and the preservation of Europe.

Charles was nicknamed "The Hammer" for his glorious defeat of the invaders. Umayyad Caliphate leader Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was slain in the battle and his forces where driven back to the south to over the Pyrenees.

Though there where subsequent Muslim invasions and several battles Muslim forces where confined to Iberia (Spain) which the invaders continued to occupy for several centuries.

In 1236 with the fall of Córdoba, the Emirate of Granada remained the only Muslim-ruled territory and finally on January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the last Muslim occupied territory to Queen Isabella I of Castile.

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Afghanistan
Terrorism
History of Islam

How many Taliban casualties?

The Taliban has lost 30,000 and their wounded is unknown, but it's probably double, maybe even triple that, but they still have 6,000 left...

and we have only lost 2,000 since the war in Afghanistan started, but lost 4,000 in Iraq which means we've lost 6,000 in total.BURNS WHEN I PEE!

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History of Spain
History of Islam

Why is Islamic Spain called golden period of Islamic history?

It was a period when Muslims were making significant advances in science, math, philosophy, and historiography. There was also economic prosperity and general lack of civil strife. Compared to the remainder of Islamic history, it was seen as a good time and the perfect encapsulation of what an Islamic State should look like.

Of course, this is not to say that there was not clear discrimination and repression of minorities, but it was less prominent than it would be in later centuries in other Islamic countries.

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World War 1
Ottoman Empire
History of Islam

Was The Ottoman Empire the largest and most influential Muslim empire?

Yes it was.

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History of Islam

When did the Islamic empire begin?

Some claim that the Islamic empire bagan 600 BC. That is absolutely wrong since Quran revelation by God to prophet Muhammad (PBUH) through the angel Gabriel started in year 610 AD through year 632 AD. That meams the Islamic empire started after year 632 AD for sure.

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Islam
Prophet Muhammad
History of Islam

Where did Islam start?

Answer 1

Islam started in the city of Mecca (currently in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) by the revelation of the first verses of Quran by God to Prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel in year 610 AD. Quran revelation on the prophet continued after his immigration to Medina (also in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) and until prophet death in year 632 AD.

Answer 2

The true split between Judaism and Islam occurred when Abraham impregnated Hagar, the maidservant of Sarai (Abraham's wife). When Sarai bore Isaac, she sent Hagar and her son (Ishmael) away. This is accounted in Genesis, starting in chapter 16. This is the very beginning of Islam, because through Ishmael, the Islamic people came to be. You will notice that the "father" of both Judaism and Islam is Abraham.

Answer 3

Islam originally began since the first creation. They first creation was made to do something for God, which was worship. The first creation worshiped God. Therefore, submitting to his will. This is what a Muslim is. They submit to God's will. They worship him and only him as he is the Creator. Later, more creations came to be and received revelation to do the same as the Creator wants. It came directly to a man named Adam, of whom is the first human being. Then, continued as the Ten commandments, the Bible, and finally the Quran. They are all the same message except, they came to a single person or being before spreading to more than one. Being humans,we have our own choice of whether we want to accept this message or abandon it.

As mentioned above, Abraham(as) was of those who submitted to God, and brought the message to his people. His people, being so far apart in time from us would've caused much confusion if we were to read or hear them in their dialect. Also, just like in the telephone game , even more confusion would arise if word of mouth is used to tell us about what they have learned. So, every Prophet came to their own people , which is very convenient. Then we get to the last Prophet, Prophet Muhammad (saw). He is the only one that was given the Quran, with it's historic stories and universal morals, and was promised to have this revelation preserved until the end of time.

The Quran has no other versions and is exact same message as it was originally, no additions or subtractions. It speaks of people that is mentioned in other books such as the Bible. The Bible is a book of Islam but we recognize it as corrupted by people after it's revelation, not during.

There are many scientific miracles mentioned in the Quran, discoveries we've only begun to find, and wisdom that we can't fathom.

Islam originally began where ever Allah made his first creation. Answer 4Islam is an Arabic word that means submission and surrender to God (as the one and only one God). In this sense Islam began by the universe creation where all God creatures were created under their submission (Islam) to God. Upon start of mankind, they are taught through God prophets to be on full submission (Islam) to God.

All prophet missions; including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, was to hold submission (Islam) to the one and only one God, the Creator, with no partner, no son, no father, no companion, no associate, and no resemblance (defined as monotheism).

In this sense:

  • Islam per God revelation of Torah to Moses is called Judaism.
  • Islam per God revelation of the bible to Jesus is called Christianity.
  • Islam per God revelation of Quran to Muhammad is called the very name Islam.

Islam religion per God revelation of Quran to prophet Muhammad was founded by the start of Quran revelation by God to prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel (Jibril) in Mecca (currently in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) in year 610 AD. Quran revelation continued also when the prophet (peace be upon him) migrated to Medina (also in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) until prophet death in year 632 AD.

Answer 4

The religion Islam began with Mohammad.

Answer 5

Islam religion began in Saudi Arabia (KSA) during 600AD. It was started by Mohammad who was from Kuraish family in Mecca. Mohammad claimed that he got revelations through Jibriel and started preaching his messages in Mecca. He could not get much followers in Mecca, he moved to Medina and was able to get fighting men who was ready to fight for Allah (the god of Meccans). From this point onward he was able to get many followers and his military expeditions helped him to expand his religion. His fighting men were offered virgin, wine and milk in heaven if get killed or booties from the war if not killed.

Answer 6

Islam is not a new religion. All the Prophets preached Islam. Anyhow, we can say that Islam began at Mecca (Makka) in Saudi Arabia in 570 when the last Prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (SAW) started preaching Islam at the age of 40

Answer 7

From the Muslim point of view, Islam per Quran revelation by God to prophet Muhammad (PBUH) began in Makkah (Mecca in English) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Answer 8

Islam began historically on the Arabian peninsula, in the towns of Mecca and Medina (near the west coast inland from the Red Sea). Muhammad (570-632 CE) preached a message he (and all Muslims) believed to be revealed by God. Muslims believe him to an ordinary man with the extraordinary task of being God's last and greatest prophet. Refer to question below for more information.

Islam means submitting to god's will, as god is eternal, therefore, Islam had no beginning. it is there from the time eternity. Islam began with start of universe creation. refer to question below for details.

Answer 9

Islam began in the holy city of Mecca when Muhammad found out about Allah.

Islam began just like Christianity or Judaism, it is based on the same religion, the Islamic year counting starts with Muhammad migrating the city of Mecca because he accepted Allah (or God in English and same God worshiped in Judaism and Christianity) as the only god. Muhammad started believing in Allah because an angel appeared before him and that angel revealed to him God words. These are the words of the Muslims holy book Quran and hence Muhammad started to spread God revelations to him through the angel Gabriel (or Jibril)

Answer 10

The true split between Judaism and Islam occurred when Abraham impregnated Hagar, the maidservant of Sarai (Abraham's wife). When Sarai bore Isaac, she sent Hagar and her son (Ishmael) away. This is accounted in Genesis, starting in chapter 16. This is the very beginning of Islam, because through Ishmael, the Islamic people came to be. You will notice that the "father" of both Judaism and Islam is Abraham.

Answer 11

It started by prophet Mohammad in the city of Mecca.

Answer 12

the above comment is wrong! Islam was even around since the first human being prophet Adam. Prophet Muhammad was the last person to receive a revelation as a Messenger and a Prophet. but he did NOT invent Islam

Answer 13

Islam began historically on the Arabian peninsula, in the towns of Mecca and Medina (near the west coast inland from the Red Sea). Muhammad (570-632 CE) preached a message he (and all Muslims) believed to be revealed by God. Muslims believe him to an ordinary man with the extraordinary task of being God's last and greatest prophet.

Answer 14

Islam began by universe start of creation, Refer to question below for details.

For many Muslims the term "Islam" has two meanings: the Divine Religion of Submission to God's Will (often called Islam with a small "i") and the Institutionalized Belief as Found in Qur'an and Revealed by Mohammed's Prophecy (often called Islam with a capital "I"). The following answers should be understood in either of those meanings.

Answer 15

ISLAM was not founded by any human. Islam means submission to Allah, and since Adam (AS) to Muhammad (PBUH), they all sent this message, so Islam was founded in Heaven, where Adam was first placed. ( one opinion)

Answer 16

Islam was founded in Mecca in 610 A.D.. The Muslim lunar calendar is dated from Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina (Hijrah).

Answer 17

The preaching of Islam actually starts from Prophet Adam (PBUH) and ends up to Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). Every time when ever these prophet came down to earth, Islam gets refreshed. Prophet Jesus (PBUH) also preached Islam. Those who doesn't believed him completely are called Christians. Prophet Moses (PBUH) also preached Islam. Those who doesn't believed him completely are called Jews The Muslims have a faith in all the prophets till Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) and will be remain in faith until the judgement days occurs.

Answer 18

Islam emerged by start of universe creation. All God creations were created based on Islam, that means full submission to God as the one and only one God with no partner, no associate, and no equivalence.

Answer 19

All God prophets called people to Islam. All the Prophets sent to earth by Almighty God for the guidance of humans preached One and the same religion-Islam. The last prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad (May peace be upon him) was born in Makkah (or Mecca) in 570 AD. He started preaching Islam in 610 AD; per Qur'an God revelation to him through the Angel Gabriel; in Makkah (or Mecca) in the current country of Saudi Arabia. The fundamental belief being: ONENESS of Almighty God, having No Son, No Parents, No Off-spring, No Partner, no companion, no associate, and no equivalence. God is the Sole Creator, Sustainer, Provider and Ruler of all the worlds. Refer to related questions below. Islam began in Mecca 610 AD. 13 years later, Muhammad the prophet (PBUH) traveled from Mecca to Medina (that was called Hijra) and established the first city in Islam. From Medina, Islam spread to the whole Arabian Peninsula, then to Iraq,Syria,Persia and Egypt and from there to the rest of Islamic countries.

Islam is the religion propagated and preached by all the Prophets (May peace be upon them all). Hazrat Adam (AS) was the first Prophet and Muslim. The Muslims are found all over the world. There are 58 independent Muslim countries in the world. Islam means full surrender to and faith in Allah (God in English). Accordingly, Islam was started by start of universe creation where all God creations were created on Islam to God. Howeverm Islam per Quran revelation by God to prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was started in Makkah (or Mecca) in year 610 AD. Islam was started in the Arabian Peninsula, in the city of Mecca.
Islam starts its history from the 1st man on earth "Adam" being exiled from the paradise and sent on earth for a limited period for trail/test & in Islam was revealed to Holy Prophet PBUH in Makkah in 611 A.D.
The last Prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (SAW) was born in Makka, Arabia in 570 AD. He started preaching Islam at the age of 40 when he was commanded by Almighty God through the Arch Angel Gabriel to do so. He then migrated to Madina. Islam developed in and around these two cities.

101102103
Afghanistan
Terrorism
History of Islam

What explosives do the taliban use for car bombs?

Whatever's available to them. Could be plastique, PETN, TNT, fertiliser..

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Islam
History of Islam

Was the Islamic empire well run?

The question as posed is nebulous. There have been over 25 major Empires that have identified as Caliphates or Islamic Empires. Some were well-run at points and poorly-run at others, some were just conquests that disintegrated after the conqueror died, some were poorly-run for centuries, but no other regime saw fit to take the land from them.

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Islam
History of Islam

The key reason for Muslim success in conquest was?

Their common faith

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Islam
History of Islam

Why did so many people convert to Islam when the Muslim Empire Expanded?

it is not for sword of Muslims.

when Islam expand to a country Muslims teach about Islam to people and people think and accept Islam.

this is when people learn truth bout Islam. but usually non-Islamic governments and also Church feed wrong information about Islam to their people.

if people know true Islam accept it.

Answer:

Muslims liberated the people and gave them their rights.

The way of life is beautiful to live, and fills you with strength and a feeling of peace.

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History of the Middle East
Crusades
Kurdish Language and Culture
History of Islam

Did saladin have children?

Yes. Saladin had seventeen children.

939495
Afghanistan
Terrorism
History of Islam

Is there waves of taliban on the new modern warfare 3 game?

Yea. The zombies are being replaced by terrorists due do copyright claims.

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Books and Literature
History of Islam

In which novel will you find the characters Saladin Chamchawala and Gibreel Farishta?

The Satanic Verses by Salman Rushdie.

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History of the Middle East
Prophet Muhammad
History of Islam

What evidence is there that Muhammad was experiencing difficulty converting Jewish Christianity and pagan Arabs?

Answer 1

Asalam o Alaikum.

Firstly when referring to Muhammad (pbuh), you should always add 'pbuh (peace be upon him) or 's.a.w (sallallahu alihi wa alai wasalam' as signs of respects.:)

Now answering your question, he (s.a.w) did face a lot of opposition during his lifetime. The major evidence of this is when he (s.a.w) went to Taif to preach the locals Islam, they pelted him with stones to the point that he (s.a.w) bled to his feet. They chased him out of the town, mocking and ridiculing him. But to his (s.a.w)'s greatness, he (s.a.w) forgave them all and prayed for them that Allah (s.w.t) guides them to the straight path.

His (s.a.w)'s prayer was fulfilled when after ten years, the whole of Taif had embraced Islam.

And secondly, the local Jewish Makkans wrote ridiculous poems about Muhammad (s.a.w) insulting him, his family and his religion. They also plotted to kill him but Muhammad (s.a.w) was told about this by Allah before they came searching for him and he (s.a.w) fled to Medina with his followers to seek shelter.

While he was living in Mecca, the locals banished his tribe and the followers of islam to the valley of Banu-Hashim. Where they stayed for 3 years eating leaves and grass.

So basically Muhammad (s.a.w) was tormented both physically and mentally by the locals, but after he had conquered Makkah (23 years after the first revelation) he (s.a.w) stood at the Ka-aba and forgave his bitterest enemies in public.

Answer 2

The only evidence proferred in Answer 1 is: (1) stone-pelting in Taif by non-believers, (2) Jewish Meccans who wrote unflattering poetry, and (3) the Hijra from Mecca to Medina.

There are much better indicators of Mohammed's difficulty of converting Jews, Christians, and Henotheist and Pagan Arabs, such as the following.

1) Meccan Ministry: During all fourteen years of his Meccan ministry, when Mohammed had no political power and could only sway people by argument, he had only 150 followers. Mecca was an incredibly diverse city with innumerable religious groups as well as unassociated monotheists called Hanifs. This should have been low-hanging fruit, but Mohammed only garnered resentment and stone-pelting.

2) Relations with Jews: Another indicator would be how nearly every Jewish tribe Mohammed tried to convince laughed in his face and asked him serious questions about his claims. The Islamic tales only retell the occasional story of the Jew who converts, but not of the several Jewish tribes that remained largely intact until Mohammed saw fit to slaughter or exile them from his territory. He was clearly unable to convince the majority of them.

3) Relations with the Christians of Najran: In 631 C.E. Mohammed held negotiations with the Christian community of Najran. He did not seem to convince any of them to become Muslims. In fact, Najran would not see its Christian community diminish in any way until Caliph Omar forcibly evicted them.

4) Ridda Wars: When Mohammed conquered Mecca in 630 C.E., many Arab tribes converted to Islam. However, when Mohammed died in 633 C.E., a number of these tribes "unconverted". In their view, their acceptance of Islam was a confederal pact, not an acceptance of a religion. Now that Mohammed was dead, the pact was over, since he did not leave proper successors. If Mohammed had actually convinced the tribes that his religion was proper, they never would have left. Caliph Abu Bakr was later "forced" to reconquer the "unconverted" tribes and make them realign towards Islam.

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History, Politics & Society
Caliphates
History of Islam

How did umayyads bring new lands into a Muslim empire?

They used their more advanced armies and tactics to suprise and overrun their unprepared and less powerful neighbors

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Islam
War and Military History
History of Islam

Was Islam spread by war?

This is a contentious topic and as a result, has three distinct categories of answers. The answers will be organized by category:

  • Answer A: Those that assert that the claim of Islam spreading by war is FALSE. Those who assert this claim hold that Islam spread exclusively through peaceful means
  • Answer B: Those that assert that the claim of Islam spreading by war is TRUE, but was a minimal part of the expansion of Islam that occurred only in select instances.
  • Answer C: Those that assert that the claim of Islam spreading by war is TRUE, and that Islam spreading by war was an important part in the growth of the faith. Note, that Answer C's position does not mean that the only way that Islam spread was war, but that war was one of several critical mechanisms that led to Islam spreading.

ANSWER A: ISLAM WAS NOT SPREAD BY WAR

Answer A1

Some non-Muslims claim that Islam would not have millions of adherents all over the world, if it had not been spread by the use of force. The following arguments may prove that it was the inherent force of truth, reason and logic that was responsible for the rapid spread of Islam.

1. Islam means peace

Islam means peace. It means, also, full submission of one's will to God (Allah). Thus Islam is a religion of peace, which is acquired by submitting one's will to the will of the Supreme Creator, Allah. Islam is an Arabic word that means submission and surrender to God will. It is the faith and religion of all God creatures since start on universe creation. Refer to question below on when Islam was made. The root word of Arabic 'Islam' is 'Salem' that means be in peace and its noun is 'salam' that means peace.

2. Sometimes force has to be used to maintain peace

Every one in this world is in favor of maintaining peace and harmony. There are many, who would disrupt it for their own vested interests. Sometimes force has to be used to maintain peace. It is precisely for this reason that we have the police who use force against criminals to maintain peace within the community. Islam promotes peace. At the same time, Islam urges its followers to fight when there is no other way to resist oppression. The fight against oppression may, at times, require the use of force. In Islam force can only be used to promote peace and justice.

3. Opinion of the historian De Lacy O'Leary

The best reply to the misconception that Islam was spread by the war is given by the noted historian De Lacy O'Leary in the book "Islam at the cross road" (Page 8):

"History makes it clear however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myth that historians have ever repeated."

4. Muslims ruled Spain for 800 years

Muslims ruled Spain for about 800 years. The Muslims in Spain never used the sword to force the people to convert. Later the Christian Crusaders came to Spain and wiped out the Muslims and Spanish Muslims were not exempted from torture and expelling. There was not a single Muslim in Spain who could openly call for prayers.

Just as one example to explain that Islam was not spread by war is that: could you explain how Spain was under Muslims control for over than 800 years and when left control of it was still the wide majority of the Spanish Christians (Spain has less than 1% Muslims).

5. Around 14 million Arabs are Coptic Christians

Muslims controlled Arabia for 1400 years. For a few years the British ruled, and for a few years the French ruled. Overall, the Muslims are controlling Arabia for 1400 years. Yet today, there are 14 million Arabs who are Coptic Christians i.e. Christians since generations. If the Muslims had used the sword there would not have been a single Arab who would have remained as Christian.

6. More than 80% non-Muslims in India

The Muslims ruled India for about a thousand years. If they wanted, they had the power of converting each and every non-Muslim of India to Islam. Today more than 80% of the population of India are non-Muslims. All these non-Muslim Indians are bearing witness today that Islam was not spread by war or by force.

7. Islam in Indonesia and Malaysia

Indonesia is a country that has the maximum number of Muslims in the world. The majority of people in Malaysia are Muslims. May one ask, "Which Muslim army went to Indonesia and Malaysia?". Of course, no Muslim forces or armies reached these places.

8. East Coast of Africa

Similarly, Islam has spread rapidly on the East Coast of Africa. One may again ask, if Islam was spread by the sword, "Which Muslim army went to the East Coast of Africa?"

9. Sayings of Thomas Carlyle

The famous historian, Thomas Carlyle, in his book "Heroes and Hero worship", refers to this misconception about the spread of Islam:

"The sword indeed, but where will you get your sword? Every new opinion, at its starting is precisely in a minority of one. In one man's head alone. There it dwells as yet. One man alone of the whole world believes it. There is one man against all men. That he takes a sword and try to propagate with that, will do little for him. You must get your sword! On the whole, a thing will propagate itself as it can."

10. No compulsion in religion

With which sword was Islam spread? Even if Muslims had it they could not use it to spread Islam because the Quran says [Quran chapter 2, verse 256]:

"Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from error"

11. Sword of the Intellect

It is the sword of intellect. The sword that conquers the hearts and minds of people. Qur'an says [Quran, chapter 16, verse 125]:

"Invite (all) to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching;and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious."

12. Increase in the world religions from 1934 to 1984

An article in Reader's Digest 'Almanac', year book 1986, gave the statistics of the increase of percentage of the major religions of the world in half a century from 1934 to 1984. This article was published also in 'The Plain Truth' magazine. At the top was Islam, which increased by 235%, and Christianity had increased only by 47%. May one ask, which war took place in this period which converted millions of people to Islam?

13. Islam is the fastest growing religion in America and Europe

Today the fastest growing religion in both America and Europe is Islam. Which war or sword is forcing people in the West to accept Islam in such large numbers?

14. Dr. Joseph Adam Pearson sayings

Dr. Joseph Adam Pearson rightly says: "People who worry that nuclear weaponry will one day fall in the hands of the Arabs, fail to realize that the Islamic bomb has been dropped already, it fell the day Mohamed (peace upon him) was born."

15. Irrelevance of the Battles in Arabia

It is true that in the early years of Islam; per Quran revelation to prophet Muhammad; there were many military battles with the pagans. However, all these battles were on defence by Muslims especially that they were less in number and provisions. Only that one against the Makkahans in which Muslims moved to Makkah (or Mecca), destroyed the idols, prayed in Al-Kaaba, and left it back to Medina without war, without single blood shed, and without taking any one's properties. Although Muslims when left Makkah (or Mecca), all their properties were taken by force by the pagans at that time.

Concerning what is discussed in Answers C, the following are some challenges to those arguments:

Concerning the Copts in Egypt:

It is true that the followers of the former president Morsi raised fires in some churches but this was due to political reasons that is to raise the protest of the West against the following presidency and rule. It is true also that all Egyptians; Muslims and Christians; payed charities in a campaign to repair and rebuild all the churches and mosques that were harmed by the former president Morsi.

Concerning Punishments to Apostasy:

It is true that converting out of Islam would subject the one to penalty but this was only in the early days of Islam because many non Muslims converted to Islam for short periods and then reconverted back to give the impression that Islam is not a true Divine religion. Then this penalty was applied for anyone to convert into Islam he/she should think deliberately and when is truly convinced with Islam faith he/she can convert. Currently, there is no restriction (in Islamic or non Islamic country for any Muslim or non Muslim to convert to the faith he/she is convinced with. In Egypt, it is the opposite, if one converts to Islam he/she is returned by the authorities to the church to decide what to do with him/her.

Concerning the Wars in Arabia:

However, all Islamic wars during Muhammad were to repel attacks on them by the pagans and non believers.

Concerning the Conquest of Persia:

However, no Muslims was forced to convert to Islam. Refer to historical books to find that Muslims became majority over hundreds of years which means that it was by their free will and not by force. The evidence is that no Muslims was forced to convert to Islam. Refer to historical books to find that Muslims became majority over hundreds of years which means that it was by their free will and not by force.

Answer A2

The question of Islam's spread by Sword is a very complex one. The Muslim faith has often been credited as a religion spread by force and coercion. The question, if answered in a logical way, has two answers: Yes and No. Let us take a look at the 'Yes' first,

"Unlike Christianity, which preached a peace that it never achieved, Islam unashamedly came with a sword."

Steven Runciman (1903 - 2000)

Muhammad, the founder and prophet of Islam, began preaching his visions in Mecca (in present-day Saudi Arabia) in 610. Within 25 years he and his supporters, called Muslims, had gained control of the whole Arabian Peninsula. By 650 a structured Islamic state ruled the Arabian Peninsula, the entire Fertile Crescent and Egypt; by the early 700s Islam subjugated a wide area, stretching from the edges of China and India in the east to North Africa and Spain in the West

This rapid spread of the religion was due to two factors: Conquest and Conversion. These two ideas were mutually dependent. The former, no doubt, was a contributor to the propagation of Islam.

In the later days of Islam, many tyrants started converting their subjects to Islam by force. These conversions didn't take place in very large numbers and cannot be called responsible for such a great populace of Muslims throughout the world.

Then we examine the 'No' position.

It is an irrefutable fact that a portion of the Muslim populace (a very small one) was converted by force.

"Every new opinion, at its starting is precisely in a minority of one. In one man's head alone. There it dwells as yet. One man alone of the whole world believes it, there is one man against all men. That he takes a sword and try to propagate with that, will do little for him."

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881),

As pointed by Carlyle, It is impossible for an idea to spread by force. There must be some logic to it that tempts the conscious of people and makes them accept it. So is it with Islam. When an Idea is deeply rooted in the mind, it is impossible to replace it with the use of force. Force only reduces the allure of an idea, no matter how great it is. Even if a person is coerced into believing a notion, he will never accept it by heart.

De Lacy O'Leary rightly pointed out that "History makes it clear however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myth that historians have ever repeated."

If Islam was spread by sheer force, then how can you explain these facts?

1. In spite of Muslim dominion of the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, 14 million Arabs belong to the Coptic Christian Church.

2. Indonesia is the country with the largest Muslim population. It is a historical fact that no Muslim Army ever entered Indonesia.

3. Muslims ruled India for nearly a millennium. So why the 80% of the Indian populace is non-Muslim (primarily Hindu).

4. Muslims ruled Spain for some 800 years. When they left the country, a major portion of the population was Christian.

5. In the mid portion of the last century, the amount of Muslim population increased rapidly. Which war forced such large amount of converts?

6. Today, Islam is the fastest growing religion in U.S.A. Which war is causing this huge explosion in the population of Muslims?

The answer is clear. Sword was and is being used to convert people to Islam but this is the sword of intellect, not of coercion.

Let me present an analogy: During the Portuguese colonization of the Indian subcontinent, the Christian preachers were able to convert many people to Christianity (especially in Goa). After some decades, they started the Inquisition of new converts. Instead of an increase in the number of converts, there was a rapid decrease in number of converts to Christianity and a rapid increase of converts from Christianity.

Conclusion: The notion that Islam was spread by sword is as absurd as the notion that the Christian faith was spread by thumbscrews.

The above arguments were all from facts; let's now explore the idea of forced conversion in the context of the Islamic set of beliefs.

The word 'Islam' itself means peace. According to the faith, it is haram to force anybody to the convert to Islam. Allah proclaims straightaway in the Holy Qur'an that:

'The truth is from your Lord; so let whosoever will, believe, and let whosoever will, disbelieve' ( 1 8.28).

These words prove that the very essence of Islam is against the notion of forced conversion and depends upon the free will of a person. It is also said in the Qur'an that:

"Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from error" [2:256]

Even if the rightful Muslims were tempted to resort to the use of force, they were prohibited from using it by the proclamation of the Lord.

Conclusion: The idea of forced conversions is against the essence of Islam. No fair Muslim will ever resort to such a heinous method.

In a nutshell; it can be said that the overall spread of Islam was not due to the sword, as is regurgitated by most Western historians but due to some other factors among which the effective preachers are one.

Answer A3

No. Islam was spread by love, peace, good morals, forgiveness, and tolerance.

Otherwise, how do you explain that it took hundreds of years for Muslims to become majority in the Persian empire, in Indonesia, in Malaysia, ...etc. Muslims were in control of Spain for 800 years. According to Western Historians, they never killed a civilian, a woman, or a child for being non Muslim. This explains that when they lost control of the country after 800 years Muslims were still not majority.

Muslims believe that no compulsion in religion as commanded in Quran and prophet Muhammad (PBUH) teachings.

Islam was never spread by violence, it is a message of love and it was spread by love and peace. It was the beauty of Islam which invited people towards the religion and the fact that it is a religion which covers the complete way of life.

refer to question below for more information.

Answer A4

Muslims were in control of Spain for 800 years. According to Western Historians, they never killed a civilian, a woman, or a child for being non Muslim. This explains that when they lost control of the country after 800 years Muslims were still not majority.

Islam was spread by love, peace, good morals, forgiveness, and tolerance.

Answer A5

simple thing to realize which is the country having largest Muslim population: Indonesia. Now which Islamic army in past went there conquered Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, etc. Now Muslims ruled the Indian sub continent for more than 1000 years in which for 800 years Muslims were undisputed rulers but today if you will check demographic of Indian subcontinent, Muslims are not more than Hindus. Third and most important thing soon after the death of Prophet of Islam peace be upon him. Muslims conquered the Arabic Peninsula but today if you see there are more than 200 million non Muslims in the Islamic countries. so all these facts proves that Islam was not spread with sword. It was spread with love and with its principles like equality of mankind.

ANSWER B: ISLAM WAS RARELY SPREAD BY WAR

Answer B1

Islam was indeed spread by war, from the time of Muhammad onwards. The word 'Islam' does not mean 'peace' as stated in Answer A1. The Arabic for peace is salam (as in al-salam 'alaykum). Islam means 'submission', which is a very different thing. Islam has always been the most violent of religions. Until Muslims come to terms with their own history, they cannot hope to answer this question. The answer is, yes Islam was spread by war, but forced conversion following conquest was rare.

Answer B2

Never is not to be used in history.

In the middle ages, as any other religion or ideology, Islam's expansion from Spain to Philippines had known military conquests. But, actually, much less than Christianity in Europe. History of Islam has been more based on trade.

Most of the regions were Islam had became the predominant religion were much more tolerant than in christian Europe.

In Spain, Muslims, Christians and Jews had lived for 800 years in harmony until the Catholic kings came in power and instated the Inquisition.

The message of Islam was (and still is) morality, forgiveness, love, and tolerance. Moreover, Islam was often advanced in science, literature, philosophy, medicine, ... etc. The list of enlightened Muslim scientists, philosophers of Medicine men is long and their contribution to human knowledge is priceless.

ANSWER C: ISLAM WAS OFTEN SPREAD BY WAR

Answer C1

General Answer

Islam was also a political force, i.e the Islamic Caliphates. The armies of these Caliphates were also fighting an expansionary war for territory just as every other empire did in those days. As the above answers note, the call to "convert or die" was very rare, but when countries were annexed to the Caliphates, many citizens did convert either because they saw the Truth of the religion or to gain from the tax, work-related, and legal benefits that came from conversion. As a result the massive expansion of these empires was the primary method of gaining converts and it had spill-over effects. When more people had converted to Islam under the various Islamic Empires, more merchants from non-Islamic States gained exposure to Muslims and Islam. The same is true today in that with the mass immigration of Muslims to Europe, common Europeans have more exposure to Muslims and therefore a higher likelihood of converting themselves.

Many Muslims claim that these empires expanded peacefully. They did not, but by the sword as no country just opens it doors to a new power. In fact, Muslims are very proud of their conquest of the Byzantine Empire and the "liberation" of its territories under General Khaled ibn Waleed and the destruction of the Sassanid Zoroastrian Persian Empire under General Sa'ad ibn Waqas. Some particularly useful examples, due how thoroughly they have been researched are: the Muslim Conquest of Iberia, the Mughal Conquest of central India, and Ottoman expansion into the Balkans.

Discussion of Various Apologist Arguments:

Answers A1 and A2 present some very interesting arguments, points, or rhetorical questions in an attempt to advocate the incorrect view that Islam spread peacefully. It is worthwhile to examine these arguments. They roughly follow the order in A1, and there will be a notation if they also correspond with the rhetorical questions in A2.

1. Meaning of the word Islam - Peace vs. Surrender

The problem with this debate is that it does not go anywhere. The root S-L-M (سلم) is part of Salaam (سلام) which means peace and Istislaam (إستسلام) which means surrender. The essence of the idea is that when somebody surrenders to the Divine Will, they will be at peace. This following of Divine Law that creates peace is what Islam means. Of course, this says nothing about those who refuse to surrender to the Divine Will, which is what the war issue is about.

2. Defensive War and Resistance

This is a red-herring. Nobody objects to defensive warfare to protect your beliefs and the question does not even ask about this. It asks about "spreading" which implies offensive war, militant outreach, or peaceful outreach with the intent to expand Islam. It is undeniable that armies of Muslims conquered neighboring regions and continued on an expansionary conquest. Even if they were being threatened by the Byzantine Empire and Zoroastrian Empire, which are unlikely, stripping one of 2/3 of its territory, completely enveloping the other and then sending military missions beyond the borders of those countries to the hinterland is not defensive warfare.

3. Opinion of the historian De Lacy O'Leary and the Christian Polemicist Dr. Joseph Adam Pearson

Both of the quotes referred to in Answer A1 are quote-mined and taken entirely out of context. De Lacy O'Leary was not saying that there was no conquest, but that the conquest was not subject to fanaticism.

This is the full quote from De Lacy O'Leary in context:

"The loss of revenue from conversions was so serious that, in spite of protests, tribute was levied even from those who had embraced Islam. In fact, within ten years from the Prophet's death, by the conquest of great and wealthy provinces, Islam was faced with conditions which had never been contemplated and the attempt to reconstruct it so as to preserve the original purpose under these new conditions, was too artificial to last. History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races, is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated. There are plenty of instances of such fanaticism and forced conversion, but these do not belong to the early history of Islam nor that of the Arabs; those stories come from the banks of the Niger, from the Sudan, and from Sumatra, and are connected with Muslim religious revivals of later days and dubious orthodoxy."

Dr. Joseph Adam Pearson was not describing the "Islamic Bomb" in a positive sense, but in a strongly negative fashion. His book: The Koran: Testimony of Antichrist, makes the ridiculous claim that Mohammad was himself the Anti-Christ and that Islam is a demonic scourge on mankind and is causing wanton damage like a nuclear bomb does. A link to web-version of the book is provided to demonstrate that this is the proper interpretation of the quote regardless of the fact that his views are incendiary and ridiculous. When Muslim Apologists, like Zakir Naik, actually uses this source, they have undermined their argument because Pearson is claiming that Islam is violent and very un-peaceful.

4. Islamic Rule of Spain -- A2 Question #4

Almanzor was one of the most famous rulers of Andalucia (Islamic Spain), even if he was not a proper Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba (also known as Andalucia). Almanzor is remembered historically in Spain precisely for punitive raids and devastating the various cities throughout northern Spain. He conducted over 60 such operations which destroyed Leon (984), Barcelona (985) Santiago de Compostela (997) Pamplona (999) and San Millan de la Cogolla (1002) along with other emblematic cities in the northern Christian Kingdoms. Almanzor fervently believed that he was acting in full compliance with the requirement of jihad (regardless of whether he was or not) and it is said that he would collect the dust and blood that stained his clothes during these anti-Christian incursions so that he could be interred with them. The argument that the Muslim invasion and conquest of Spain was peaceful is incorrect.

It is true that there are not many Muslims in Spain, but this is due to causes other than the way Islam was spread. First, there was never a major intent to convert Spaniards. Also between 1293 and 1492, the only area under Muslim control was Granada which meant that most Muslims were under Christian rule. Many of them converted to Christianity in order to reap the benefits of being Christian in a Christian society and to avoid the various massacres that occurred in 14th and 15th century Spain against Muslims. And of course, most importantly, after the Muslims left, there was the Spanish Inquisition which forced many Iberian Muslims to convert to Christianity or flee to Islamic States. This led to a precipitous drop in the Muslim population.

5. There are 8 million Christian Copts in Egypt and roughly 14 million worldwide -- A2 Question #1

This is true, but what happened to all of the Christians who lived in Tunisia (Tunis was an important Christian city). What happened to all of the Moroccan Jews (there were 260,000 in 1940 and there are now 3,600)? What happened to the Christian population of Anatolia? The fact that there are some Arab Christians left does not mean that force was not used, but merely that the result of the use of force has not fully achieved its goal. As concerns Copts specifically, throughout Morsi's Presidency, Coptic Churches in Egypt were bombed more frequently than usual and there was no recourse for Copts other than to flee. This resulted in some of the highest Coptic emigration rates in decades in the last two years.

6. 80% of Indians are non-Muslim and are Hindu -- A2 Question #3

Using the population of India alone is disingenuous. Muslims controlled Pakistan and Bangladesh as well as India as part of one unified Empire. If the populations of Pakistan and Bangladesh are added to India, the subcontinent is 35% Muslim, which makes sense given that Muslims only occupied the area for less than 500 years and internal information movement in India is very slow given a high terrain difficulties. This is why the largest Muslim populations were along Rivers where major cities were built by the Mughal. The closer to such a population center, the more likely a person would be compelled to convert. Akbar was known for his tolerance and reviled by Muslims for it although loved by non-Muslim Indians. His grandson Aurangzeb was known for compelling conversion and loved by Muslims for it and hated by non-Muslim Indians.

7. Islam spread to Indonesia and Malaysia without war -- A2 Question #2

It is true that Indonesia has the largest Muslim populations and no foreign Islamic army conquered Indonesia. However, once Islam established a beachhead in Indonesia through commerce and peaceful religious acquisition, Muslim armies did exist in Indonesia that were composed by Muslim Indonesian Sultanates (like the Acehnese). It took centuries of Sultanates and repressive policies in Indonesia for most Indonesians to convert to Islam. Even today, Indonesian Islam is the most syncretic forms of Islam outside of Africa since not all of the local culture has been successfully purged.

Additionally, even if it were the case that Indonesian Islam was propagated entirely peacefully, just as European Jehovah's Witnesses were propagated entirely peacefully, it does not disprove the claim that Islam was spread by war. If Islam was spread by war even one time in a different context, the claim that it is not spread by war at all is incorrect.

8. Islam spread to the East Coast of Africa without war

It's really the same argument as Indonesia (7): peaceful beachhead to indigenous sultanate. However, there were some Arab conquests of East Africa (Omani Empire) as well as indigenous sultanates like the Zanzibar Sultanate and several Somali ones like Ajuuran State and the Warsangali Sultanate.

9. Forced Conversion Works

The quote from Carlyle is used to justify the view that forcing a person to accept an idea does not work. However, while the religion of Islam did not usually expand through forcible conversion, it is not a ridiculous assertion to say that forcible conversion works, such as the quote and Answer A2 claim. Europe did this in many places which is what assured the strength of Catholicism in Spain, Austria, and France as opposed to Protestantism which grew organically in each of those territories. By using Inquisitions, Stake Burnings, and numerous other suppression techniques, the Catholics prevented the rise of Protestantism in these areas. As for citing Qur'anic verses in support of this idea, there is also verse 9:5 which is the famous "kill them wherever you find them" verse. Of course, Islamic Empires have typically been more tolerant (and thus more approving of the "no compulsion" verse) but the treatment of non-Muslims by Muslims was conditioned more on the governmental powers at any one time than by actions proscribed in the Qur'an since the Qur'an could sensibly be read either way. As to the Goa Analogy, since the Portuguese only controlled Goa, the Indian converts could easily flee to non-Portuguese controlled areas, but when you have an Empire whose borders stretch across timezones without break, there is no way to escape and so you are forced to deal with whatever the government may send your way. Additionally, the children of forced converts are often more accepting of the faith that their parents were compelled to join.

10. Pressure through Dhimmi Status

While forced conversion was rare, there was certainly pressure placed on Non-Muslims of Islamic States called Dhimmi to convert within Islamic States. There is also Qur'anic verse 9:29 which provides an antipode to 2:109. There were economic, social, and political benefits to being a Muslim, which creates compulsion. Read about the status of Non-Muslims conquered by Islamic States in the Related Question below.

11. Intellectual Complexity of Islam

This is a red-herring. Many very intellectual ideas, ideologies, and religions were exported through violence and many were not. This does not provide any useful information.

12. Conversion Rates -- A2 Questions #5 & #6

The statistics on Western Conversion to Islam are taken out of context. In many Muslim countries it is either by law or by de facto societal conduct that conversion out of Islam to other religions (such as Christianity) is forbidden and punishable by death. On top of that, proselytization of these non-Muslim faiths is also punishable by long jail terms. As a result, Muslims who realize the Truth of other religions are few and far between and those who would admit to doing so are even rarer. As a result, most Muslim conversion to Christianity is minimal and kept secret to avoid death. The fact that Muslims are compelled to stay Muslims by force is just as problematic as forcibly converting non-Muslims to Islam. Compare that to Western countries where multi-culturalism and liberal values have allowed Islam to come to various countries and expose new people to its religion and its Truth. Additionally, conversion out of Christianity is barely even a consideration among other Westerners and certainly not something worth killing over.

If the marketplace of ideas were freer, it is likely that many more Muslims would convert to Christianity, given how effective Christian proselytizers have been in places where there is no ban on their activities (even with rules on no material inducements).

13. Key Importance of the Battles in Arabia

The Arabian Tribal Wars were where Islam was developed and where Mohammed set the example that would be followed for generations. It created a theology with clear war doctrines and determined how wars would be fought int the future. Rather than being irrelevant to discussing how Islamic Empires and the Islamic Religion expanded, the Battles in Arabia were important to explain why Islam has such a developed position on war and expansion.

14. Conquest of Persia

The Conquest of Persia that answers C2 and A4 argue about is worth discussing. Persia is a clear example of the violence of Islamic conquest. After Mohammed's death several Arab Muslim tribes began to attack and pillage Sassanid Persian controlled cities in Mesopotamia. King Yazdagerd III of Sassanian Persia asked if the Arabs, led by Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas, would be willing to agree to a peace treaty where most of Mesopotamia would be under Arab control in return for no more pillaging. Waqqas replied that the only way that there could be peace between the Arabs and the Sassanid Persians was if (a) the Persians all converted to Islam; or (b) the Sassanid Persian government paid a collective jizya tribute to the Muslims as a symbol of Muslim ascendance. Yazdagerd III refused both of these options and engaged the Arab Muslims. He was routed by the Arab Muslims in the Battles of Qadisiyyah and Nahavand, leading to the fall of Persia.

Answer C2

in old Persian empire, for sure yes!

they killed thousands of people with the excuse of spreading Islam.

798081
Human Rights
History of Islam
Persian Gulf

What are the human-rights abuses in the nations of the Persian Gulf and Islamic Fundamentalist cultures?

By Western or Judao-Christian standards, the nations of the Middle East are seen to abuse human rights in several ways:

- Democratic rights: many countries in the region are theocracies or absolute monarchies with little or no free and fair elections

- Women's rights: women often have little or no rights; no right to vote, no right to drive, no right to leave the house uncovered, no right to work, no right to divorce, no right to abortion, no right to sexual freedom, no right to expression, no right to testify in court and many others

- Cruel and unusual punishments: amputation of limbs when found guilty of crimes; public execution by various slow methods of torture, including hanging and stoning; torture by religious and secret police

- Sexual rights: homosexuality is prohibited, often on pain of death

Some of these are part of Sharia Law, a strict interpretation of the Koran; others are fairly typical of undemocratic or theocratic governments anywhere in the world; some of these are even practiced by apparently advanced nations, including the United States.

777879
Islam
Crusades
Kurdish Language and Culture
History of Islam

Was Saladin a Kurd?

Yes he was. He was from kurdistan e azad basha alami sagbab.

There are several Medieval Historians, such as Ibn Athir, who make it clear that Saladin was a Kurd.

757677
History of Islam

Why can it be said that Islamic civilization was superior to the civilization of western Europe in the ninth and tenth century?

the Assyrians were not Arabs the ninth and tenth centuries were called the dark ages for a very good reason. all the power rested in the feudal system in Europe and even the rulers were basically illiterate. the Arabs translated all the Greek and roman publications and invented algebra. Europe did not gain this information until the moors were expelled from Spain and the religious orders translated the Arab texts into European languages. in wiki world we don't have a lot of participants who know history, if i give you information, do some research.

AnswerBecause it was but no because of the Arab or Persian because Assyrian were the driver force of Islam Golden age.

Answer

i think you mean Syrian or Aramaic people they are the ones who translated to Arabs all the Roman and Greek knowledge

757677
Judaism
History of the Middle East
History of Judaism
History of Islam

What caused Jews and Muslims to become enemies?

Answer 1

First of all, saying Jews and Muslims are enemies is like saying that all Americans and Mexicans are enemies. What about Mexican-Americans? Who is their enemy? The same thing goes for Jewish Arabs and Israeli Muslims. Who are they supposed to hate? Themselves? Sure a Jewish woman once tried to poison Muhammad. The poison didn't affect him. However, when Muhammad went to Yathrib (Medinah) the Jews praised him. They believed he was the last prophet. The reason the Jews stopped accepting him was because he wasn't an Israelite. That's when a rivalry began. But that has a small link to the Israel thing.

Answer 2

Mohammed originally described himself as a 'Jewish prophet'. The religion he was developing, which today we know as Islam, incorporated many aspects of Judaism within it. Some of the dietary laws are the same, for instance. Religious Jews pray three times a day - religious Muslims pray five times daily. There are many other similarities. But then Mohammed demanded that the Jews abandon their own faith and instead convert to Islam. Naturally, the Jews declined. At this point, Mohammed turned on them and this is the starting point of the enmity.

Judaism teaches that all religions are to be respected, and that all humans are equally God's children. And indeed, there are many instances of Jews and Muslims living and working together perfectly well. In fact, in general, Jews fared far better in Islamic countries than they did in Christian nations.

The dispute over land is more complex; bear in mind that Jerusalem is the holiest Jewish city. But for Muslims, it is the THIRD most holy city, because Mecca and Medina are their first two. Jews have always prayed facing Jerusalem, wherever they are in the world. Muslims pray facing Mecca and Jerusalem is not mentioned ONCE in the Quran, the Islamic holy text!

Answer 3

A lot of things contributed to the problem, but the central disagreement between them is over ownership of land. Religious people on each side believe that God gave them the land where they live. It is important to remember though, that in general, Jews and Moslems don't ALL believe that they are at war, or even have bad feelings toward the other religion. Most of the conflict is among people who are very different trying to live in close proximity in the Middle East. Some of them don't even believe in their religions... they just can't get along next to each other. Hatred like that exists whenever people don't try to understand each other, or start hating people just because they belong to a certain group even though they don't know them.

Answer 4

The answer to the question lies in the beginning of Islam and the original Jewish tribes that defied Muhammad's demand to convert to Islam. Because the Jewish tribes refused to convert and tried to assassinate Muhammad, the Jews became the object of Islamic hate.

Sura (5:59-60) - This verse begets the infamous belief on the part of some Muslims that Jews are descended from swine and apes, since it says that wicked Jews (at least) were transformed by Allah in the past.

The Qur'an also contains dozens of verses that specifically describe Jews in the ugliest, most hateful terms. These parts of the Qur'an are indistinguishable from hate literature.

There is nothing in Jewish literature or in the religion that promotes or directs hate towards any other religion. The Qur'an is believed by Muslims to be the word of God so as the Qur'an directs the Muslims to hate the Jews, the faithful follow the Qur'an's teaching.

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Spain
History of Spain
History of Islam
Amazigh Language and Culture (Berbers and Moors)

When were the Moors defeated in Spain?

They began to be defeated shortly after they invaded in 711. The final defeat was 700+ years later in 1492. It took the Christians that long to drive them out.

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History of Islam

Who are important people in Islamic history?

The first name that springs to mind is Arthur Frank Miller, who is widely credited with spreading the religion to Asia and the Middle East

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