Recycling helps the Earth by not producing more waste onto our planet. We are throwing away far too much rubbish.
So save the planet!
In a small paperback book called STUFF The Secret Lives of Everyday Things, copyright 1997 by Northwest Environment Watch in Seattle, WA, authors Ryan and Durning with research assistance by Breslow, Halvorson, and Tohan, state that "Smelting is so energy intensive that aluminum earned the nickname "congealed electricity." Making a soda can of smelted aluminum takes energy equivalent to a quarter-can of gasoline. (Making a) 33-percent recycled can took about a sixth of a can of gasoline ..."
Despite the date of the book, similar numbers should apply today in 2011. If you determine the number of aluminum beverage cans emptied by consumers, you'll see that the following "good" things might occur. The amount of money needed to produce a typical soda can should be reduced, and the savings should be passed on to consumers. Or, because of recycling of aluminum, the cost of a can of soda is lower than it would otherwise be (the package is often more costly than the product itself). Less electrical energy should be consumed to make "new" aluminum products, thus allowing more energy for other uses, and/or hopefully keeping the price of electrical energy at comparatively lower values. One could envision a number of other beneficial outcomes, such as reduced environmental impact because of a comparatively lower demand for the earth's limited resources and the fact that such resources become more difficult to obtain as the earth's more-easily-obtained raw materials dwindle.
One thing about aluminum production that may not be apparent is that aluminum is made mostly from bauxite. This ore consists of aluminum atoms combined (chemically bonded) with oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a low-energy state; in other words bauxite has existed on the earth's surface for a long time like this (instead of "pure" aluminum) because these atoms bound together are a lower-energy state than if the pure elements existed in the same volume.
"Since highly electropositive metals tend to react at high temperatures with most materials, common pyrometallurgical processes cannot be used for smelting them. A straightforward method for producing these metals is first to purify a salt of a reactive metal and then electrolyze the salt for recovery of the metallic element." p.207, Unit Processes of Extractive Metallurgy, by Pehlke, 1973, Elsevier. What this means is that aluminum atoms are strongly attached/bonded to oxygen atoms, and to release the aluminum atoms from bonds with oxygen atoms requires a comparatively large amount of energy from some source. In this case, a large amount of electricity is needed to efficiently produce large amounts of "pure" aluminum.
If you can reuse something, why not? You won't have to waste resources that you don't have to.
Common possibilities: Spark Plugs & Plug Wires. If plugs/wires have more than 80,000 miles on them, consider replacing them.
Warning!... use only GM supplied AC-Delco spark plugs. The 32-Valve Northstar engine is very particular about the special dual-tip, dual platinum spark plugs they were designed with.
Yes, they're expensive (about $6 each from local autoparts stores), but they last a long time which offsets the price. I replaced mine at 100k, and they were just beginning to act up.
Any others will MOST LIKELY result in misfires (like you're experiencing now), reduced gas mileage, and short life.
Plug wires can be upgraded with high-performance 8mm helical core wires, but stick with top-grade Bosch or Borg-Warner Select wires. Factory wires are always a safe-bet, but 'can' begin to degrade after 50k miles in high-heat conditions.
Side note: As with many late model cars, these cars use half as many ignition coils as there are spark plugs... in a system called Waste Spark ignition, where a single coil fires 2 (opposing) spark plugs. If one spark plug wire is bad, you actually lose full spark power on TWO spark plugs, as they are connected in series. (This is why an engine can begin to run so poorly when just one spark plug wire goes bad, especially on 6-cylinder engines!)
This also means that half of your spark plugs are sparking from center-to-ground (normal), and the other half are sparking from ground-to-center (abnormal). This requires that the "Platinum" spark plugs have platinum on both the ground electrodes, as well as the center electrode so that they last as long in either position.
Bosch platinum spark plugs are notorious for not working well in waste-spark ignitions, as they (at least, in the past) have not had platinum on their ground electrodes. Half of your plugs would be fine, half would go bad... quickly.AnswerCould also be, and likely, the plenuem backfire relieve door seal leaking. See the response in regards to reasons other then sparg plugs and wires for missing.
ANOTHER POSSIBILITY: Idle Speed Sensor/Selenoid. Does this happen when the AC is on?? I love your car, it might have been the most beautifull American car of the last 25 years. Its a shame about Olds demise.....
I had the same symptoms. I changed the plugs & wires nothing different. It ended up having a bad ignition coil.
Your idle may need to be set up a little I had the same problem with my 1992 Geo Metro 3 cylinder 1 Liter, when i stopped at a stop light the car would die. Check your compression on all cylinders, most likely the problem is with some burned exhaust valves. I overhauled my motor, new piston rings and replaced all exhaust valves, now it idles just fine. Answer--- You may have a flithy air filter which will starve the car. Or it could be dirty injectors and a fuel filter that needs changing. A whole lot cheaper to try these before you do a rebuild.
No. Auroras are caused by streams of charged particles from the Sun, fired at the Earth by a coronal mass ejection; a massive solar flare. The charged particles interact with the Earth's magnetic field in the upper atmosphere and cause a glow. God's Own Neon Signs in the sky, you might think of it.
Auroras are typically seen only at fairly high latitudes in the winter (because at high latitudes in the summer, the sky is too bright for auroras to be visible). However, a really big CME can cause auroras down to mid-latitudes, and in one extreme case, lit up the skies of Miami, Florida!
Because of the moisture in the air, it reflects light differently. especially if a storm is coming. The more orange, the worse the storm.
This could also be caused from the reflection of the setting sun which tends to cause brilliant hues of orange, pink and coral.
Also maybe the city lights and/or pollution in your city is a factor.
It takes about 2 minutes to bleed to death if the internal jugular vein is cut, which is larger than the external jugular vein, and the victim is in a lying down position, as body posture greatly affects the rate of blood loss. If it's only the external jugular that's cut, then maybe you bleed to death within about 5 minutes. If both the external and internal jugular vein and carotid artery are cut, you probably bleed to death in about 1 minute. The rapid blood loss from the jugular veins is due to their relatively large size and the reflux of blood flowing back the other way because the valves in the jugular veins don't prevent the reflux of blood. Air bubbles can also enter the jugular veins when cut causing an air embolism which can also be lethal.
First it is important to understand what a prism is in this context. A prism is a block of material that conforms to these requirements:
* Is transparent or at least translucent to light .
* Is not of the same composition as its surroundings (for example, there is little point in having a prism composed of water entirely immersed in water -- where would its boundaries be?)
* It may or may not have two (usually flat) faces not parallel to each other. The prism used by Isaac Newton when he first demonstrated the resolution of white light into its constituent colors more than 300 years ago is nearly always shown as being triangular in section.
It is also important to agree about what light is. As Einstein demonstrated in 1905, light may be considered either as a stream of particles (corpuscles), or as a bunch of waves. Here let us think of light as a bunch (pencil) of waves.
White light for instance contains light of many different wavelengths, just as by analogy white sound has sounds of many wavelengths. Thinking about the rainbow with all its colors, red light at one end of the visible spectrum has a longer wavelength than the violet light at the other end. All the colors in between have intermediate wavelengths.
Let us further consider a ray of light containing light of only one wavelength. This may be thought of as pure light. It can be of any color of the rainbow.
As the ray of pure light strikes a prism, two quite distinct things can happen. Either the ray is entirely reflected from the surface of the prism, or it is not. This depends on the nature of the surface of the prism.
The part of the ray that is reflected bounces off the prism as a ray in the plane defined by the striking ray (incident ray) and the perpendicular to the surface of the prism at the point of incidence. The angle between the incident ray and the perpendicular to the surface of the prism at the pint of incidence is called the angle of incidence. The angle at which the reflected ray leaves the surface, known as the angle of reflection, is equal to the angle of incidence, exactly the same as a ray might be reflected from a mirror. Indeed, for this reflected light, the surface of the prism is acting as a mirror.
If the ray is not reflected at all, or not completely reflected, then at least part of the incident ray of light actually enters the prism. This is said to be refracted. It enters the prism at an angle usually different from the angle of incidence. The angle of refraction (the angle between the ray and the perpendicular) depends on the angle of incidence, the wavelength of the incident light and on the material of the prism. It may be greater or less than the angle of incidence. If the incident ray travels through a vacuum, then the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence. This is because the prism is always denser (weighs more than the equivalent volume of) than the vacuum..
If the incident ray travels through a vacuum, then the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence. In this case, the ratio of the sine of the angle of refraction to the sine of the angle of incidence is called the refractive index of the prism material with respect to the wavelength of the incident ray. The ray of light in a vacuum travels at the "speed of light", c, as defined by Einstein's Theories of Relativity. In the medium of the prism, it travels somewhat slower. This is what causes the change of direction. The material of the prism, being denser than the vacuum, is more difficult for the ray of light to plow through. Think of a car with a blown front tire. It will pull to the side of the blown tire, changing the direction of the car. This is not a perfect analogy, but it might give you the idea. There are pretty diagrams available elsewhere (in some textbooks) showing how a wavefront changes direction when it slows down on an angle, but you will have to imagine that, or find one of those diagrams. See Snell's Law for the general case of the relationships of the angles of incidence and refraction, light velocities in each medium, and refractive indices.
Now we come to the nub of the matter. We have a ray of light traveling through the prism that must soon strike another of its surfaces. The ray emerges into the external medium (perhaps a vacuum) and the processes are reversed. The wavefront speeds up again to its former velocity (c in a vacuum) and keeps on going. If we assume that the surface it strikes is exactly parallel to the one whereby it entered, in this case the reversal will be exact and will produce the same angles as in entry, so that the ray will continue parallel to but offset from the course as followed before it entered the prism. This is not very exciting, though it is a way to offset the path of a ray of light. But if the exit surface is not parallel to the entry surface, the ray will shoot off in a quite different direction, having been bent twice (once at each surface), but not by the same amount each time.
The amount of bending depends on the refractive index. If we now think about what would happen to a ray of white (that is, not pure as regards wavelength) then its pure components will all shoot out in different directions. This is how a prism can resolve white light into a rainbow of colors.
See the related link for an interactive website dealing with rainbows, perhaps the best-known example of refraction. In this case the prism is a droplet of water embedded in air, and the ray is a ray of sunshine. The surface of the droplet is assumed to be spherical.
Light is a form of energy that can easily convert into heat energy. Heat energy can change ice from its solid phase into its liquid form--- pure water.
Light pollution is when many urban lights, such as street lights, reflect a lot of artificial light into the Earth's atmosphere - which obscures many different stars and is a disaster for astronomers.
Plants grow best when there is a certain number of darkness hours. Some plants won't even flower if there is too much light and not enough darkness. Plants, in turn, effect the wildlife that lives there. Plants determine almost everything about an ecosystem. Without them, wildlife wouldn't exist. Too much light also messes with your internal biological clock and other plants/animals as well (you know, when you feel sleepy or your brain tells you it's time to go to bed or wake up without any clocks or alarms).
105 calories, 5g carbs.
when i first purchased my 1995 318ti, one problem i had with the stout 4 banger was it's sluggishness in pulling the car off the line. I researched many options such as supercharging, retuning, and even an engine swap to load a six cylinder under the hood. The most economical solution i could find was a lightweight flywheel/m3 clutch combination. I did the installation myself and I could feel the difference immediately. The throttle became much more spritely, and hard launches and quick shifts became incredibly easy. I installed this combo nearly 3 years ago, and I have not had a single problem.
He looked at the reflection in the mirror.
The reflection of the sun dazzled him.
In reflection, he was probably right.
Impacts COULD but don't necessarily include increased water or wind erosion, depleted groundwater supplies in irrigated areas, nutrient loading of water bodies, pesticide contamination or livestock odors. That's just a few off the top of my head. Just keep in mind that industry or urban areas can cause the exact same problems, sometimes even worse.Source(s):soil conservation tech, also teach pollution control to students Soil Erosion
Raindrops bombarding bare soil result in the oldest and still most serious problem of agriculture. The long history of soil erosion and its impact on civilization is one of devastation. Eroded fields record our failure as land stewards. W. C. Lowdermilk (1953) described several civilizations that collapsed because of erosion. At the end of his historical sweep of failed civilizations, Lowdermilk warned that unless we want to experience a similar fate, we had better heed these lessons of the past and safeguard our soils.Irrigation
Adequate rainfall is never guaranteed for the dryland farmer in arid and semiarid regions, and thus irrigation is essential for reliable pro auction. Irrigation ensures sufficient water when needed and also allows farmers to expand their acreage of suitable cropland. In fact, we rely heavily on crops from irrigated lands, with fully one-third of the world's harvest coming from that 17 percent of cropland that is under irrigation (Poster, 1985). Unfortunately, current irrigation practices severely damage the cropland and the aquatic systems from which the water is withdrawn and partially returns.Agriculture and the Loss of Genetic Diversity
As modern agriculture converts an ever-increasing portion of the earth's land surface to monoculture, the genetic and ecological diversity of the planet erodes. Both the conversion of diverse natural ecosystems to new agricultural lands and the narrowing of the genetic diversity of crops contribute to this erosion.Chemical Contamination"In nearly all respects agriculture became an industry, sharing with the traditional manufacturing industries the problems of waste byproducts disposal." Young (1983) is referring in this quote to the changes in modern agriculture that have occurred over the past 45 years since the introduction of cheap inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. Six kilograms (13 lb) of pesticides, 63.5 kg (140 lb) of actual nitrogen, 19 kg (42 lb) of phosphate--these were the average chemical inputs per irrigable acre in California in 1980. In 1 year, California alone uses 55 million kilograms (121 million pounds) of restricted-use pesticides (Afford and Ferguson, 1982). Along with the promise of high production that these figures imply is the potential environmental pollution that these massive chemical inputs can cause.
Light pollution effects animals especially nocturnal animals by interfering with their behaviour. Here is an example: sea turtle babies when hatched have an instinct to go towards light which usually is the full moon. But if you have car lights and people having lights on in there house it attracts them away from the moon. Sometimes turtles die and don't make it to the sea.
the U.S, Eastern China, Western Europe, and Japan are the ones I know of.
Sorry, i don't really know.. I'm looking for the answer of thet too. :)
Light pollution doesn't affect the stars, it affects how well we can observe them from Earth.
most probable cause is a faulty fuel sender unt. recomend removing and installing a new fuel sender unit.
Any SRS warning light with a corresponding code is serious. Take it to a professional as this is not a DIY repair.
Light pollution causes more opacity in the night sky. The best observations are done in the darkest skies. As cities grow, areas with optimal viewing are reducing. Most lighting points in all directions. There are movements to get new lights that are directed downward, where they are most useful for the purpose they were invented for.
There are valid arguments on each side of the "light pollution" debate. Astronomers dislike stray light that makes it difficult to see the stars, while police and city planners - and residents - know that street lighting and security lighting deter criminals, who would rather practice their vile trade in the dark, and makes it safer for drivers. So the question is, is there a way to light the cities, but not the skies?
There is no escape. Light bounces, reflects, scatters. You can't point lights at the ground and not have reflections back into the sky. Which is not to say that engineers can't try to minimize the effects.
Many street lights and city lights point UP. This may be pretty, but does nothing to enhance security while magnifying the problems of light pollution. Street lights and security lights should be shaded to not point to the sky.
Really, though, it boils down to a decision about who gets inconvenienced; a few astronomers, or millions of citizens?
Go out of the city so you can see the stars the only way to not have light pollution is to turn them all off
Light pollution and air pollution are not the same thing, however light pollution indirectly adds to air pollution.
The majority of light pollution's source is the over use of and the incorrectly directed or installed artificial light bulbs. The International Dark Sky Association points out that if the bulbs were shielded (so that one, from the side, can not see the light's source) and directed downwards, then most of the light pollution could be solved. Instead, poorly installed lights point their light outwards and even upwards into the sky. If a light's owner installed the light to illuminate a property and the light was pointed outwards, then the light energy that does not land on the property is wasted, which can easily be over 50% of the energy consumed, depending on the way the light is installed. The owner may even decide to get a higher wattage bulb, if they feel that this does not illuminate their property sufficiently.
A large percentage of electrical energy is created by the burning of fossil fuels. This burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases plus other pollutants. So with ever greater inefficiencies of light's management, i.e. light pollution, comes an ever greater amount of pollutants into the air to create the light pollution.
It's nice to see the universe that God created. It's also nice to see things that most people have not. Also the fact that you know that the world that most people live in is so small and what can be seen in the sky is vastly larger.
Many people think that light pollution is just a problem for astronomers. They think that since they don't own a telescope, they are unaffected by the problem. This is simply not true. Light pollution is a problem that affects us all. Typically, people are not even aware of it. But, that doesn't reduce its affect one bit.
Light pollution wastes incredible sums of money nation wide. While the cost to the typical homeowner might be in the $150-250 range per year the cost to the nation is approaching $10 billion annually. This is an absurdly large amount of money to waste. Diseases could be studied, the hungry could be fed, our nations children could be better educated.
Light pollution wastes incredible amounts of energy, energy that our nation simply does not have. It is largely for this reason that young men and women in our military risk their lives in the Middle East. They protect our access to energy. The very least we can do is use it wisely.
Light pollution pollutes our environment. By wasting electricity, we force our utility companies to consume more energy and therefore emit more toxins into the environment. How many of you have, or know someone who has a lung ailment. Many respiratory problems are caused by or intensified by these airborne toxins.There are a number of factors which may increase the chances of developing asthma. High on their list was exposure to environmental pollutants.
Light pollution itself is a threat to human health. Recent studies by the nations medical researchers indicate that light at night interferes with our body's immune system.
Light pollution is a threat to wildlife. It's true. Many types of wildlife are simply unable to cope with such disruption of their nighttime environments.HTTP/www.utahskies.org/lightpollution
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