Public Health and Safety

Ask questions about disease and infections in society and how to cure and prevent outbreaks.

Asked in Public Health and Safety, Muscular System

What is a neurogenic muscle?

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Muscle in which contraction is initiated in the central nervous system is said to be neurogenic.
Asked in Public Health and Safety, Units of Measure, Volume

How many gallons are in 30 liters?

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30 liters = 6.5990774 imperial gallons [UK] = 7.9251616 US gallons
Asked in Public Health and Safety

Where does keratinization occur?

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the addition of keratin to the stratified squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis. Begins in the stratum spinosum and continues into the stratum granulosum.
Asked in Child Health, Public Health and Safety, Sleep Disorders

How much sleep does a 12 year old girl need?

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I'd say about 8 hours. At 12 years, you are still growing and need sleep to do so. But if you are still tired after 8 hours, try to sleep longer.
Asked in Health, Public Health and Safety, First Aid

How do you Heal a cut in your mouth?

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Basically, you can't do much. Clean it with a light salt-water mix, or a hydrogen peroxide and water mix (very diluted). Make sure you brush/floss well to keep the chances of infection down. Fortunatly, the mouth heals fast. You should be fine in a week. Common Sense Check: If you have a giant gaping wound in your mouth, go see a doctor... why are you getting medical advice online if you're spraying blood?! :)
Asked in Toyota RAV4, Public Health and Safety, Product Recalls, Toyota Recalls

Is there a recall for Toyota Rav 4 computer?

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These are the models that are being recalled in the current program. 2005-2010 Avalon 2007-2010 Camry 2009-2010 Corolla 2008-2010 Highlander 2009-2010 Matrix 2004-2009 Prius 2010 Prius 2009-2010 RAV4 2008-2010 Sequoia 2005-2010 Tacoma 2007-2010 Tundra 2009-2010 VENZA Always check with the Toyota Dealer to make sure.
Asked in Cold and Flu, Infectious Diseases, Public Health and Safety

What is an epidemic?

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Medical use of the word: When there is an outbreak of infectious disease which affects a large number of people and/or is spread to many different places, it is called in medicine an epidemic of that disease. Disease spreading among a smaller number of people in a single community or limited location is called an outbreak instead of epidemic. If the number of people and places where the disease has spread is international and/or over a large geographical area (e.g., cross-continental or world-wide) it is called a pandemic ('pan-' means all), as it was with the H1N1/09 pandemic in 2009 and the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918. To break it down, the word Epidemic [epi- (on or in), -demic (people )] means: Something that is spread on or in the people. A pandemic [pan- (All), -demic (people)] is an epidemic that becomes so widespread that it involves multiple continents making it a global problem. Other definitions for epidemic include additional qualifying details such as "an increase or surge in victims of an isolated virus or other biological infectious organism or disease within a widespread area or group all at the same time." However, as indicated above, an epidemic is not restricted to a local community (that is called an Outbreak or Regional Outbreak), but an epidemic is more widespread in geographical area or spread in a specifically large proportion of a demographic group of the population. It is bigger than an outbreak, but a smaller area compared to a pandemic. Pandemics are world-wide or affect entire global regions, hemispheres, multiple countries over a section of the world or multiple continents. A quantifying definition that is often given in classrooms, such as in a graduate course in Public Health, is: "An epidemic exists when the number of cases at any one time exceeds 200 per 100,000 population." The rapidity of onset only means that the 200 mark will be reached sooner rather than later. Non-medical use of the word: Another meaning of the word epidemic that is unrelated to the medical usage is to use the word to describe something as extensive or widespread in other topics of conversation. For example, to describe an epidemic in stock sell out, real estate foreclosures, or job losses. In general medical terms, it is an "outbreak" of a biological/viral nature where an increase or surge in victims of a virus or other biological infectious organism or disease is isolated among a widespread area or group at the same time. An epidemic is not restricted to a local community (that is called an Outbreak or Regional Outbreak), but an epidemic is much more widespread in geographical area or in a specifically large proportion of a demographic group of the population. It is bigger than an outbreak, but a smaller area compared to a pandemic. Pandemics are world-wide or affect entire global regions, hemispheres, multiple countries over a section of the world or multiple continents. Another meaning of the word epidemic that is unrelated to the medical usage is to use the word to describe something as extensive or widespread in other topics of conversation. For example, to describe an epidemic in stock sell out, real estate foreclosures, or job losses. To break it down, the word Epidemic [epi- (on or in), -demic (people )] means: Something that is spread on or in the people. A pandemic [pan- (All), -demic (people)] is an epidemic that becomes so widespread that it involves multiple continents making it a global problem. A definition that is often given in classrooms, such as in a graduate course in Public Health, that quantifies the definition is: "An epidemic exists when the number of cases at any one time exceeds 200 per 100,000 population." The rapidity of onset only means that the 200 mark will be reached sooner rather than later.
Asked in The Difference Between, Public Health and Safety, Workplace Health and Safety

What is unsafe act?

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An unsafe act violates the premise of law, where actions are defined and prescribed as safe.
Asked in Public Health and Safety, Women's Health

Is it normal to get your period 3 times in a month?

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umm no da! no its not! Not its not normal, each month your uterus clears its lining which is what comes off as bleeding and tissues known as menstrual period as you know, so every month your body automatically goes through these changes but if the tissues don't leave your body, it means it all accumulates which could cause a severe infection or even cancer. See a gynaecologists as soon as you can to be on safe side. Normally a doctor would perform a what is called a D&C (dilation and curettage) procedure or perhaps if its not too serious of a case, your doctor can give you a pill that can help clear the way for you monthly period.
Asked in Health, Biology, Public Health and Safety, Scattergories and Words Starting with Certain Letters

Are there any body parts beginning with t?

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Toes, teeth, tonsils, toenail, tummy?, tongue and thighs are all body parts that begin with a T.
Asked in Public Health and Safety, Example Sentences

Tolerable in a sentence?

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his arrogance is no longer tolerable
Asked in Salary and Pay Rates, Public Health and Safety, Blood Transfusions, Blood Donation

Where in Houston can you get paid to donate plasma?

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Grifols Biomat USA Advertisement in hand says that new donors get $70 for two donations in the first week and return donors get $50/week. 713-688-3288 1223 W. 43rd Street, Houston TX 77018 Mon, Wed 8am-6pm / Tue, Thur, Friday 8am - 4pm Saturday 8am - 3pm Bring Drivers License, SS Card, Proof of Address It takes about 3 hours to do it the first time, because you have to take a short physical and urine test. After that, depending on the wait time, it takes about an hour. The prices are now down to $30 for the first 4 times (as long as they are within a 2 week period) and then it goes down to $25 per donation. However, right now they are doing a "retention bonus" where you get an extra $5 for your 5th donation, and an extra $10 for the 6th donation.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Laboratory Testing, Public Health and Safety, Swine Flu (H1N1/09)

What should you do if you have or think you have Swine Flu?

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In the US: You can use the Self Assessment Tool on the website at Flu.Gov, the US one stop pandemic flu information web site. It guides you through a decision tree to help determine if you have symptoms that indicate a potential influenza infection. Do not go to the health care provider location unless you telephone first when there are outbreaks in your location. If you go unnecessarily, you risk exposure to the virus at the office, when you may not have had it in the first place. A quote from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Information (see link below in related link section): "If you live in areas where swine influenza cases have been identified and become ill with influenza-like symptoms, including fever, body aches, runny nose, sore throat, nausea, or vomiting or diarrhea, you may want to contact their health care provider, particularly if you are worried about your symptoms. Your health care provider will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed." The clinics and doctors' offices are very busy during the pandemic and flu season screening for the H1N1 2009 Swine Flu in patients. If you have the above described circumstances and symptoms, telephone your health care provider for advice. Ask if you need to be seen by a health care professional; if you need testing or anti-viral medications; whether you should work, go to school, care for your family, or be around those who are high risk such as pregnant women and young babies; ask if you are high risk for complications, and if you are, what signs should you watch for to know you should seek additional medical opinions and what you should do if those signs occur. The only way to be sure it is the 2009 Swine flu (A-H1N1/09) is laboratory testing. If testing is advised by your care provider, the CDC describes the appropriate tests as: "... a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Identification as a swine flu influenza A virus requires sending the specimen to CDC for laboratory testing." Update: there are now "field test kits" that the CDC has provided regionally for providers and labs to be able to do preliminary testing to detect the presence of Novel A-H1N1/09 cases. When to seek emergency care according to CDC: "If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care. In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include: * Fast breathing or trouble breathing * Bluish skin color * Not drinking enough fluids * Not waking up or not interacting * Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held * Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough * Fever with a rash In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include: * Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath * Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen * Sudden dizziness * Confusion * Severe or persistent vomiting" In the UK, stay home, and follow the National Pandemic Flu Service Instructions below: In England: You can check your symptoms on the NHS National Pandemic Flu Service symptom evaluator online. (See link in related links section below). Or telephone the National Pandemic Flu Line: Tel 0800 1 513 100 Textphone for people who are deaf or hard of hearing: 0800 1 513 200 In Scotland: Contact your GP or NHS 24 NHS 24: 08454 24 24 24 In Wales: Contact your GP Contact NHS Direct Wales for further advice. NHS Direct Wales: 0845 46 47 In Northern Ireland: Contact your GP if you are concerned For further advice, contact the Northern Ireland Swine Flu Helpline. Northern Ireland Swine Flu Helpline: 0800 0514 142 (Monday to Friday, 9am to 5pm) More, if you live in the UK: After contact with the above resources, if they believe you have Swine flu and it is within the appropriate incubation period when antiviral medicines can help, they will give you a prescription reference for the antiviral medication Tamiflu (which is a five day course of treatment). You should ask someone else to pick it up for you so you do not go out and expose others to the virus. Remember this does not mean you actually have Swine flu. As GP's are no longer taking swabs in surgeries to avoid the spread, it just means that the symptoms you have provided mean there is a probability. Then contact your employer, since different companies have different quarantine times. Tamiflu is a 5 day course. India:">If you are in India: See the related question below about the Swine Flu Check Up Centers in India. Regardless of where you are: Take all of the following precautions to prevent the spread of this virus. Stay home if at all possible and leave only for medical appointments; stay away from crowds and ill people; cover your nose and mouth if you cough or sneeze; consider wearing a surgical type face mask to protect others if you must be close to them (especially children or others at high risk), so that you don't accidentally spread respiratory droplets to them; wash your hands often and especially after touching your face, nose, mouth, eyes or used tissues; use waterless hand sanitizers that are at least 60% alcohol if you are unable to properly wash your hands; ask someone else to provide care for any children under age two and especially babies six months or less (if you are breast feeding them, use a pump to express your milk so the babies can still benefit from the immunity protection in your milk, you can still breastfeed while taking antiviral treatment but ask your GP if you are taking any other medications); and stay isolated in a separate room in the house from others who do not have flu symptoms. Ask your health care professional if other household members should take Tamiflu to help them fight off the virus you may be shedding. More: There is no way you would know that your flu is the swine flu without a laboratory test to confirm it. You may be diagnosed with it based upon a history of exposure and your symptoms. A physical exam and review of the symptoms can only indicate the probability, because the actual symptoms are indistinguishable from regular flu. Remember, if you are infected with the flu, swine flu or another type, follow your doctor's advice, take your prescribed medications, do not go out into public, wash your hands regularly (this helps protect others as well), and cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough. As with any flu, get plenty of rest and take good care of yourself.
Asked in Dieting and Weight Loss, Carbohydrates and Low-Carb Diets, Public Health and Safety, Fitness

How long can you do the induction phase on the Atkins diet?

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The longer you consume no more than 20 grams of carbs daily, the more body fat you will burn. Depending on how much weight you need to lose, you can safely continue with Induction as long as the following three conditions are met: 1. Your blood chemistries, lipid values, blood pressure or blood sugar levels continue to improve or remain stable and within normal limits. 2. You feel well and are experiencing a high energy level, normal sleep patterns and stable moods. 3. You are not bored. Boredom could lead to cheating and undermine your efforts. However, it is important to understand the entire Atkins Nutritional Approach. The ultimate goal of the program is to advance from the Induction phase through Ongoing Weight Loss and Pre-Maintenance, culminating in Lifetime Maintenance, which should become your permanent way of eating. By following these steps, you can find your Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing (CCLL), also known as your carbohydrate threshold for losing, and ultimately your Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance (CCLM), also known as your carbohydrate threshold for maintaining. Moving from one phase to another will help you maintain a healthful weight, feel good and decrease your risk factors for chronic diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and diabetes That being said, if you have a great deal of weight to lose, you can certainly stay on Induction for six months or even more. When you switch to Ongoing Weight Loss, your rate of loss will naturally diminish. On the other hand, if you have a modest weight loss goal, say 20 pounds, and lose the first pounds rapidly, it is important to move through the more liberal phases so you can establish the good eating habits that will become part of your ongoing lifestyle and end yo-yo dieting.
Asked in Skin Care, Public Health and Safety, Lotion

What is the diagnosis if lesions on the face are shiny raised spots and others are ulcerated with beaded edges?

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If you have those symptoms and haven't seen a doctor yet, I'd say you are probably suffering from iatrophobia. Go see your doctor.
Asked in Public Health and Safety

Positive nitrates in urine?

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Positive nitrates in urine indicates that you may have a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) or bacterial infection in areas of your body that produce or hold urine such as your kidneys, bladder, or urethra.
Asked in Intestinal Health, Public Health and Safety, Skeletal System

Is the knee distal to the hip?

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Yes. Distal means farther from the point of attachment or from the center of the body. So the knee is distal to the hip, and the food would be distal to the knee and so on.
Asked in Public Health and Safety, Electricity and Magnetism

Why do power lines emit noises and would they be harmful to people or other animals?

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Harmful sound of electricity.The sound you hear is electricity. Everything that uses electricity also emits a sound, like your computer monitor, T.V. , telephones and telephone lines. In other words anything plugged into an working outlet. Some people cannot hear it. The sound from a PC monitor or T.V. would be around 30kHz or 20kHz. The phone company dug a huge trench next to my house and was putting in new box and lines. My son who is autistic started screaming an covering his ears. Not uncommon for people with autism, but it was not out of discontent it was because he was in pain. I learned by talking to young adults with autism why he might be doing this. They explained to me about the sound electricity makes. I downloaded a tone generator to better understand. I couldn't even hear a tone at 30kHz but I will tell you that a tone at 20kHz is extremely painful. Imagine a pressurized room or sound booth. Enormous pressure. I had a terrible head ache for about 5 hours after hearing it. Is it harmful? It can be painful. Can it cause permanent damage? I'm not sure. I would suggest talking to a Audiologist. IN ADDITION:HMMM. Not sure of the previous comment, but...The overhead power lines buzz because of the power running through the lines are searching for a ground source. The increase of moisture or humidity in the air will make it more static and buzz louder. In reference to the second part, there was a claim that the electromagnetic field generated by the lines had an effect on the development of people, especially children. It was thought that leukemia was increased by the overhead lines. In 1979, scientists did a study on this and found that it had no effect. Later on, they found out that the oil based transformers mounted on poles emitted small doses of radiation but still not enough to be harmful. The problem that the transformers had was mainly from leaking dielectric fluids (which were toxic).
Asked in Chile, Public Health and Safety, Santiago (Chile)

Is it safe to drink local water in Santiago?

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In most places in Santiago there is potable, free of harmful germs drinkable water. However, it is better to drink bottled water, known as "Agua Mineral" as the water contains too much chloride and minerals that make it untasty (Specially for coffees and teas).
Asked in Public Health and Safety, Chlorine Bleach

Can drinking bleach kill you?

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I'm a nurse and used to work in the ER. We would get kids in who had ingested bleach or adults who drank it inadvertently. It won't kill you but if it's not diluted at all it can be corrosive to your throat and burn if you have open sores in your mouth. Let's just say that drinking bleach is'nt good for you. yes if you drink enough because it contains all types of chemicals and poisons Yes drinking bleach can and will kill you.
Asked in Women's Health, Men's Health, Public Health and Safety

How do people get worms?

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You can get them by eating improperly cooked meat, eggs, or fish.