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Computer Programming

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Parent Category: Computers
A category for questions about computer programming and programming languages.
This question is very tricky and needs to be answered very carefully.The basic difference is that information technology is about transmitting information and gathering it, whereas computer science is something related to computers and only computer, such as software. IT people can be considered mor…
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Formating will wipe out all information on the hard drive.If the information is not on the computer, then you can't have it 'on the computer' from formating.I would suggest do a full back up of all your important documents, and ensure you have all the software media to reinstall once you have your o…
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well you can try and delete using a file shredder. heres a link to one with a free trial that might do the trick. here you go. http://www.sharewareriver.com/product.php?id=4328
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A device driver creates a layer of abstraction between the hardware and the operating system. They were created by programmers who wanted a standard set of system calls in interact with hardware. Device drivers were 'invented' when x86 CPU's added the capability to enter 32 bit protected mode. By c…
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Fortran is a programming language, which means you write a program in Fortran, and COMPILE it to an EXECUTABLE program. The compiler you use differs depending on which operating system platform you intend to run the program on. If you wish to run the program on a PC using Windows XP, you must first …
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Raj, Processes are ALWAYS more expensive than threads. Threads are considered a component of a process. That is...a process can consist of several threads of execution. The exact "cost" in memory, or allocation of time depends on the operating system, but a thread is frequently 10% or less than the …
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Programming: In a programming context, one usually determines whether a file is a directory using functions that access file metadata. These are dependent on the system you are programming and what language you are programming in. You should consult a reliable reference for the programming la…
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Here is a page that will teach you about strings and pointers. www.juicystudio.com/tutorial/c/strings.asp Just saying String and Pointer don't actually aid us to describe what actually has to be answered .An Array is just repeatation of similar data types and String is as similar repeatation of…
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Answer The term upcall is typically used in the context of using a framework, such as CORBA. When a request is sent from a client application to a server application, the framework is responsible for data marshalling, data transmission, and notification of the recipient that a request has been is…
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There could be an exception which cannot reach the user as it looks, instead it could be replaced by some other exceptions. In this case, the only solution is to write out our own exception and show the details regarding that exception. Exceptions could be thrown inside a Web Service for various re…
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Far pointers are generally used with 16 bit windows application. You can also use for DOS based application for accessing VDU memory since it has huge pointer and it can be fit into the far pointers. Well, Win32 does not distinguish between near and far addresses. Because the types NEAR and FAR are…
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You would have to be logged in as the administrator. ANSWER It depends on your operating system. A kernel is basicaly a line of code, different kernels control different operations for different systems within the computers program. The closest thing to obtainging a true "kernel mode" is to run a…
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sometimes there are situations where the program is vary long which can make error debugging a long process so java provides a facility to make user defined exception handling suppose we are dividing two numbers a/b and if the user enters the value of b 0, the user wants to display an error of your …
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In C programming, header files are required.It doesn't matter if you are using near pointers, far pointers, both, or neither -- you still need header files. There is no connection between the necessity of header files and the pointers' size.
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Making software programs You're not asking much are you? :) To write software you need to be familiar with a programming language like Visual Basic. There are actually many programming languages and some are more suited for different kinds of programming. 'Making' software programs is not at all the…
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Originally, a full version of Adobe's Acrobat application was required to create PDF (Portal Document Format) files from any application, including Microsoft Word. Subsequently, a number of companies sold inexpensive PDF conversion software to compete with the more expensive Adobe product. These app…
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Problem with Outloook Express I would try: Going to windowsupdate.com and getting all critical updates. It might re-write a corrupt file. Going to support.microsoft.com and searching for key words from your error message. Here are more opinions and answers from other FAQ Farmers: …
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You can have a software like Abby fine reader to convert the pdf file into a word document but only the text is scanned and not the image There are many PDF converter in internet. Such as Advanced Pdf to Word Converter ,EZ Pdf to Word Converter for Doc. With this converter, you can edit and reuse…
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Java uses a code-compiler, which does not create a machine-code, like normal Windows programs, but a byte-code, which the Java interpreter runs. It is like a mini-operating system, forming a layer between the operating system and the program code. This way, you can run Java programs on almost any pl…
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Follow the backslash with another backslash:System.out.println("\\ " \");will display \ " \ on the screen.
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Answer In 8086 programming (MS DOS), a far pointer is normalized if its offset part is between 0 and 15 (0xF).
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I take it you are using some version of c,c++,visualC etc etc. One thing that is standard is pointers. A pointer is the address of a memory space that holds information in that specific space. By referencing the pointer in your code, you can print out that specific bit of information that the poin…
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Closed source: WindowsOpen source: RedHat for LinuxAny Linux program you install on your machine, it's code is available to you, free to modify and recompile, even the operating system. The opposite, closed source, is like Windows, where the only people who see the source code has a last name of Gat…
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Encapsulation is hiding the details of the implementation of an object so that there are no dependancies on the particular implementation.Abstraction is removing some distinctions between objects, so as to showing their commonalitiesEncapsulation is wraping data into single unit (eg. class)Abstracti…
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You will need a PDF server running somewhere that can be accessed by your VB code. It will need to be called from the code through the server and get the PDF file in return.   I did that with Tweak PDF Converter, an pdf editor for converting pdf file to word form.
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Pass By Reference :In Pass by reference address of the variable is passed to a function. Whatever changes made to the formal parameter will affect to the actual parameters- Same memory location is used for both variables.(Formal and Actual)-- it is useful when you required to return more then 1 valu…
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Programming languages store data in different data types. A zero value would belong to a numeric data type such as float, single, double, integer, long, etc. A null string is a variable that references a string (sequence of characters) that is not yet pointing to anything. A null string can also b…
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Delphi is the name of the commercial Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for RAD created by Borland (see www.borland.com). Borland sold out Delphi and other RAD tools in the year 2008 to a company called Embarcadero Technologies which is now focusing on the newer versions of Delphi and other to…
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TRUNCATE and DELETE:It also removes the rows from the specified location in the query like DELETE command, but the only difference is :1. rows once u truncated cnnot be ROLLBACKED like in DELETE. 2. which ROLLBACK can be possible with delete. 3. Truncate is used for HUGE databases or tables bcz it w…
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Answer It has to do with the memory model you are using... If you are using the LARGE or HUGE memory model, then you use HUGE memory pointers. Answer Huge pointers are like far pointers, just more so: they are always normalized (ie offset part is between 0 and 15), and segment wrapping-aroun…
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Answer Yes. It may be funny. You cannot use keywords like new in c++ for variable declaration. But in C it is possible. Answer The following definition is valid in C, invalid in C++: char str [3] = "ABC";
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In Java it is related to the class hierarchy of exceptions. Throwable is the root object of the heirarchy, and both Exception and RuntimeError subclass it. Methods include a "throws" clause in their signature to indicate errors of type "Exception" that can be thrown in the body of the method and r…
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because function have return sts thatway it is not necessary out parameter to function
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struct node { int payload; struct node *left, *right; };int height(struct node *tree) { if (tree == NULL) return 0; return 1 + max (height (tree->left), height (tree->right)); }
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Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network. It allows programs at different locations and developed by different vendors to communicate in a network through an "interface bro…
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the declaration is int a - you are declaring a variable type integer. Definition is when you define a variable or give it a value, so a = 10 would be a definition  i have an doubt.. i have read somewhere that whenever memory allocation takes place , it is called definition. and declaration jus…
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Hold mode button down until it flashes, then drive car in circle until it recalibrates its self. Go to shopping center to do this, you need some space. It only takes about 3 circles.AnswerThis information can be found in your owner's manual. Don't have one, get one. Dealer or salvage yard is a sourc…
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Introduction to DLLs......DLLS as the name suggests are the Dynamic Linked Libraries, majorly comprises of the Classes (inclusive of Constructors, Procudures and Function) in case of Object Oriented Paradigm, and / or procedures / functions in case of Procedural Language, are basically used to provi…
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An application is a program in general, for instance, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Word and Notepad. A process is single instance of an application whilst it is running.
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Dll make it more simple for u, exe's are executables, or applications while dll are resource files that executables usually depend on A DLL so called Dynamic Link Library is a Library Class (In .NET its a Final result of a User Control or a Class designed) is a file that includes the Source code o…
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I think that's a feature of the full Adobe Acrobat. You can set security options for the PDFs you produce with that tool. Don't know if "Save a Copy" is a PDF feature, but for sure it is not a Secure option within Acrobat. I have the same problem. If anyone have the answer, please let us know. Yo…
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Definition: A far pointer is a pointer which includes segment number. In a segmented architecture computer, far pointers are used to address the entire 1mb memory which is available under Dos.Most programmers today (as of 2009) never use far pointers. Instead, most programmers always use 32 bit "fl…
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Answer 1 reasons for creating multiple processes is 1- If in an application there are various independent major operations, we can create multiple processes for these tasks, a perfect example of this is operating system Answer When you issue the execve or fork syscalls a new process …
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Structure members are public by default while class members are private by default. Classes encapsulate the data and the methods that operate upon that data into a discrete package (an object), exposing only as much or as little interface as is required by the class itself, to ensure the data remain…
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The calculations done in programming languages require that only variables of the same type are used together. Consider for example the case when one human being asks another what the result is when adding 1 and 1. As humans we intuitively understand the result to be 2. What about asking what result…
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Compilers do not correct errors let alone system errors. A system error is a systematic failure, either within the hardware itself or in its software configuration. A compiler is specifically concerned with program source code and whether or not it is capable of being compiled into object code. If n…
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Fork() is a concept that originated in the UNIX world. Running programs are called processes, and the only way to execute a new program is for a current program to fork() itself, thereby creating a separate process. The process that called fork() is known as the parent process, and the newly created…
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Answer By creating an interface, the programmer creates a method to handle objects that implement it in a generic way. An example of this would be the Runnable interface in Java. If the programmer is given a Runnable object, they do not need to know what that object really is to be able to ca…
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Multithreading computers have hardware support to efficiently execute multiple threads. These are distinguished from multiprocessing systems (such as multi-core systems) in that the threads have to share the resources of single core: the computing units, the CPU caches and the translation lookaside …
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Cobol, Fortran, Basic, ALGOL, Pascal, Aida, C, C++, Java, Python, Pearl Are some, but for a full list look in the related links below.
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You can't specify a variable field with a fixed format string, but you can get around this by making the format string variable: int width; char format[20]; /* or whatever size is appropriate */ int value; ... sprintf(format, "%%%dd", width); /* generates a string like "%5d" */ scanf(forma…
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Huge pointers are fully recognised and evaluated for their entire width.Far pointers only allow normal operations to be done to their offset amount and not the segment or paragraph amount.  Near pointers have a size of 2 bytes. They only store the offset of the address the pointer is referenci…
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Free-lance programmers might charge anywhere between $20 or $30 an hour to $200 or $300/hour. It depends on their experience, the industry of their clients, what their specialty is, their location, etc., etc.According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the 2002 median annual earnings of salaried compu…
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Here are contributions from a variety of WikiAnswer users: Most programmers would probably say no. Many programmers only have high school degrees or some technical training. Programming is a real meritocracy; people can judge you on your work, not your resume. But you'll definitely need a degree to…
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Answer (1) In programming, the process of combining elements to create a new entity. For example, a procedure is a type of encapsulation because it combines a series of computer instructions. Likewise, a complex data type, such as a record or class, relies on encapsulation. Object-oriented program…
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Answer Easy ones first Hard ones later Time management is also a huge factor to get rid of large amount of work
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.src is mostly an arbitrarily used extension which in most cases aren't associated with any specific program. Mostly it stands for "Source code" of "some" kind Try opening it in Textpad. In Windows:.src files in windows are usually executables. Most notably, screensavers in windows have a .src…
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It is sometimes easier to deal with primitives as objects. Moreover most of the collection classes store objects and not primitive data types. And also the wrapper classes provide many utility methods also. Because of these resons we need wrapper classes. And since we create instances of these class…
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It is fundamentally impossible to convert "any" file to PDF. PDF is used for text and images. There is no way to translate a program, a movie, or an MP3 file into a PDF.
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Normalization is a process in database design which groups data into various tables which are then crosslinked by a particular field. In a properly normalized database, there will be only one field in one table for a particular piece of data, eliminating possibility for conflicting values for the sa…
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Macros, which are special lines/fragments of code, differ from any other code written in the source files in the aspect that it's not passed to the compiler (either for the purpose of encoding into machine instructions, or some intermediate form instructions). Instead, macros perform textual manipul…
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The benefits to this are the same as you are using right now reading this page. A time-sharing system (what we call a server nowadays) provides many many people the opportunity to use the system. Technically, even a standard PC is a time-sharing system, because you can run many different programs on…
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zero :)
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I think the following javascript code will help u :just chek n try it once<html> <head></head><body> <form> <input type="button" onclick="disp_alert()" value="Display alert box"> </form> </body></html>Output is like this :A button will display n …
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Well, there is one cheap way of doing that is no one had ever thought of. hahhha. If you are using Windows XP, use your program to create a batch file in C:\Windows and make it run. In the batch file, use the commandsecho << [HKEY_Local_Machine\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run] fi…
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Answer In Java, if there is a run-time error then it allows the user to explicitly handle it by catching it in the catch block. If there is any error in the try block of code, automatically the flow control will be transferred to the catch block. Here Exception e indicates any exception. Answer…
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Answer 1. open word processing software. (Notepad or wordpad) 2. Write the desired function for the header. 3. Save it with .h as extension. Like "myheader.h" 4. Run cpp. 5. It should be like this... #include "myheader.h" Notes 1. A header file is not any different to the compiler than or…
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Object Orientation [OO], in general, is a methodology for modeling the real world or at least the problem being solved, by decomposing the problem into smaller discrete pieces called "Objects". What makes an "object" unique is the formal and explicit combination these smaller pieces' behavior with i…
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First, lets speak about the scope of a variable. The scope of a variable is the section of the application that can see and manipulate that variable. If the variable is declared in a procedure when that procedure is called, only that procedure can use that variable. Hence that variable is considered…
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To find greatest of 3 digits in one line #includ<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c; printf("enter a,b,c:); scanf("d%d%d",&a,&b,&c); printf("greatest no: %d"(a>b)?((a>c)?a:c):((c>b)?c:b)); printf("have a nice day"); getch(); }
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Multiprogramming is a feature of an OS which allows running multiple programs simultaneously on 1 CPU. So, say, you may be typing in word, listening to music while in background IE is downloading some file & anti-virus program is scanning. These all happen simultaneously to you. Actually program…
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No, pointer is not a data type but a reference to an object. Pointers are used to refer back to an object which can be anything from a large data value or a collection of values or objects. A pointer is a variable and is 4 bytes long because 4 bytes = 32 bits, and all addresses in 32 bit operating…
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#include <stdlib.h> int **array1 = malloc(nrows * sizeof(int *));for(i = 0; i < nrows; i++)array1[i] = malloc(ncolumns * sizeof(int));
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I'm not sure about this, but I'll give you an analogy: The files for said program are like the parts of a car, and when they are all put together they work to an end, namely the program's function. the Kernel32 file is like the person who built and uses the car. If the kernel32 file doesn't have th…
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Before C there was BCPL -- Basic Combined Programming Language -- which influenced a language called "B". Then a new language developed as an enhanced version of B, so it was named C.
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Answer The Waterfall Model: A classic SDLC model, with a linear and sequential method that has goals for each development phase. The waterfall model simplifies task scheduling, because there are no iterative or overlapping steps. One drawback of the waterfall model is that it does not allow for m…
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16 bit compilers compile the program into 16-bit machine code that will run on a computer with a 16-bit processor. 16-bit machine code will run on a 32-bit processor, but 32-bit machine code will not run on a 16-bit processor. 32-bit machine code is usually faster than 16-bit machine code. -DJ Cra…
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They are very different. An abstract class is a class that represents an abstract concept (google define "abstract" if you're unsure) such as 'Thoughts' or 'BankAccount'. When a class is defined as abstract it cannot be used (directly) to create an object. Abstract classes are used as super-classes…
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do a security bypass script...kinda like:if (User == <username>) { SecurityPerms(TRUE) }im not sure if those are the exact values the computer uses...but you should get the idea
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Computer programming is usually a two year program that can be taken at most universities. If you want to be taken seriously, you'll need to attend a 4 year accredited college Computer Science program. If you REALLY want to go places, go the 2 or 3 extra years to get a masters degree. You can le…
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A motherboard is basically a brain of the computer. It controls everything your computer does, it's controls your RAM, HDD, etc. The HP I'm on right now uses a AMD Athlon X2 motherboard. - Actually, the brain of the computer is the CPU (Control Processing Unit). The motherboard, holds the CPU and ot…
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Both terms are used to describe a computer process known as multi-tasking, where a single CPU core switches between tasks periodically to reduce inefficiency and wasted time, and to allow the user to perform multiple tasks at the same time. The difference between the two are technical distinctions, …
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printf("TSR"); If you are talking about a terminate and stay resident DOS program, the easiest way to write a TSR is to use a TSR toolkit, which does all of the basic work for you. Otherwise, even to describe the process would take too long (it can be quite complex).
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Multitasking is a method for multiple tasks to share a single resource, like a CPU. This is usually accomplished in software via special programming. Multiprocessing is the use of multiple CPUs in the same computer and the method of splitting tasks between them. This is usually done with hardware…
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Answer Processes access virtual memory space, not physical memory. Applications never access RAM directly but only through the memory management interface of the processor.Depending on which version of Windows you are using, and how the program was compiled there is a different maximum ammount of ad…
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Answer Often an application needs additional memory for the temporary storage of data. For example, the C programming language allows the programmer to use the MALLOC (memory allocate) function to grab a chunk of memory suitable for the applications needs. Failure to release the memory after it i…
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In header files the functions are declared not defined. Functions are defined in the library routines only.
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By analogy, an electronic pointing device such as the TrackPoint used on ThinkPad notebook computers, and similar devices on computers from other manufacturers.In computer science, a pointer is a programming language datatype whose value refers directly to ("points to") another value stored elsewher…
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A task is a like a unix process that has its share on CPU but the progarm is just a dump process on your back up devices it is not having share of your CPU. Just Dumped not running, but as soon as it will be executed it may become a task.
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CALL BACK FUNCTIONS In computer programming, a callback is executable code that is passed as an argument to other code. It allows a lower-level software layer to call a function defined in a higher-level layer. Usually, the higher-level code starts by calling a function within the lower-level co…
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Java is a OOP language and it is not a pure Object Based Programming Language. Many languages are Object Oriented. There are seven qualities to be satisfied for a programming language to be pure Object Oriented. They are: Encapsulation/Data HidingInheritancePolymorphismAbstractionAll predefined ty…
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Answer The static modifier means that it does not have to be instantiated to use it. Before a program runs there are technically no objects created yet, so the main method, which is the entry point for the application must be labeled static to tell the JVM that the method can be used without havi…
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Function Pointers are basically used when we want to select a function which is to be used dynamically at run time.  Function pointers are the only way for "Interept programming". In UNIX all the Interepts are called using function pointers. This is mainly used in system programming.  it…
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In Unix, with a C program you can run a quick function to do this. There is an example at: (link moved to link section)   In Solaris, you need to disconnect your program from your "terminal" ( scripts generally inherit the stdin, stdout, and stderr of your shell when you execute them ). For a…
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Answer Computers with more RAM can handle more information without crashing. Computers have to store all of the data coming from all the the devices in the computer until the processor can process the data and this data is stored in the RAM. If you have small amounts of RAM, it will fill up and t…
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COMPILER : It is an "INTERPRETER" which takes the instruction from the user(program/any thing) and converts onto the systems language('0' and '1' binary language) for doing calculations according to that instructions and produces the final output to the user in general english. Annapurna. Answer…
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Answer Multiprogramming is a rudimentary form of parallel processing in which several programs are run at the same time on a uniprocessor. Since there is only one processor, there can be no true simultaneous execution of different programs. Instead, the operating system executes part of one pr…
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A dictionary might say,"...A series of instructions or statements, in a form acceptable to a computer, prepared in order to achieve a certain result."But that would be a boribng answer. Correct, but boring. Basically a computer program is a bunch of information you don't see that does something for …
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