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Biotechnology

Parent Category: Biology
Manipulating living organisms to produce a technical solution to a known problem.
Most of the chromatographic techniques are meant to characterize  and study the molecules in different states.
Biotechnology is used in many fields. Biotechnology is the use  of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or  "any technological application that uses biological systems, living  organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or  processes for specific use. this...
During the isolation of DNA you need to obtain molecules with great  molecular weight. The EDTA helps to reach this goal because it  inhibits the degradation of DNA. SDS is responsible of the lysis  (break) of nuclear membrane, which keeps the genome separated from  the cytoplasm.
Take samples and save   Serum   Plasma   The supernatant of cell culture   Cell lysates   Homogenate of urine, saliva and other liquids in biological samples   Reagent preparation   Adding sample   Heat preservation
The word 'splice' means 'to join' Gene splicing means to join segments of genes together. This is done using an enzyme called ligase, which acts as a molecular glue joining the gene segments together.Splice means 'to join'. Gene splicing is a process where two genes are joined to one another using...
Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field where several scientific  profiles converge in order to perform a biological process through  high tech infrastructure. In fact, most of the universities around  the world that have biotechnology as academic training field, offer  this area as academic...
Computer based application is a powerful tool that is widely used  in biotechnology and pharmaceutics for drug discovery efforts.
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In rDNA technology, a plasmid molecule serves as a vector in which the insert or gene of insert is ligated to for chimeric DNA or recombinant DNA. It is an important step in DNA cloning. Thus formed chimeric vector can be propagated in E.coli for large production of clones. If you clone the gene in...
It can be used to cure by placing the healthy gene or DNA in place of mutated DNA to cure any genetic disorder or cancers. Current therapy is to use drugs (chemicals) to solve problems. But gene therapy make a promise of complete cure if the gene is inserted completely in the deficient or damaged...
The nucleotide sequences in the two chains of a DNA molecule are complementary.This means that A (adenine) in one chain always binds to T (thymine) in the other, and C (cytosine) always binds to G (guanine).So if the sequence in one chain is:AATCTGGAthe complementary sequence in the other chain will...
  == Answer ==   Certainly rt-PCR is qualitative and can also theoretically be quantitative. Anneal the RNA to get a 1:1 RNA to DNA copy, then proceed with quantitative PCR.
Gene therapy is technique to treat a genetic disorder or cancer by inserting a gene to replace the defective one.It is now not widely in practice but this may be the future. The benefit is the patient can successfully attain the healthy gene and can be cured permanently.
In transcription, the mRNA strand is formed by complementary base pairing of the template DNA strand. However we should note that the nitrogenous bases in mRNA are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil, while those in DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine. So the mRNA strand would be formed...
Yes, it unwinds the DNA double helix prior to transcription/protein  synthesis and DNA replication.
probiotic food supplements (like yogurt) Monoclonal antibodies for research Recombinant vaccines Insulin from cell cultures Genetically modified high-yielding plants
Detergent denatures (breaks up) proteins, which can then be precipitated and the DNA can be isolated
Western blot: A technique in molecular biology, used to separate and identify proteins.
Although several bacteria has plasmids, they have also been reported in certain varieties of plants and also in certain insect cells
Manual manipulation is to interfere with a naturally occurring process and change it to benefit our needs
It depends on the length of your four fragments. If the 4 fragments are same in length, you can not distinguis the band on the gel as all the (4x500) molecules run at the same length. If they are different in size let say 100,200,300,400 you can see four distinct bands. The intensity of the bands...
The size of the culture tubes selected will depend on: The type of experiment What is being cultured in them and for how long Certain experiments involve growing bacteria in tubes inlaid with agar. These are called agar slants. Small volumes are required for experiments. If however, plant cells or...
Theoretically, they should survive roughly the same time in both types of water. They might survive for a little longer in mineral water. The only sure way to find out would be to experiment
At this point of time, bio fuel is about the same price as regular fuel. In certain countries, it is slightly higher in cost.
Scientists often study the genome of important food producing organisms like crops and farm animals in order to make changes in the genome and produce disease resistant cops and high yielding animals. This process is generally referred to as biotechnology driven genetic improvement
Swirl nozzles inject the liquid in tangentially, and it spirals into the center and then exits through the central hole. Due to the vortexing this causes the spray to come out in a cone shape. Source: Wikipedia searched nozzles. Look under spray nozzle.
A tRNA binds a single amnio acids and takes it to the ribosome-mRNA complex. There, the specific tRNA is recognised, its amnio acid released to the complex and the tRNA can float away, to capture the next amino acid
It is essential so that the enzyme does not cut out nucleotides that is not supposed to.
Both DNA polymerase and Helicase are: Enzymes Capable of binding double stranded DNA Able to break the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide bases and hold the single strands apart
HPLC Column is one type of tube containing a stationary phase react with mobile phase to detect peak
The most common product from biotechnology processes are  recombinant proteins. Briefly, a cell line or recombinant strain (a  bacterium strain genetically modified) is placed in a vessel or  bioreactor with all necessary nutrients (carbohydrates, growth  factors, vitamins, sometime antibiotics,...
PROPERTY is a point function..it is exact differential and  measurable ..   There are two types of thermodynamics properties - 1. INTENSIVE  PROPERTIES 2.EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES    INTENSIVE PROPERTIES are those which doesn't depend upon the mass  or volume of the body   EXTENSIVE...
Cornstarch forms a thick paste when mixed with a liquid like water due to a property called cohesion (physical binding between molecules of two different substances). If pressurized and molded, the final product would probably break after the water evaporated but if you were to use something more...
Cutting of DNA at specific DNA sequence is done by 'restrictionenzymes' & these specific sites are called as 'restrictionsites'.
It plays an important role in the improvement in the health care and medicinal industries and it gives an opportunity to scientist to manufacture new pharmaceuticals can help, detect or cure disease it also vaccinates against dangerous diseases
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The goal of gene therapy is to cure a genetic disorder. Lets a gene is impaired by mutation and causing a disease. We can correct the gene by injecting DNA to the cells that have impaired gene. By this we can find out a permanent cure of that particular disease condition if it works properly.
Western blot can be semi-quantitative. This means that you cannot determine absolute protein levels, but you can detect differences between groups. For example, if you have 4 different samples, a western blot will be able to tell you which samples have the most of any specific cellular protein....
Biomolecules in our body are produced, digested and regulated by specific metabolic pathways. Glucose for example digested to produce ATP or energy and they also produced when needed from Glycogen. Hormone insulin and glucogan regulates or maintain the homeostasis of glucose. Similarly, other...
As of now, the only organism almost every labs around the world using E.coli as cloning host. For expression of proteins other organisms such as bacillus, insect cell lines(baculo virus mediated),yeast, and so on. The purpose of these organism is to used as a host to keep the chimeric DNA, and to...
PCR products produce million copies of your gene of interest. After PCR, we usually resolve them on the agarose gel to visualize the amplified DNA using EtBr stain under UV. The main purpose is, it make sure your gene is really amplified and the length it run is corresponding to the right size of...
There is no thumb rule for the order of the genes in genome! and I cant understand the second question.
has a whole lot of influence on the industry from the genetics of breeding cattle all the way up to the products on the supermaret shelves.
It depends on what is actually cloned. If you clone a gene and insert in an organism the organism is said to be transgenic. It can be a plant, animal or a micro organism.
If these transgenic organisms hastens the process of nitrogen fixation then the nitrogen cycle in general is sped up as a result. Ultimately, fixated nitrogen aids in plant growth since it helps fertilize the soil. It helps improve the soil's organic content and volume. This leads to various effects...
Yeast consists of micro-organisms classified as fungi. So yeast wouldn't be described "chemically", but "biologically" ;)
Direct ELISAs are sometimes refered to as sandwich ELISAs because unlike the indirect ELISA in which the antigen is binded nonspecifically to the ELISA plate, an antibody is first plated that will capture the antigen. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody is plated and lastly a substrate which creates a...
host cell is one that has some other organism living.
Because these enzymes cut the DNA molecule at a particular site. But like scissors these are useful tools in genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology.
single band represent the moleuclar weight of the particular DNA running on the gel. yes it means, all copies of DNA fragments are the same, and it is pointed in that particular band.
Restriction enzymes are endonucleases that digest the DNA at a sequence specific site. Hind III for example cut between two As in the sequence AAGCTT in the both strand forming a sticky end. If you use this enzyme to cut in your vector DNA, you have to use the same enzyme in the insert DNA so as...
Taq polymerase (it is a DNA polymerase) is isolated from a thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus . It can withstand the temperature such as 90-95degrees. Hence it is used in PCR to amplify DNA after annealing of the primer.
Gel electrophoresis separate DNA fragments on the basis of charge and molecular weights of the DNA fragment. Since DNA is negatively charged molecule it tends to move toward anode or positive electrode when there is an electric current is applied. The migration of DNA is also proportional to the...
You can identify the ligated DNA insert into a vector by doing DNA double digestion. Let say you inserted your foreign DNA with restriction sites Sma I and EcoRI. After ligation, you can digest the amplified chimeric rDNA with the same restriction enzyme. You can find the vector and the foreign...
  Germline gene therapy involves the modification of germ cells (gametes) that will pass the change on to the next generation. With germ line therapy genes could be corrected in the egg or the sperm that is being used to conceive. The child that results would be spared certain genetic problems...
Genetic diseases, such as hemophilia.
Before replication can begin, the following two molecular processes occur:Helicase binds to DNAHelicase causes the complimentary strands to separate by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide bases, causing the replication bubble to form.
When you huff at your hand, that's 100% hot breath hitting the hand. When you blow at your hand from a distance, a lot of cold air is mixed in with your breath.
Ancient biotechnology refers to fermentation and brewing and the products created through these processes
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As with any ethical issue there are (at least) two sides to every debate, but in this case the terminology might confound the issue. Cloning a gene simply means to make a copy of it and put it somewhere else. It could end up in the same organism (to over-express), or a different one (to...
  DNA Ligase is an essential enzyme within all cells that seals breaks in the phosphate-sugar backbone of DNA. DNA ligase accomplishs three main functions: joining Okazaki fragments, sealing repairs, and sealing recombination fragments (Purves et al., 2001).   DNA Ligase is an essential...
The first few steps in DNA isolation are based on getting the DNA out of the cell. This means the cell has to be broken and the cytoplasmic contents released. After which, the nucleus has to be broken to release the DNA.The function of the lysis buffer is to aid in the breaking of the cell membrane ...
Fluorescence is light energy produced by a process where  high-energy radiation (such as ultraviolet or X-ray) is absorbed by  electrons surrounding an atom and is re-emitted as light energy.   Phosphoresence is light energy produced by a particular type  of chemical reaction where the excess...
it include human cloning
it is used to clone things and make super things.
Purification of the DNA sample. Phenol is carbolic acid and is used to dissolve proteins and other cellular debris associated with the DNA being prepared for analysis.
Stacking gel has a different pH from resolving gel because stacking  gel is made out of Tris?HCI buffer which has a pH of 6.8. This  makes sure that it is about 2 units different from the pH of  resolving gel.
Probably the plasmid is partially uncutted and it is present in his  coiled and supercoiled forms. you can add another control as the  undigested construct. In addition you can add much more enzyme,  change batch of EcoRI and digest overnight with BSA to exclude star  activity.
Photo generated electron hole pairs recombine to decrease current of the DSSC.
cell, genes are inside of cells
horizontal gene transfer refers to a transfer of DNA to another cell that is not its offspring. Vertical occurs when 2 organisms have sex with their penis and produce offspring, it receives genetic material from ancestors (parents)
Blotting is a technique of transferring DNA or RNA or Protein from a gel to the membrane. nitrocellulose, PVDF or nylon membrane are used to attach these molecules permanently on them. Western, southern and norther blotting are the techniques used to transfer protein, DNA and RNA respectively. It is...
Measuring a solution containing DNA at 260nm is generally a good method of measuring DNA concentration. A standard curve is set up using known quantities of DNA and the unknown quantity is estimated by interpolation.RNA also absorbs UV radiation at roughly the same wavelength so one should be...
STE stabilize the lysosom's membrane stop the proteinase liberation
To answer this you need to know the conversion factor. This .34nm because .34 is the distance between each base pair in nanometers. So therefore if you had 300bp and you need nm you would take 300bp*.34nm=102nm. Hope this helps. I got this information from a upper level, university, genetics course ...
Gene therapy is the replacement of a defective or missing gene, or the addition of a new gene, into a human's genome to treat a genetic disease.
The researchers can watch what happens to the cells when they apply  the treatments. They can tell if the treatment is working or if  something else needs to be done.
If the plasmid were cut at the replication, it would not be able to reproduce & transfer genetic information to its host cell.
scientists have succeeded in using gene therapy to grow new auditory hair cells and restore hearing in deafened adult guinea pig's major step forward in the search for new ways to treat hearing loss in humans.
deoxyribonucleic acid
Its like a regular microscope but with the contrast up real high and upside down.
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