Most of the chromatographic techniques are meant to characterizeand study the molecules in different states.
By helping to make recombinant proteins such as enzymes, vaccinesand therapeutics. Not only for HIV but for other diseases too.
Biotechnology is used in many fields. Biotechnology is the useof living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or"any technological application that uses biological systems, livingorganisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products orprocesses for specific use. this is found on...
Since phosphate groups have a negative charge, adding them to histone tails neutralizes them and probably reduces their affinity for DNA. It might contribute to transcription because it stimulates histone acetyltransferases which cause histone acetylation and enhance transcription.
A ripe strawberry has several million tender cells with delicate cell membranes. These cell membranes break easily. Since one of the first steps of DNA isolation is to break open the cell, delicate cell membranes are beneficial
During the isolation of DNA you need to obtain molecules with greatmolecular weight. The EDTA helps to reach this goal because itinhibits the degradation of DNA. SDS is responsible of the lysis(break) of nuclear membrane, which keeps the genome separated fromthe cytoplasm.
Take samples and save Serum Plasma The supernatant of cell culture Cell lysates Homogenate of urine, saliva and other liquids in biological samples Reagent preparation Adding sample Heat preservation
Biotechnology can be thought of as the large scale use of biological processes for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnology attempts to up-scale laboratory scale processes to come out with products and processes like better medicines and better crops. There are two major application of...
The word 'splice' means 'to join' Gene splicing means to join segments of genes together. This is done using an enzyme called ligase, which acts as a molecular glue joining the gene segments together. Splice means 'to join'. Gene splicing is a process where two genes are joined to one another...
Agarose gel electrophoresis is the easiest and most common method used in biochemistry and molecular biology in separating DNA or RNA molecules according to their size.
Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field where several scientificprofiles converge in order to perform a biological process throughhigh tech infrastructure. In fact, most of the universities aroundthe world that have biotechnology as academic training field, offerthis area as academic speciality, ...
Gene therapy may end up in triggering immune response against the introduced gene. It (gene) may also become non functional or lost after a generation. Chance of inducing caner if the gene is integrated in a wrong place is very risky.
If you do not give antibiotics, the plasmid may lost after a few generation. it is because bacteria thinks that the extra DNA (plasmid) is not needed as the antibiotic is not present. That is the reason for keeping the culture always in antibiotic selection pressure.
Computer based application is a powerful tool that is widely usedin biotechnology and pharmaceutics for drug discovery efforts.
Restriction enzymes always 'cut' the DNA where a particular short sequence of bases occurs. These short sequences will not occur at the same points along the DNA in genetically different individuals...
EDTA is dissolved only at pH8. EDTA serves as an important chelating agent to kill the contaminating DNAses. Also this is close to the physoological pH which is pH7.
Mutation can be defined as sudden heritable change. It actually means that a change in a base pair or deletion or addition of bases too. This may cause drastic effect based on where the mutation happened. It if happens at a regulatory or coding region, the gene may produce dysfunctional product or...
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Physical stress can shear the DNA.
C-TAB is a detergent that helps lyse the cell membrane, however it is \npretty poor with denaturing proteins so something with a longer tail is \nusually used for extraction.\n
It can be used to cure by placing the healthy gene or DNA in place of mutated DNA to cure any genetic disorder or cancers. Current therapy is to use drugs (chemicals) to solve problems. But gene therapy make a promise of complete cure if the gene is inserted completely in the deficient or damaged...
Each nitrogenous is made up of simple sugar,a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous
Heme is a ferrous ion prosthetic group (Fe2+) present in metalloproteins or specifically Hemoproteins such as Hemoglobin, porphyrin. heme is also found in proteins such as myoglobin, catalase, cytochromes. In these proteins Heme either participates in the catalysis or act as a stabilizer of active...
the use of technology to solve medical problems in living organisms
The nucleotide sequences in the two chains of a DNA molecule are complementary . This means that A (adenine) in one chain always binds to T (thymine) in the other, and C (cytosine) always binds to G (guanine). So if the sequence in one chain is: AATCTGGA the complementary sequence in the...
Buffer is used to maintain pH in any process. In DNA extraction EDTA used as a chelating agent at pH8. This ensure the isolation process pure, since chelating agent inactivate the contaminating DNAses.
Certainly rt-PCR is qualitative and can also theoretically be quantitative. Anneal the RNA to get a 1:1 RNA to DNA copy, then proceed with quantitative PCR.
Ear wax contains very few cells. It is mainly complex carbohydrates and other waste materials. The lack of cells makes it nearly impossible to isolate DNA from ear wax
Gene therapy is technique to treat a genetic disorder or cancer by inserting a gene to replace the defective one.It is now not widely in practice but this may be the future. The benefit is the patient can successfully attain the healthy gene and can be cured permanently.
Take a 500ml beaker, add 160ml of glycerol. make up the volume to 200ml by adding water. Stir them with a magnetic stirrer for a while and here is your 80% Glycerol.
The complementary strand would be: GAATCCGAATGGT
approach, design, manner, mode
When the sequence of the DNA is read, scientists are able to: .
look at how similar or different it is to DNA from other species .
Look for restriction sites .
Look for regions where foreign genes could be inserted .
Check to see for mutations (changes in the DNA sequence) .
Check to see if...
The described process is an example of: Genetic engineering and Gene therapy
The plasmid that contains foreign DNA is engineered to also carry an antibiotic resistance gene. This antibiotic resistance gene codes for a protein that is able to inactivate an antibiotic thus keeping the cell alive. In the absence of the antibiotic resistance gene, the cells would not survive...
Cell Division is the process of duplicating the nucleus called.These two processes are called Conjoined or "coincidental".
DNA sequencing is an analytical method used in the laboratory to find out the sequence of nucleotides on a strand (or chain) of DNA. It does not cause any disorders. What causes disorders are mutations, which are unregulated changes in the DNA sequence that happen within the body
In transcription, the mRNA strand is formed by complementary base pairing of the template DNA strand. However we should note that the nitrogenous bases in mRNA are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil , while those in DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine . So the mRNA strand would be...
Yes, it unwinds the DNA double helix prior to transcription/proteinsynthesis and DNA replication.
Geneticist are scientist, who specialized on studying genes. Nowadays all the life science branches are interrelated hence molecular biologist, biochemist and protein specialist are also study the genes and carry our genetic engineering experiments such as cloning. The field can help us to...
Alcohol is a dehydrating agent that can disrupt proteins in the cell membrane. This breaks open the cell and liberates the plasmid(s) into the bulk of the solutuion
Minimum mark for 10 plus 2 is 80%.
probiotic food supplements (like yogurt) .
Monoclonal antibodies for research .
Recombinant vaccines .
Insulin from cell cultures .
Genetically modified high-yielding plants
Detergent denatures (breaks up) proteins, which can then be precipitated and the DNA can be isolated
The mentioned name is the name of an organism, not a molecule or compound. It therefore has no specific molecular weight since it is not a chemical
Water is the universal polar solvent in which solutes can be dissolved. hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules and proteins that is essential for life. Water is used in metabolism, photosynthesis pathways. Water regulates temperature in many organisms.
Western blot: A technique in molecular biology, used to separate and identify proteins.
Although several bacteria has plasmids, they have also been reported in certain varieties of plants and also in certain insect cells
Translation is the process where ribosomes synthesize proteins from RNA.
An Archaebacter. Methanogen.
I don't, bit the law is rather strict in this regard.
Trizol disrupts cells and sollubilizes cell components butmaintains the integrity of RNA
There are 5 known Prokaryotic DNA polymerases : .
Pol I : implicated in DNA repair; has 5'->3' polymerase activity, and both 3'->5' exonuclease activity (proofreading) and 5'->3' exonuclease activity (RNA primer removal). .
Pol II : involved in repairing damaged DNA; has 3'->5' exonuclease...
Generally, any technique that is used to make or modify the products of living organisms in order to improve plants or animals, or to develop useful microorganisms. In modern terms, biotechnology has come to mean the use of cell and tissue culture, cell fusion, molecular biology, and in particular,...
The enzyme DNA dependent DNA polymerase is essential for DNA replication
control of copy number in plasmids
These are the DNA probes (searching tool for DNA sequences) are made up of short DNA fragment and lablled with Biotin. The biotin bound to dUTP generally at the 11th position, eg.. biotin-11-dUTP. These lablled neucleotide are incorportaed using the procedure of polymerase chain reaciton (PCR) as...
DNA molecules are surrounded by water molecules when they are in solution. This is called the shell of hydration. When the salt concentration of the solution is increased, the sale molecules replace the water molecules in the shell of hydration causing the DNA to come out of solution. This 'coming...
If the DNA sequence is ACT, the complimentary mRNA sequence would be UGA
Manual manipulation is to interfere with a naturally occurring process and change it to benefit our needs
Restriction enzymes cut DNA at sites called restriction sites on the DNA. These restriction sites are specific sequences of 6 - 8 nucleotide bases. Restriction enzymes can be used on all types of DNA. If the DNA is cut by a certain restriction enzyme, then we know that the DNA contained the...
Technically, it is possible to do so in the laboratory. However, since the process involves a lot of ethical regulations and expensive equipment and expertise, the gene transfer would not be attempted unless there is huge financial gain.
During gel electrophoresis, the smaller particles move faster than the larger ones. The end of the gel where the samples are loaded is called the sample origin. Samples move from the origin toward the opposite electrode according to size. At the end of the run, smaller particles will have...
It depends on the length of your four fragments. If the 4 fragments are same in length, you can not distinguis the band on the gel as all the (4x500) molecules run at the same length. If they are different in size let say 100,200,300,400 you can see four distinct bands. The intensity of the bands...
There are several things that can be done once DNA is purified. The first thing to do is to check its purity by measuring its 260 to 280 ratio. IN this method, the absorbency of the sample is measure at 260 and 280 nm. If the ratio of these two numbers is between 1.8 and 2.0, one can consider the...
SDS is a detergent. Is is used in DNA isolation to denature proteins. Proteins are an essential component that maintain the integrity of the cell membrane. When SDS is added, proteins are denatured, thus making it easier for the cell membrane to break and liberate its inner contents. Also, DNA is...
can join with each other.
They have no choice to cure some genetic diseases. Moreover, if it goes fine, you will be cured for your life, unlike taking drug all over your lifetime. It is highly debatable topic since it may cause potential side effects.
A water bath is used to maintain a certain temperature. When a set of test tubes containing experimental materials have to be incubated at a certain temperature (typically between 37 and 60 degrees C) a water bath is used to accomplish the task
You use the same enzyme inn order to get the same restriction and binding sites.
The general term for organisms that contain foreign DNA that has been artificially inserted is transgenic
PCR or polymerase chain reaction is a method to amplify a fragment of DNA. PCR reaction contains template DNA, primers, dNTPs, polymerase enzyme, buffer and water. The thermocycler manage the heat and time to synthesize DNA (denaturation, annealing and extension). The main application is one can...
The size of the culture tubes selected will depend on: .
The type of experiment .
What is being cultured in them and for how long Certain experiments involve growing bacteria in tubes inlaid with agar. These are called agar slants. Small volumes are required for experiments. If however,...
IN certain cases, enzymes are used to denature (or break up) proteins and disrupt the cell wall (in case of plants). These enzymes require magnesium ions as co-factors in order to catalyze the reaction.
Although it it a bad idea to use something as unregulated as dish washing liquid for DNA isolation, the scientific principle is that proteins denature (or break up) in the presence of a detergent. Denatured proteins can then be separated from the remainder of the cellular contents by centrifugation....
without polimerase it is imposible that cell makes copy of DNA and RNA can eb transcribet without polimeraze.
Extra bands are sometimes seen due to the following reasons: .
Sample fragmentation .
TCGAGTC A binds to T G binds to C
Living things are able to replicated themself by reproduction or any other means. The inheritance from one generation to next generation (parent to child) is carried by the so called molecules known as DNA or collectively genes and genomes. Genes encode for character in every species, this means...
Molecules migrate to different electrodes depending on the charge they carry. Positively charged dyes migrate toward the anode (the negative electrode) and negatively charged dyes migrate toward the cathode (the positive electrode)
Plasma membrane serves as a barrier between cell and the external environment (like a boundary). It selectively conduct transport of molecules across the membrane. Membrane is made up a phospholipid bilayer that has hydrophobic tail (facing each other inside) and hydrophilic head(projected towards...
Inheritable change can be defined as any change in the DNA sequence. It can be a deletion of base, insertion, substitution duplication etc. A point mutation is normally enough to stop the expression of proteins or make it immature(if it happens at the right place).
Theoretically, they should survive roughly the same time in both types of water. They might survive for a little longer in mineral water. The only sure way to find out would be to experiment
It allows scientist to study specific genes of an organisms DNA.
Biologists use enzymes called restriction endonucleases (or restriction enzymes) to cut DNA at specific sequences
1) Plasmid is self replicating. 2) It contain various site for restriction endonucleases
Grinding is the simplest way of breaking open cells and releasing its contents. Since DNA is located within the nucleus in eukaryotic organisms, the first step in most DNA isolatino protocols involves breaking cells open