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Neuropharmacology

~200 answered questions
Parent Category: Neuroscience
Studying the science of drugs that effect the brain and nervous system. Ask questions about drug-induced changes both behavioral and molecular.
The most common antidepressants prescribed today come under a class of neuroactive drugs called 'selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors', or SSRIs for short. These include: Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine (Luvox), Paroxetine (Paxil), Sertraline (Zoloft) and Venlafaxine (Effexo…
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Answer Feelings of "unreality" are often called "derealization," "depersonalization," or "dissociation." This can be caused by a number of things, including depression, PTSD, anxiety, etc. A mental health professional can help determine the contributing factors and appropriate treatment. It can b…
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They are In the neck, under the arms, and In the groin
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) achieve their therapeutic effect by modifying synaptic availability of the neurotransmitter serotinin. This is accomplished, first of all, by blocking the proteins that normally transport serotonin back into the cells that release them (presynaptic cel…
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The SSRIs can be both CYP450 enzyme inhibitors AND inducers. Inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of drugs, causing the body to have increased levels of that drug. Inducers speed of the metabolism of a drug, causing the body to inactivate/eliminate to a further extent than it normally would. It depends…
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Depends what you mean. There are in fact 21 senses not 5 I assume you mean the following:The twenty second sense is when people sense somthing/someone around. this is under the paranormal topics, that normally includes ghosts. sometimes you can get a twenty second sense from being around something c…
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Answer Acute alcohol intoxication is result of widespread changes in brain metabolism. The greater the amount of alcohol the greater the affect on your brain. One of the mechanisms by which alcohol lowers brain metabolism is via its interaction with GABA receptors. GABA receptors are an inhibitor…
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You start to see things. Stupid things! So if i were you, I would drink.
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The clearance of alcohol from the body is not affected by citalopram. SSRIs like citalopram work on serotonin- and norepinephrine- synthesizing neurons and slowly cause an increase in the synaptic availability of both of these neurotransmitters. The role of serotonin in the brain is modulatory, i.e.…
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Mathematics is used daily in the field of medicine. Math is used to write prescriptions and administer medication. It is also used to draw up statistical graphs of epidemics or success rates of treatments.
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This is incomplete, but Modern Healthcare reports the following averages:Orhopedic Surgeon - $403,000. (Top spot.)Radiologist - $394,000.Noninvasive Cardiologists - $370,000.Urologists - $340,000.Anesthesiologists -$333,000. Can you give a description of each of these medical fields...
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To make it simple, Levodopa is the precursor of Dopamine and it's used to treat Parkinson's disease. (We don't directly use dopamine because dopamine can't cross our blood-brain-barrier, so, it won't be effective to be taken orally)
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Sensory, motor and interneuron.
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it depends on what part of your brain- check wikipedia
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carboxyl group
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An amino acid always has an amino group and a carboxyl group. The amine group of one amino acid is capable of forming a peptide bond with the carboxyl group of another amino acid.
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Genetic engineering cannot be called yet an exact science, malformation and mutations inadequate to sustain normal life can be created.
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Infinite Intelligence: A nonreligious / more scientific name for what the religious would deem to be God. An all powerful and invisible (to the naked eye) energy source that exists everywhere in the Universe -responsible for the creation of and existence of: everything / existence itself. Infinite …
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Comprised of the brain and spinal cord The nervous system is the key to homeostasis. The nerves are what keep your body in proper working order and all of those nerves stem from your brain through your spinal cord to reach its destination, then the nerves return to the brain the same way. Therefore,…
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It doesn't, it causes the opposite: a depolarisation block, which is why is used as a muscle relaxant in some circumstances. It may be that your recording electrodes were near a cell where curare had not yet diffused to. Or it may be related to disinhibition from blocking interneurons that express n…
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Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) affects many areas of the brain. However, the most pronounced impact is found in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and cerebellum.Ethanol affects the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter system, binding to GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, and increasing their ability to hyper…
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Pollination can be considered as the reproduction of flowers. A bee lands on a flower and collects the nectar of the flower while it gets covered in the flower's pollen. As the bee continues to travel from flower to flower, it spreads the pollen of all the flowers and I don't know how the seeds kick…
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Tricyclics are more potent antidepressants compared to the newer SSRIs. The reason SSRIs tend to be prescribed more, however, is because tricyclics are less well tolerated due to their antimuscarinic effects, such as: dryness of mouth, constipation, dizziness, abnormal heart rhythm, blurred vision a…
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One of the defining properties of a neurotransmitter is that is must be synthesized in the neuron. The brain does not synthesize methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is introduced exogenously and exerts its effects on a neurotranmitter system called the 'adrenergic system'. Methamphetamine also has a d…
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yan ung pagliyad liyad pampaibay ng tite
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Amino acids contain acid groups and amino groups alternately.
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pistil and stamen
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no it doesnt, it has 3 alcohol groups, it is a triol the molecular formula is C3H5(OH)3 there is no nitrogen
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Curare is a competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine. It fights with acetycholine for postsynaptic receptors.
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Tricyclics, e.g. Amitriptyline and impramine, were compounds that were introduced in the 1960s to treat depression by helping boost synaptic levels of serotonin and noradrenalin. They were called 'tricyclics' because their structure contains three amine rings joined together. Tricyclics are not comm…
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It depends on what level you wish to contribute to the field. For instance, with a 3-4 year Bachelor degree you could enter as a technician or lab assistant. Or, if you wanted more control over the experiments you could earn yourself a doctorate, which normally takes at least 3 years to do over and …
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nothing it is perfectly safe ANSWER Cannabis is not "perfectly" safe, nor is is certainly dangerous. No one is completely certain of its full effects the chemical function of the brain is not fully elucidated, nor are the complete effects of cannabis on this complex system. What is known is that t…
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Enzyme-activity studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that is responsible for hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of opioids date back to the 1940s. AChE inhibition by opioids has been suggested to be partly competitive and partly non-competitive(1, 2). Competitive inhibit…
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Amphetamine and methamphetamine (the latter being more potent) cause the release of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline from axon terminals. Since the parts of the brain that contain the richest density of these cells are also involved in mood, perception, cognition and to a lesser extent, movemen…
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An example of photoshynthesis is in plants, which are the only organism that can do this system. It's a way for them to get food by the sunlight, which they take in and convert into energy for them.
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Morphine (and other opioids) bind to enkephalin and endorphin receptors, activating (agonizing) them to result in a net inhibition of nociception (pain sensation). These receptors also increase activity in the mesolimbic brain, which is responsible for inducing pleasure states and creating habit-for…
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Differentiate
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Inhibitory neurotransmitters prevent the firing of neurons by binding with certain receptors, causing the influx of chloride ions to hyperpolarize the neuron. When this happens, it requires a much larger excitatory signal to override the inhibitory effects in order to allow the neuron to fire.
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Lumbosacral neuritis is characterized by the nerves in the lumbar area of the spine being inflamed. Pain in the lower back and pain shooting down the legs are both common symptoms.
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In behavioral neuropharmacology, this refers to a shift in the 'pursuit of pleasure.' Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors, for example, can cause a hedonic shift in food consumption.
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carboxylic acids
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Tricyclic antidepressants typically bind to serotonin (and, in some cases, norepinephrine) transporters to inhibit reuptake back into presynaptic neurons, which results in the net increase in levels of monoamine (serotonin and norepinephrine) in the synapse. This synaptic increase allows for more se…
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Curare is an example of a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant that blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), one of the two types of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors. The main toxin of curare, d-tubocurarine, occupies the same position on the receptor as ACh with an equal or greater affinity, a…
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The terms antagonist/agonist only apply to 'exogenous' compounds, namely drugs and toxins, and not neurotransmitters - which are commonly classed according to whether they are excitatory or inhibitory. Examples of a the latter include GABA and glycine.
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Prozac (fluoxetine) is an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). It targets reuptake channels for the neurotransmitter serotonin, preventing serotonin from reentering the presynaptic neurons to be removed from the synaptic cleft, thus forcing an accumulation of serotonin and repeated trigger…
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Yes, many of the structures involved in memory and mood regulation are found in both sides of the brain. A cyst can impair their function and change the way a person acts
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It binds to GABA receptors, hyperpolarizing the neuronal membrane, inhibiting neurotransmission...primarily in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex.
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No. While the underlying mechanisms of long-term memory storage are not well understood, the general consensus is that memory recall does change every time you remember something.
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The reason why Sensory neurons are called as afferent neurons is: _ Afferent Neurons mean the neurons carries the nerve impulse toward the brain (CNS) or the spinal cord (PNS). _ Sensory which always begins from the outside spaces, or peripheral places outside from CNS or PNS, need to be carried …
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Foods high in: - L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine (amino acids precursors for dopamine and norepinephrine) - fish, cheese, soy, nuts, meats - L-tryptophan (amino acid precursor to serotonin) - milk, turkey, chicken - choline and lecithin (precursors to acetylcholine) - fish, soy - omega-3 fatty acid…
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A peristaltic contraction is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and is the contraction of smooth muscle in the digestive system to create a wave-like motion, allowing food and digested materials to be transported through the digestive system. This process is called peristalsis. It is mostly …
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mechanism of neurohumoral transmission
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Assuming that you were talking about a microscope, then . . . the fine adjustment is really the normal adjustment. It's easy to use to get a great focus because it moves the focusing mechanism very little per turn.On the other hand, the fine adjustment simply won't get you close to initial focus wit…
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Clozapine is not a tricyclic antidepressant, but rather an atypical antipsychotic medication. Atypical antipsychotics differ from typical antipsychotics by the range of receptors that are modulated or affected. Typical antipsychotics primarily inhibit Dopamine 2 (DA2) receptors. Atypical antipsych…
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Yes. I am one of them. My name is Jessamine and I have a spinocerebellar atrophy.
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imipramineamitriptyline
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The peristaltic movements are muscle contractions and its function on the esophagus is to push food down into the stomach and prevent it from going back into the esophagus.
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Tricyclic are a family of antidepressants that were given to people before the SSRI. Often psychiatrists prescribe a tricyclic and a newer anti-depressant usually a selective serotonin Inhibitor or a serotonin Norefenefphan selective inhibitor. Your doctor can usual decide what is safe
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Soy lecithin is not, itself, a phytoestrogen. However, soy does contain phytoestrogen compounds.
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a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl group
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Psychotropics (stimulants, depressants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedative/hypnotics, antipsychotics, dissociatives, etc.)
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Neurotransmitters and hormones work together to form the neuroendocrine system.Neurotransmitters and hormones- Apex
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DNA...which comprises genetic information. When transcribed and translated, it forms many different genes.One or more genes code for a given trait.
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the 6th sense is a scary movie. Emily Osment's older brother is in that movie, but it was when he was a little kid. the movie is about a little boy and his mother having a 6th sense, which is being able to see dead people.
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The action potential is an all-or-none phenomenon.
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No. Bupropion (aka Wellbutrin) is known as an atypical antidepressant in that it prevents the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (to a lesser extent). Typical tricyclic antidepressants only block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. It's unique dopamine reuptake inhibition capa…
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If you mean the big spill that just happened, It happened in the gulf of Mexico and started when a BP oil rig caught on fire and sunk into the ocean, which is now spilling oil miles below the sea under water. Gee, thanks BP. Hope this helped!
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Amphotericin B. We can combine this Amphotericin B with Flucystosine or Fluconazole to get a synergistic effect.
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any drugs that can increase dopamine concentration at synapses: L-dopaamphetamineany drugs that mimic dopamine action : e.g. bromocriptine
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stop giving the drugsgive skeletal muscle relaxant (e.g. Dantrolene)give dopamine releaser (bromocriptine)
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Promethazine. *to memorize: remember the letter "P" for "Promethazine", and "P" for "pruritis"
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Ziprasidone (if it's taken with food, either before or after, will increase its bioavailability)
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Phenothiazines group (e.g. chlorpromazine, thioridazine, fluphenazine)Thioxanthenes group (e.g. thiothixene) Butyrophenones (e.g. haloperidol)*to memorize, you can try to use this mnemonic: "Party Till Bored!" (Party = Phenothiazine, Till = Thioxanthenes, Bored = Butyrophenones)
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For unknown reasons, Clozapine increases salivation (though it has mild anti-cholinergic effect).
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AripiprazoleThioridazine
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Imipramine (a Tricyclic antidepressant)
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monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
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tricyclic antidepressants = e.g. imipramine , amitriptyline
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hyperparaxia (restlessness)hypertension crisisconvulsioncoma
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ataxiavertigogum hypertrophy hirsutism megaloblastic anemia (due to folic acid deficiency)
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due its sedating property, wide range of drug-drug interactions and can depress our cognitive functions. It can also induce osteoporosis with prolonged use. It's preferably to be used in refractory cases of epilepsy only.
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nitrous oxide : lower solubility halothane : higher solubility
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desflurane (because it can cause respiratory infection - cough, bronchospasm)
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pyridoxine (vitamin B6) can decrease the effect of levodopa.
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We don't give levodopa to: psychiatric patients (because it will antagonize the effect of antipsychotics)glaucoma patients (because it can increase our intraocular pressure)peptic ulcer patients (because it might cause hemorrhage)
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Although levodopa can cross our BBB, but it will be decarboxylated to dopamine peripherally before reaching our CNS - only small amount of Levodopa will be left and available to pass our BBB. So, instead of giving levodopa in high dose (which can cause lots of side effects), we give levodopa with pe…
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