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Neuropharmacology

Parent Category: Neuroscience
Studying the science of drugs that effect the brain and nervous system. Ask questions about drug-induced changes both behavioral and molecular.
The peristaltic movements are muscle contractions and its function  on the esophagus is to push food down into the stomach and prevent  it from going back into the esophagus.
It blocks the receptors for acetylcholine, so the nerve cellscannot receive the signal to generate an action potential.
Soy lecithin is not, itself, a phytoestrogen. However, soy does contain phytoestrogen compounds.
They are In the neck, under the arms, and In the groin
Neurotransmitters and hormones work together to form the neuroendocrine system.Neurotransmitters and hormones- Apex
It doesn't, it causes the opposite: a depolarisation block, which is why is used as a muscle relaxant in some circumstances. It may be that your recording electrodes were near a cell where curare had not yet diffused to. Or it may be related to disinhibition from blocking interneurons that express...
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) affects many areas of the brain. However, the most pronounced impact is found in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Ethanol affects the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter system, binding to GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, and increasing their ability to...
No. Bupropion (aka Wellbutrin) is known as an atypical  antidepressant in that it prevents the reuptake of serotonin,  norepinephrine, and dopamine (to a lesser extent). Typical  tricyclic antidepressants only block reuptake of serotonin and  norepinephrine. It's unique dopamine reuptake...
If you mean the big spill that just happened, It happened in the gulf of Mexico and started when a BP oil rig caught on fire and sunk into the ocean, which is now spilling oil miles below the sea under water. Gee, thanks BP. Hope this helped!
any drugs that can increase dopamine concentration at synapses: L-dopaamphetamineany drugs that mimic dopamine action : e.g. bromocriptine
Promethazine. *to memorize: remember the letter "P" for "Promethazine", and "P" for "pruritis"
Ziprasidone (if it's taken with food, either before or after, will increase its bioavailability)
Phenothiazines group (e.g. chlorpromazine, thioridazine, fluphenazine)Thioxanthenes group (e.g. thiothixene) Butyrophenones (e.g. haloperidol)*to memorize, you can try to use this mnemonic: "Party Till Bored!" (Party = Phenothiazine, Till = Thioxanthenes, Bored = Butyrophenones)
For unknown reasons, Clozapine increases salivation (though it has mild anti-cholinergic effect).
tricyclic antidepressants = e.g. imipramine , amitriptyline
nitrous oxide : lower solubility halothane : higher solubility
desflurane (because it can cause respiratory infection - cough, bronchospasm)
fentanyl + droperidol (antipsychotic) = patient remain conscious and cooperative
An anesthetic state that may be induced if neuroleptic-opiod combination is ineffective. In addition to a neuroleptic and an opioid (droperidol + fentanyl), concurrent administration of 65% nitrous oxide (laughing gas)= patient will be unconscious.
We don't give morphine for patients suffering from: head injury : because it can depress the respiratory centre and increase intracranial pressurebronchial asthma : because histamine release will cause bronchiol-constrictionpregnancy : might lead to fetal respiratory depression and withdrawal...
Tricyclics are more potent antidepressants compared to the newer SSRIs. The reason SSRIs tend to be prescribed more, however, is because tricyclics are less well tolerated due to their antimuscarinic effects, such as: dryness of mouth, constipation, dizziness, abnormal heart rhythm, blurred vision...
Good feelings are primary controlled by the mesolimbic (reward) circuit in the brain. Dopamine is released from these nerves, sending a signal forward into the prefrontal cortex, where the pleasure signal enters consciousness. An excess of dopamine release in the mesolimbic circuit creates feelings...
Amino acids contain acid groups and amino groups alternately.
By having fun! Massage, hugging, kissing, holding hands, controlled sex (like tantra), hanging with friends, cuddling, eye gazing, etc. A good book for reference is The Chemistry of Connection.
Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are sympathetic neurotransmitters that: - increase excitatory neurotransmission in the central and autonomic nervous systems - induce vasoconstriction (increasing blood pressure, shunting blood away from the surface of tissues, etc.) ...
It is an Antipsychotic medication
Named for their three-ring chemical structure
used to treat mental depression.reduce symptoms such as extreme sadness,hopelessness,and lack of energy.also used to treat bulimia,cocaine withdrawal,panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorders,.types of chronic pain,and bed-wetting in children
Tricyclic antidepressants are available only with a physician's prescription and are sold in tablet, capsule, liquid, and injectable forms
In pharmacokinetics, it represents: - A bsorption - substance enters blood circulation - D istribution - substance is carried through the fluids and tissues of the body - M etabolism - substance is chemically processed/transformed into one or more other substances (called metabolites) - E...
It produces all the proteins for the dendrites, axons and synaptic terminals and contains specialized organelles such as the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, secretory granules, ribosomes and polysomes to provide energy and make the parts, as well as a production line to...
Multiple receptor subtypes allow for more "fine-tuned" neuromodulation of a given "signal" in a neural network. Each receptor subtype typically has a different binding affinity for the given neurotransmitter. Therefore, the neurotransmitter may bind more strongly or more weakly to one subtype over...
Yes, there are many nerve types present in skin. Most detect compression and heat/cold.
mRNA-moves from nucleus to cytoplasm to get transcribed by ribosome. rRNA- ribosomal RNA that is in splicesomes tRNA-transfer RNA that brings nucleotide bases to the mRNA strand being coded. tRNA matches its anticodon with the mRNA codon to make the polypeptide. Source: AP Biology student
When chemicals contact the surface of a neuron, they change the balance of ions (electrically charged atoms) between the inside and outside of the cell membrane. When this change reaches a threshold level, this effect runs across the cell's membrane to the axon.When it reaches the axon, it initiates...
The drug acamprosate is one such substance that is used to treat alcohol dependence and can cause dystonia. It binds with GABA-A receptors, which is an inhibitory system, reducing neurotransmission and muscle contraction, and can result in dystonia.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) achieve their therapeutic effect by modifying synaptic availability of the neurotransmitter serotinin. This is accomplished, first of all, by blocking the proteins that normally transport serotonin back into the cells that release them (presynaptic...
It blocks the voltage-gated Na+ channels.
A neuron (nerve cell) receives dendritic input in order to generate action potentials to transmit signals of the same. After the action potential triggers release of neurotransmitters in the axonal terminal of that neuron, those neurotransmitters propagate the signal forward to the next neuron, and...
Cannabinoids and amphetamine-like stimulants are two completely  different psychotropic compounds.   While cannabinoids (like marijuana, THC) bind with cannabinoid  receptors and potentiate GABA activity, thereby slowing firing  patterns of neurons (particularly in the hippocampus and temporal...
The SSRIs can be both CYP450 enzyme inhibitors AND inducers. Inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of drugs, causing the body to have increased levels of that drug. Inducers speed of the metabolism of a drug, causing the body to inactivate/eliminate to a further extent than it normally would. It depends...
When an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor binds with acetylcholinesterase, regardless of whether it is reversible or irreversible, it prevents the ability of AChE to bind with acetylcholine (ACh) and break it down. Therefore, ACh accumulates in the synaptic gap, causing the postsynaptic neuron...
The receptors are located primarily in the limbic system of the brain. The limbic system is a region in the brain containing structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The region plays a role in a variety of functions such as emotion and behavior, long-term memory and smell.
== Answer ==   Feelings of "unreality" are often called "derealization," "depersonalization," or "dissociation." This can be caused by a number of things, including depression, PTSD, anxiety, etc. A mental health professional can help determine the contributing factors and appropriate treatment....
  I RECENTLY PURCHASED AN 11-87 SPORTSMAN WITH THE CANTILEVERED SLUG BARREL,IT'S THE SAME GUN AS THE PREMIER EXCEPT MATTE BLACK AND ABOUT 100 BUCKS LESS.   I AM SET UP WITH A NIKON PROSTAFF 2-7X SCOPE. ONCE I GOT ON THE PAPER AT 50   YARDS, I WAS ABLE TO DIAL IN FOR A DELIBERATE 1.5" HIGH...
Neuropharmacology - journal - was created in 1962.
  == Solubility of ceric oxide and ceric oxit ==   The solubility of oxides and other ceramic powders depends on what the solution and solvent should be. Temperature is also important. For example one definition of glass says that it is solid solution of natrium oxide, kalium oxide and...
Curare is a competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine. It fights with acetycholine for postsynaptic receptors.
Depends what you mean. There are in fact 21 senses not 5 I assume you mean the following:The twenty second sense is when people sense somthing/someone around. this is under the paranormal topics, that normally includes ghosts. sometimes you can get a twenty second sense from being around something...
Tricyclics, e.g. Amitriptyline and impramine, were compounds that were introduced in the 1960s to treat depression by helping boost synaptic levels of serotonin and noradrenalin. They were called 'tricyclics' because their structure contains three amine rings joined together. Tricyclics are not...
It depends on what level you wish to contribute to the field. For instance, with a 3-4 year Bachelor degree you could enter as a technician or lab assistant. Or, if you wanted more control over the experiments you could earn yourself a doctorate, which normally takes at least 3 years to do over and...
== Answer ==   Acute alcohol intoxication is result of widespread changes in brain metabolism. The greater the amount of alcohol the greater the affect on your brain. One of the mechanisms by which alcohol lowers brain metabolism is via its interaction with GABA receptors. GABA receptors are an...
You start to see things. Stupid things! So if i were you, I would drink.
Enzyme-activity studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that is responsible for hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of opioids date back to the 1940s. AChE inhibition by opioids has been suggested to be partly competitive and partly non-competitive(1, 2). Competitive...
Amphetamine and methamphetamine (the latter being more potent) cause the release of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline from axon terminals. Since the parts of the brain that contain the richest density of these cells are also involved in mood, perception, cognition and to a lesser extent,...
  In severe cases of anxiety and panic disorders, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam, clonazepam and lorazepam are effective - but their long term use is limited by the way the brain habituates to them (which means higher doses are necessary to achieve the same therapeutic effect). So they are...
The clearance of alcohol from the body is not affected by citalopram. SSRIs like citalopram work on serotonin- and norepinephrine- synthesizing neurons and slowly cause an increase in the synaptic availability of both of these neurotransmitters. The role of serotonin in the brain is modulatory, i.e....
Mathematics is used daily in the field of medicine. Math is used towrite prescriptions and administer medication. It is also used todraw up statistical graphs of epidemics or success rates oftreatments.
Morphine (and other opioids) bind to enkephalin and endorphin receptors, activating (agonizing) them to result in a net inhibition of nociception (pain sensation). These receptors also increase activity in the mesolimbic brain, which is responsible for inducing pleasure states and creating habit...
This is incomplete, but Modern Healthcare reports the following averages: . Orhopedic Surgeon - $403,000. (Top spot.) . Radiologist - $394,000. . Noninvasive Cardiologists - $370,000. . Urologists - $340,000. . Anesthesiologists -$333,000. Can you give a description of each of these medical...
To make it simple, Levodopa is the precursor of Dopamine and it's used to treat Parkinson's disease. (We don't directly use dopamine because dopamine can't cross our blood-brain-barrier, so, it won't be effective to be taken orally)
Inhibitory neurotransmitters prevent the firing of neurons by binding with certain receptors, causing the influx of chloride ions to hyperpolarize the neuron. When this happens, it requires a much larger excitatory signal to override the inhibitory effects in order to allow the neuron to fire.
Lumbosacral neuritis is characterized by the nerves in the lumbar  area of the spine being inflamed. Pain in the lower back and pain  shooting down the legs are both common symptoms.
In behavioral neuropharmacology, this refers to a shift in the  'pursuit of pleasure.' Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors, for  example, can cause a hedonic shift in food consumption.
Sensory, motor and interneuron.
  No it is not a trycyclic. Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine
Tricyclic antidepressants typically bind to serotonin (and, in some cases, norepinephrine) transporters to inhibit reuptake back into presynaptic neurons, which results in the net increase in levels of monoamine (serotonin and norepinephrine) in the synapse. This synaptic increase allows for more...
  Postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions
it depends on what part of your brain-  check wikipedia
The terms antagonist/agonist only apply to 'exogenous' compounds, namely drugs and toxins, and not neurotransmitters - which are commonly classed according to whether they are excitatory or inhibitory. Examples of a the latter include GABA and glycine.
The most common antidepressants prescribed today come under a class of neuroactive drugs called 'selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors', or SSRIs for short. These include: Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine (Luvox), Paroxetine (Paxil), Sertraline (Zoloft) and Venlafaxine ...
Genetic engineering cannot be called yet an exact science, malformation and mutations inadequate to sustain normal life can be created.