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Neuropharmacology

Parent Category: Neuroscience
Studying the science of drugs that effect the brain and nervous system. Ask questions about drug-induced changes both behavioral and molecular.
The peristaltic movements are muscle contractions and its functionon the esophagus is to push food down into the stomach and preventit from going back into the esophagus.
Tricyclic are a family of antidepressants that were given to people before the SSRI. Often psychiatrists prescribe a tricyclic and a newer anti-depressant usually a selective serotonin Inhibitor or a serotonin Norefenefphan selective inhibitor. Your doctor can usual decide what is safe
It blocks the receptors for acetylcholine, so the nerve cellscannot receive the signal to generate an action potential.
Soy lecithin is not, itself, a phytoestrogen. However, soy does contain phytoestrogen compounds.
Comprised of the brain and spinal cord . The nervous system is the key to homeostasis. The nerves are what keep your body in proper working order and all of those nerves stem from your brain through your spinal cord to reach its destination, then the nerves return to the brain the same way....
They are In the neck, under the arms, and In the groin
a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl group.
Psychotropics (stimulants, depressants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedative/hypnotics, antipsychotics, dissociatives, etc.)
Neurotransmitters and hormones work together to form the neuroendocrine system. Neurotransmitters and hormones- Apex
It doesn't, it causes the opposite: a depolarisation block, which is why is used as a muscle relaxant in some circumstances. It may be that your recording electrodes were near a cell where curare had not yet diffused to. Or it may be related to disinhibition from blocking interneurons that express...
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) affects many areas of the brain. However, the most pronounced impact is found in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Ethanol affects the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter system, binding to GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, and increasing their ability to...
DNA...which comprises genetic information. When transcribed and translated, it forms many different genes. One or more genes code for a given trait.
the 6th sense is a scary movie. Emily Osment's older brother is in that movie, but it was when he was a little kid. the movie is about a little boy and his mother having a 6th sense, which is being able to see dead people.
No. Bupropion (aka Wellbutrin) is known as an atypicalantidepressant in that it prevents the reuptake of serotonin,norepinephrine, and dopamine (to a lesser extent). Typicaltricyclic antidepressants only block reuptake of serotonin andnorepinephrine. It's unique dopamine reuptake inhibition...
Drugs that are agonists for the GABA receptor (such as benzodiazepines) are better treatment options for different forms of spasticity, rather than GABA itself.
If you mean the big spill that just happened, It happened in the gulf of Mexico and started when a BP oil rig caught on fire and sunk into the ocean, which is now spilling oil miles below the sea under water. Gee, thanks BP. Hope this helped!
Pollination can be considered as the reproduction of flowers. A bee lands on a flower and collects the nectar of the flower while it gets covered in the flower's pollen. As the bee continues to travel from flower to flower, it spreads the pollen of all the flowers and I don't know how the seeds kick...
Amphotericin B. We can combine this Amphotericin B with Flucystosine or Fluconazole to get a synergistic effect.
any drugs that can increase dopamine concentration at synapses: . L-dopa . amphetamine . any drugs that mimic dopamine action : e.g. bromocriptine
stop giving the drugs . give skeletal muscle relaxant (e.g. Dantrolene) . give dopamine releaser (bromocriptine)
Promethazine. *to memorize: remember the letter "P" for "Promethazine", and "P" for "pruritis"
Ziprasidone (if it's taken with food, either before or after, will increase its bioavailability)
Phenothiazines group (e.g. chlorpromazine, thioridazine, fluphenazine) . Thioxanthenes group (e.g. thiothixene) . Butyrophenones (e.g. haloperidol) *to memorize, you can try to use this mnemonic: "Party Till Bored!" (Party = Phenothiazine, Till = Thioxanthenes, Bored = Butyrophenones)
For unknown reasons, Clozapine increases salivation (though it has mild anti-cholinergic effect).
tricyclic antidepressants = e.g. imipramine , amitriptyline
hyperparaxia (restlessness) . hypertension crisis . convulsion . coma
ataxia . vertigo . gum hypertrophy . hirsutism . megaloblastic anemia (due to folic acid deficiency)
due its sedating property, wide range of drug-drug interactions and can depress our cognitive functions. It can also induce osteoporosis with prolonged use. It's preferably to be used in refractory cases of epilepsy only.
nitrous oxide : lower solubility halothane : higher solubility
desflurane (because it can cause respiratory infection - cough, bronchospasm)
pyridoxine (vitamin B6) can decrease the effect of levodopa.
We don't give levodopa to: . psychiatric patients (because it will antagonize the effect of antipsychotics) . glaucoma patients (because it can increase our intraocular pressure) . peptic ulcer patients (because it might cause hemorrhage)
Although levodopa can cross our BBB, but it will be decarboxylated to dopamine peripherally before reaching our CNS - only small amount of Levodopa will be left and available to pass our BBB. So, instead of giving levodopa in high dose (which can cause lots of side effects), we give levodopa with...
Bromocriptine (dopaminergic agonist drug) has longer duration of action than levodopa (dopamine precursor).
Selegiline and rasagiline are "monoamine oxidase B inhibitors" that have been used in treating Parkinson's disease. Selegiline will be metabolized to amphetamine and methamphetamine, and can subsequently lead to insomnia. On the other hand, rasagiline won't be metabolized and it's also more potent.
fentanyl + droperidol (antipsychotic) = patient remain conscious and cooperative
An anesthetic state that may be induced if neuroleptic-opiod combination is ineffective. In addition to a neuroleptic and an opioid (droperidol + fentanyl), concurrent administration of 65% nitrous oxide (laughing gas)= patient will be unconscious.
seizures . hallucination . and if taken with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, they might cause : excitement, convulsion and hyperthermia
We don't give morphine for patients suffering from: . head injury : because it can depress the respiratory centre and increase intracranial pressure . bronchial asthma : because histamine release will cause bronchiol-constriction . pregnancy : might lead to fetal respiratory depression and...
Synapses are the junction point (the gap) between neurons, whereby two or more neurons can join to pass neurotransmitters, thereby increasing or decreasing the likelihood that a signal can be transmitted downstream in a neural network.
No. When you are born, you have the most neurons you will ever have. Until you are in your early 20's your brain continues to "trim" neurons from your brain, a mechanism that aids in learning and development. After this point, as you age, you begin to lose neurons, simply from age. After brain...
A neuron is called a inter-neuron because that specific neuron takes impulse from one neuron to a next neuron. For example your sensory neuron sends a impulse that you had felt a hot object. It goes through the spine to a inter-neuron to a motor neuron (this processes is called a reflex). Then the...
Tricyclics are more potent antidepressants compared to the newer SSRIs. The reason SSRIs tend to be prescribed more, however, is because tricyclics are less well tolerated due to their antimuscarinic effects, such as: dryness of mouth, constipation, dizziness, abnormal heart rhythm, blurred vision...
Depends on your qualification, experience and the job you are applying for.
Good feelings are primary controlled by the mesolimbic (reward) circuit in the brain. Dopamine is released from these nerves, sending a signal forward into the prefrontal cortex, where the pleasure signal enters consciousness. An excess of dopamine release in the mesolimbic circuit creates feelings...
On intradermal injection of histamine the following three reaction occurs 1. Red spot formation - due to intense capillary dilation 2. Wheal formation -due to exudation of fluid from capillaries and vanules 3. Flare formation - due to arteriolar dilation mediated by axon reflex
One of the defining properties of a neurotransmitter is that is must be synthesized in the neuron. The brain does not synthesize methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is introduced exogenously and exerts its effects on a neurotranmitter system called the 'adrenergic system'.. Methamphetamine also has a...
yan ung pagliyad liyad pampaibay ng tite
Amino acids contain acid groups and amino groups alternately.
By having fun! Massage, hugging, kissing, holding hands, controlled sex (like tantra), hanging with friends, cuddling, eye gazing, etc. A good book for reference is The Chemistry of Connection.
Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are sympathetic neurotransmitters that: - increase excitatory neurotransmission in the central and autonomic nervous systems - induce vasoconstriction (increasing blood pressure, shunting blood away from the surface of tissues, etc.) ...
It is an Antipsychotic medication
Some commonly used tricyclic antidepressants are amitriptyline (Elavil), desipramine (Norpramin), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and protriptyline (Vivactil).
Named for their three-ring chemical structure
used to treat mental depression.reduce symptoms such as extreme sadness,hopelessness,and lack of energy.also used to treat bulimia,cocaine withdrawal,panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorders,.types of chronic pain,and bed-wetting in children
Tricyclic antidepressants are available only with a physician's prescription and are sold in tablet, capsule, liquid, and injectable forms
In pharmacokinetics, it represents: - A bsorption - substance enters blood circulation - D istribution - substance is carried through the fluids and tissues of the body - M etabolism - substance is chemically processed/transformed into one or more other substances (called metabolites) - E...
.Anyone who takes these drugs should not drive, use machines or do anything else that might be dangerous until they have found out how the drugs affect them.tell the health care professional in charge before having any surgical or dental procedures.
Since their discovery in the 1950s, tricyclic antidepressants have been used to treat mental depression.
It produces all the proteins for the dendrites, axons and synaptic terminals and contains specialized organelles such as the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, secretory granules, ribosomes and polysomes to provide energy and make the parts, as well as a production line to...
Multiple receptor subtypes allow for more "fine-tuned" neuromodulation of a given "signal" in a neural network. Each receptor subtype typically has a different binding affinity for the given neurotransmitter. Therefore, the neurotransmitter may bind more strongly or more weakly to one subtype over...
Yes, there are many nerve types present in skin. Most detect compression and heat/cold.
mRNA-moves from nucleus to cytoplasm to get transcribed by ribosome. rRNA- ribosomal RNA that is in splicesomes tRNA-transfer RNA that brings nucleotide bases to the mRNA strand being coded. tRNA matches its anticodon with the mRNA codon to make the polypeptide. Source: AP Biology student
When chemicals contact the surface of a neuron, they change the balance of ions (electrically charged atoms) between the inside and outside of the cell membrane. When this change reaches a threshold level, this effect runs across the cell's membrane to the axon. When it reaches the axon, it...
The drug acamprosate is one such substance that is used to treat alcohol dependence and can cause dystonia. It binds with GABA-A receptors, which is an inhibitory system, reducing neurotransmission and muscle contraction, and can result in dystonia.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) achieve their therapeutic effect by modifying synaptic availability of the neurotransmitter serotinin. This is accomplished, first of all, by blocking the proteins that normally transport serotonin back into the cells that release them (presynaptic...
It blocks the voltage-gated Na+ channels.
A neuron (nerve cell) receives dendritic input in order to generate action potentials to transmit signals of the same. After the action potential triggers release of neurotransmitters in the axonal terminal of that neuron, those neurotransmitters propagate the signal forward to the next neuron, and...
Cannabinoids and amphetamine-like stimulants are two completelydifferent psychotropic compounds. While cannabinoids (like marijuana, THC) bind with cannabinoidreceptors and potentiate GABA activity, thereby slowing firingpatterns of neurons (particularly in the hippocampus and temporallobe),...
The SSRIs can be both CYP450 enzyme inhibitors AND inducers. Inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of drugs, causing the body to have increased levels of that drug. Inducers speed of the metabolism of a drug, causing the body to inactivate/eliminate to a further extent than it normally would. It depends...
When an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor binds with acetylcholinesterase, regardless of whether it is reversible or irreversible, it prevents the ability of AChE to bind with acetylcholine (ACh) and break it down. Therefore, ACh accumulates in the synaptic gap, causing the postsynaptic neuron...
The receptors are located primarily in the limbic system of the brain. The limbic system is a region in the brain containing structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The region plays a role in a variety of functions such as emotion and behavior, long-term memory and smell.
Answer . Feelings of "unreality" are often called "derealization," "depersonalization," or "dissociation." This can be caused by a number of things, including depression, PTSD, anxiety, etc. A mental health professional can help determine the contributing factors and appropriate treatment. It can...
\nI RECENTLY PURCHASED AN 11-87 SPORTSMAN WITH THE CANTILEVERED SLUG BARREL,IT'S THE SAME GUN AS THE PREMIER EXCEPT MATTE BLACK AND ABOUT 100 BUCKS LESS. \nI AM SET UP WITH A NIKON PROSTAFF 2-7X SCOPE. ONCE I GOT ON THE PAPER AT 50\nYARDS, I WAS ABLE TO DIAL IN FOR A DELIBERATE 1.5" HIGH HIT USING...
no it doesnt, it has 3 alcohol groups, it is a triol the molecular formula is C3H5(OH)3 there is no nitrogen
Neuropharmacology - journal - was created in 1962.