Ruminants and Monogastrics

Ruminants are those animals that have a multiple-chambered stomach designed to digest herbaceous matter such as grass by the process of fermentation. Monogastrics are those animals that have a single-stomach that is designed for digestion of animal protein and highly-digestible phyto-nutrients such as fruits and grains. Questions about ruminants and monogastrics, including those about psuedo-ruminants (animals that have a single stomach like a monogastric but have their main fermentation vat in the cecum), can be asked and answered here.

1,168 Questions
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are ruminants?

Ruminants are animals that have a four-chambered stomachs designed for digesting coarse plant matter. They are also called fore-gut fermentors because one of the chambers, the rumen, is responsible for the fermentation and digestion of forage through the use of microflora in the rumen. Ruminants are also known to regurgitate and chew a bolus of partially digested matter called cud.

Ruminant animals include the following:

  • Cattle
  • Bison
  • Sheep
  • Goats
  • Antelope
  • Deer
  • Caribou/Reindeer
  • Moose
  • Elk
  • Buffalo
  • Giraffe

Camels, alpacas and llamas, though they too chew cud like ruminant animals, are actually not true ruminants. They are called "pseudo-ruminants" because they only have two forestomachs (three stomach chambers) and lack a rumen.

Horses, rabbits, pigs, humans, bears and many other animals are non-ruminants because all listed only have a simple stomach. These simple-stomached animals are called "Monogastrics." Horses, rabbits and hares are capable of being strictly herbivorous due to a large functional cecum connecting to the large intestine which is where the main fermentation of digesta occurs. Not only are they monogastrics, but they are also called "hind-gut fermentors" due to this. By contrast, ruminants and psuedo-ruminants are called "fore-gut fermentors" because the fermentation occurs before the stomach--being the "abomasum"--hence the fact that they have three (ruminants) or two (pseudo-ruminants) "forestomachs."
Ruminant animals are animals with a complex / four chamber stomach
Ruminants are those animals that are able to chew cud and have more than one chamber in their stomach. Such animals include cattle, sheep, deer, bison, moose, caribou, antelope, etc.

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are four chambers of a ruminants stomach?

Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum, Abomasum.

Goats and Sheep
Ruminants and Monogastrics

Do sheep ruminate?

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Cattle Diets and Nutrition
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What is the difference between a cow and a dogs digestive system?

Dogs are monogastrics. Cows are ruminants. Monogastrics have one simple stomach: Ruminants have a complex four-chambered stomach.

Cattle Diets and Nutrition
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What factors affect feed digestibility?

The factors that affect digestibility of a feed are fat or energy content, crude protein content, fiber content and water content.

Digestive System
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What is so special about ruminants digestive system?

A ruminant's digestive tract has 4 sections to its stomach. Because the plant matter that most ruminants enjoy is hard to digest, ruminants have to regurgitate food to chew it again (e.i., "chewing the cud"). The four stomachs allow the hard-to-digest food to be digested many times.

Word and Phrase Origins
Sentence and Word Structure
Example Sentences
Ruminants and Monogastrics

Can you use ruminate in a sentence?

Mary decided to ruminate over what to do with her spare cash, instead of spending it impulsively.

Care of Horses
Ruminants and Monogastrics

Is a horse an monogastric or an ruminant?


Ruminants and Monogastrics

What three organisms would be found in the rumen?

Rumen is found in grass eating animals like sheeps etc.

Ruminants and Monogastrics

Is a pig a ruminant animal?

No, pigs are monogastrics. There is a rare kind of pig on southeast Asian Islands called a Babirusa which issupposedly ruminant to some extent, but familiar pigs are not.

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are some examples of ruminant animals?

cattle, goats, sheep, giraffes, bison, yaks, water buffalo, deer, camels, alpacas, llamas, wildebeest, antelope, pronghorn, and nilgai

Farm Animals
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are non ruminant farm animals?

the ruminants are: Goats, Deer, Cows. The psua ruminats are sheep and equine. the mono gastrics are swine and humans. the birds are located under a diffrent name with 2 stomachs

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What animals have more than one stomach?

No animals have more than one stomach, as all animals have only one stomach. But if you are referring to animals that have more than one compartment in their stomach, then here's a list of the following:

Cattle (all breeds and species)

Bison (woodland and American plains)

Sheep (domestic and wild including Dall's, Bighorn, etc.)

Goats (domestic and wild including Mountain goats)



Deer (all deer species)

Antelope (all species of antelope, including Pronghorn)



Water buffalo, Cape buffalo (and other buffalo species)


Camels (all species)

Llamas and Alpacas (all species)

Other species I missed

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What is the diet of a non-ruminant animal?

Pretty much anything other than grass.

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are the seven levels of living organism classification?

1) kingdom

2) phylum

3) class

4) order

5) family

6) genus

7) species

Ruminants and Monogastrics

Is a deer a monogastric or ruminant?

They are ruminants.

Animal Life
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are all of the animals that chew their cud and have split hooves?

All animals under Order Artiodactyla Suborder Ruminantia chew cud and have split or cloven hooves. Families Antilocapridae, Bovidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, Moschidae and Tragulidae are all under this suborder and contain the following animals that chew cud:

Family Antilocapridae:
  • Common Pronghorn
  • Mexican Pronghorn
  • Lower Californian Pronghorn
  • Sonoran Pronghorn
  • Oregon Pronghorn
Family Bovidae:
  • Domestic Cattle & Zebu
  • Yak
  • American Bison (Woods and Plains)
  • Springbok
  • Guar
  • Domestic Asian Water Buffalo
  • Wild Asian Water Buffalo
  • African Cape Buffalo
  • Muskox
  • Banteng
  • Grey Rhebok
  • Chiru or Tibetan Antelope
  • Gayal
  • Four-horned Antelope
  • Nilgai/Blue-bull
  • Lowland Anoa
  • Mountain Anoa
  • Tamaraw
  • Cebu Tamaraw
  • Auroch (extinct)
  • Kouprey
  • Saola
  • Wisent
  • Bongo
  • Greater Kudu
  • Lesser Kudu
  • Kewel
  • Imbabala
  • Mountain nyala
  • Nyala
  • Sitatunga
  • Common Eland
  • Giant Eland
  • Abbott's Duiker
  • Ader's Duiker
  • Bay Duiker
  • Black Duiker
  • Black-fronted Duiker
  • Brook's Duiker
  • Harvey's Duiker
  • Jenink's Duiker
  • Ogilby's Duiker
  • Peter's Duiker
  • Red-Flanked Duiker
  • Red Forest Duiker
  • Ruwenzori Duiker
  • Weyn's Duiker
  • White-Bellied Duiker
  • Yellow-backed Duiker
  • Zebra Duiker
  • Blue Duiker
  • Maxwell's Duiker
  • Walter's Duiker
  • Common Duiker
  • Roan Antelope
  • Sable Antelope
  • Giant Sable Antelope
  • East African Oryx
  • Scimitar Oryx
  • Gremsbok
  • Arabian Oryx
  • Addax
  • Dibatag
  • Blackbuck
  • Mongalla Gazelle
  • Red-Fronted Gazells
  • Thomson's Gazelle
  • Heuglin's Gazelle
  • Chinkara or Indian Gazelle
  • Dorcas Gazelle
  • Mountain Gazelle
  • Speke's Gazelle
  • Cuvier's Gazelle
  • Rhim Gazelle or Slender-horned Gazelle
  • Goitered Gazelle
  • Gerenuk
  • Dama Gazelle
  • Grant's Gazelle
  • Soemmerring's Gazelle
  • Zeren
  • Goa
  • Przewalski's Gazelle
  • Tibetan Antelope
  • Saiga
  • Beira
  • Günther's Dik-dik
  • Kirk's Dik-dik
  • Silver Dik-dik
  • Salt's Dik-dik
  • Suni
  • Royal Antelope
  • Klipspringer
  • Oribi
  • Steenbok
  • Cape Grysbok
  • Sharpe's Grysbok
  • Takin
  • Muskox
  • Barbary Sheep
  • Arabian tahr
  • Wild Goat
  • Domestic Goat
  • West Caucasian Tur
  • East Caucasian Tur
  • Markhor
  • Alpine Ibex
  • Nubian Ibex
  • Spanish Ibex
  • Siberian Ibex
  • Walia Ibex
  • Himalayan Tahr
  • Argali
  • Domestic Sheep
  • American Bighorn Sheep
  • Dall's or Thinhorn Sheep
  • European Mouflon
  • Snow Sheep
  • Urial
  • Nilgiri Tahrs
  • Bharal (Himalayan Blue Sheep)
  • Dwarf Blue Sheep
  • Japanese Serow
  • Sumatran Serow
  • Taiwan Serow
  • Chinese Serow
  • Red Serow
  • Himalayan Serow
  • Red Goral
  • Chinese Goral
  • Grey Goral
  • Long-tailed Goral
  • Mountain Goat
  • Pyrenean Chamois
  • Chamois
  • Upemba Lechwe
  • Waterbuck
  • Kob
  • Lechwe
  • Nile Lechwe
  • Puku
  • Southern Reedbuck
  • Mountain Reedbuck
  • Bohor Reedbuck
  • Black-faced Impala
  • Common Impala
  • Hirola
  • Korrigum
  • Topi
  • Coastal Topi
  • Tsessebe
  • Bontebok
  • Blesbok
  • Bangweulu Tsessebe
  • Coke's Hartebeest
  • Lelwel Hartebeest
  • Western Hartebeest
  • Swayne's Hartebeest
  • Tora Hartebeest
  • Red Hartebeest
  • Lichtenstein's Hartebeest
  • Blue Wildebeest
  • Eastern White-bearded Wildebeest
  • Cookson's wildebeest
  • Nyassaland Wildebeest
  • Western White-bearded Wildebeest
Family Cervidae:
  • Southern Red Muntjac or Indian Muntjac
  • Reeves's Muntjac or Chinese Muntjac
  • Hairy-fronted Muntjac or Black Muntjac
  • Fea's Muntjac
  • Bornean Yellow Muntjac
  • Gongshan muntjac
  • Giant Muntjac
  • Truong Son Muntjac
  • Roosevelt's Muntjac
  • Leaf Muntjac
  • Sumatran Muntjac
  • Pu Hoat Muntjac
  • Tufted Deer
  • Fallow Deer
  • Persian Fallow Deer
  • Chital or Axis deer
  • Barasingha
  • Eld's Deer
  • Père David's Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Calamian Deer
  • Bawean Deer
  • Sambar
  • Sunda Sambar or Rusa Deer
  • Philippine Sambar
  • Philippine Spotted Deer or Visayan Spotted Deer
  • Red Deer
  • Corsican Red Deer
  • Yarkand Deer
  • Bactrian Deer
  • Kashmir Stag
  • Maral Deer
  • Tibetan Wapiti
  • Sichuan Wapiti
  • Manchurian Wapiti
  • American Wapiti (more commonly known as "Elk" in North America)
  • Sika Deer
  • Thorold's Deer
  • Moose (also called "Elk" outside of North America)
  • European Roe Deer
  • Siberian Roe Deer
  • Chinese water deer
  • Peary Caribou
  • Porcupine or Grant's Caribou
  • Mountain Reindeer
  • Barren-Ground Caribou
  • Svalbard Reindeer
  • Finnish Forest Reindeer
  • Woodland Caribou
  • Queen Charlotte Islands Caribou
  • Taruca or North Andean Deer
  • Chilean Huemul or South Andean Deer
  • Red Brocket
  • Small Red Brocket or Bororo
  • Merida Brocket
  • Dwarf Brocket
  • Gray Brocket
  • Pygmy Brocket
  • Amazonian Brown Brocket
  • Yucatan Brown Brocket
  • Little Red Brocket
  • Central American Red Brocket
  • Marsh Deer
  • Pampas deer
  • Northern Pudú
  • Southern Pudú
  • White-tailed deer
  • Mule deer
  • Black-tailed deer
Family Giraffidae:
  • Nubian Giraffe
  • Reticulated or Somali Giraffe
  • Angolan or Smoky Giraffe
  • Kordofan Giraffe
  • Kilimanjaro or Maasai Giraffe
  • Rothschild, Baringo or Ugandan Giraffe
  • South African Giraffe
  • Thornicraft or Rhodesian Giraffe
  • West African or Nigerian Giraffe
  • Okapi
Family Moschidae:
  • Alpine Musk Deer
  • Siberian Musk Deer
  • Dwarf Musk Deer
  • Black Musk Deer
  • Anhui Musk Deer
  • Kashmir Musk Deer
  • White-Bellied Musk Deer
Family Tragulidae:
  • Water Chevrotain
  • Indian Spotted Chevrotain
  • Sri Lankan Spotted Chevrotain
  • Yellow-striped Chevrotain
  • Java Mouse-deer
  • Lesser Mouse-deer or Kanchil
  • Greater Mouse-deer
  • Philippine Mouse-deer
  • Vietnam Mouse-deer
  • Williamson's Mouse-deer
Ruminants and Monogastrics

Is a impala a ruminant?

Yes, an impala is an ruminant

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What's the function of the reticulum?

The reticulum is the hardware stomach, which collects bits of wire, nails, and other foreign objects that the animal has swallowed along with the feed it ingested.

Pregnancy Tests
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What test will be given to me as being high risk pregnancy due to my age?

This is difficult to answer. Not sure what you're meaning, but from I'll say when I think you're asking. To find out about pregnancy you see a gynochologist. However, they will only perform the tests needed if you have been trying to have a child for over three years. If you are young, it doesn't matter, always use protection! If you are over fifty and still do not want a baby, use protection no matter what your doctor says. I know woman who were told they can not conceive a child, they all had a child!

Animal Life
Ruminants and Monogastrics

What animals are non-ruminant?

Non-ruminants are also called "monogastrics"--animals with a single-compartment stomach. (Ruminant stomachs have four compartments.) Examples of mongastric animals are humans, primates, swine, dogs, cats, and even horses. There are several ways to distinguish ruminants from non-ruminant animals: Ruminants likely have cloven hooves (but then, again, so do swine) AND they regurgitate and "chew their cud." That is, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, buffalo, etc, are all ruminants. If one observes them closely while they are "resting," they will often regurgitate a small bolus of feed/mass of grass (a "cud") and chew it to further break down the feed/ingesta. Other animals that are "non-ruminant" are birds, fish, all kinds of reptiles, amoebas, protozoa, bacteria, etc. So, it may be easier to identify ruminants than to identify what animals are non-ruminant!

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What are the differences between the stomach of a ruminant and the stomach of a non-ruminant?

Ruminants have a compartmentalised stomach. There are 4 compartments, the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. A non ruminant does not have a compartmentalised stomach, the non ruminants stomach has similar fucntions to that of the abomasum in the ruminants

Ruminants and Monogastrics

Are humans non ruminant animal?

Yes. A ruminant animal chews its cud (grass material brought back up out of a stomach). Humans do not chew cud, ergo, are not ruminant animals.

Cattle Diets and Nutrition
Ruminants and Monogastrics

To access the rumen of a cow surgically a veterinarian would make an incision in the?

The left Abdomen

Ruminants and Monogastrics

What is the third division of a ruminant's stomach called?



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