Pathology is the scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences. It deals with the study of mechanisms and manifestations of disease, and involves the study of bodily changes that occur as the result of disease. This category is for questions about pathology, the study of disease and its causes, development, and consequences.

1,518 Questions

What causes small white bumps on the surface of the tongue and welts on the back of the tongue?

There are a variety of reasons you could have white bumps and welts on your tongue. Several are reactions to life choices: acid reflux disease, tobacco use, alcohol use and small burns from very spicy or very hot foods. Some are infectious: human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus, candidiasis (thrush) or bacterial stomatitis. Classically, white bumps in the oral cavity is also associated with severe Vitamin A deficiency, although other vitamins may cause this as well.

Lack of certain B vitamins can cause tongue problems. Adelle Davis, the popular nutritional author of the 1960s and '70s, describes them in her books, "Let's Eat Right to Get Fit" and "Let's Get Well."

Skeletal System

Why do you have water in your pelvis?

There are several reasons for water in your pelvis. One is edema or ascites from a cardiovascular problem. Another is infection in the pelvic cavity. This can also be associated with trauma, injury or cancer.

Some women find they become bloated just prior to or during their menstruation; this resolves as the menstruation ends.


Are all metaplastic cells precancerous?

Not necessarily, although in general a metaplastic cell is abnormal. A cell can also be metaplastic due to incomplete differentiation or due to dedifferentiation.


What is the inflammatory cells making a tubercle?

A tubercule is an inflammatory nodule; most commonly this is in response to an intracellular bacteria (such as Mycobacterium) that the body is unable to get rid of. The inflammatory cells associated with the tubercule are macrophages (large cells that are trying to eat and break down the bacteria but are unable to) and fibroblasts (long spindly cells that are trying to make a shell of scar tissue to contain the bacteria).


Why is my groin aching after biopsy procedure?

The needles used to take the biopsy can leave a soreness that may last a couple of days.


Which diagnostic tools will be useful in determining liver pathology?


What are hyperchromatic nuclei?

A hyperchromatic nucleus (plural, nuclei) is a nucleus that takes up more stain than expected on a slide. It can be an indication of over-active nuclear function, which may be an early indication of either cancerous changes or of a cell that is responding vigorously to damage or other stimulus.

Forensic Science

What personal qualities needed to do forensic pathology?

Leadership, Patience, Open Mind, Bravery, Steady

Hand, Smart, Fearless.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What causes third spacing?

Third-spacing refers to a situation in which fluid shifts out of the blood into a body cavity or tissue where it is no longer available as ciculating fluid. Examples include peritonitis, the inflammation and infection of the peritoneal membranes, and burns, in which extensive inflammation of the skin and underlying tissues causes fluid to shift out of the blood, causing edema. The result of of this shift is a fluid deficit in the vascular compartment (hypervolemia) and a fluid excess in interstitial space. Until this cause is removed, fluid remains in the "third-space"--in the body but is not a functional part of the circulating fluids.

Stomach and Abdominal Pain

What is gastric mucosal abnormality caused by erythema?

I'll start by breaking down the medical terms. "Gastric" refers to the stomach. "Mucosal" refers to the inside lining, where the acid-secreting glands are. "Erythema" means redness, usually caused by too much blood in an area.

Putting this back together, the report indicates an excess of blood in the lining of the stomach. The use of "abnormality" means the cause of the blood hasn't been determined, which may be good or bad. Typically cancer and infection are pretty easy to identify, unless it is an unusual type or particularly aggressive.

Unless your doctor is worried about this, I wouldn't be too concerned. You may have simply had some stress that caused the stomach lining to be extra red.


Why every Hospital Pathology Laboratory should have central processing section?

I think that to know every thing around them.

Men's Health

Can dehydration affect sexual function?

Dehydration can affect almost every aspect of health, including sexual function. When a person is dehydrated, they are tired and won't have the stamina that a normal person would. They also have less fluid in their bodies, so they would have less ejaculate and less lubrication. It can also lower blood pressure so the person may feel more lightheaded and not perform as well.

Conditions and Diseases
Lymphatic System

What is the purpose of a lymph node biopsy?

The purpose of a lymph node biopsy is to determine the cause of the swelling and/or to see if cancer has begun to spread through the lymph system.


What is pathology?

Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells and body fluids.
Study of disease


What does thickening of the bladder mean?

The wall of the urinary bladder should not be > 3 mm thick when distended and not > 5 mm thick when decompressed. The thickened wall could be due to the edema (swelling) of the wall which can happen due to the inflammation(cystitis) or the thickening could be due to the deposition of urinary sediments on the walls of the bladder. These are the 2 commonest causes. Bladder cancer is another cause. Generally if you are diagnosed with thickening of the bladder you will be sent to a urologist and have a cystoscopy performed.


What is individual pathology?

Individual pathology is a term used to refer to biological or psychological explanations of criminal or deviant behaviour by individuals.

Circulatory System

What are some pathological diseases of the circulatory system?

The circulatory system, now generally referred to as the cardiovascular system, can be affected by a variety of diseases that can be broadly classified as infectious, inflammatory, degenerative or cancerous.

An example of an infectious disease of the cardiovascular system would be bacterial endocarditis. This is when a bacteria become attached to one or more valves of the heart and set up a localized infection.

An example of an inflammatory disease of the cardiovascular system would be athlerosclerosis. This is when inflammatory mediators cause the lining of the blood vessels to become "sticky", which allows cholesterol molecules to be deposited in the walls of the vessels. The cholesterol hardens the arteries, making them more likely to rupture or become blocked.

An example of a degenerative disease of the cardiovascular system would be endocardiosis. This is a chronic disease in which the valves of the heart slowly degenerate and become less competent at closing the openings between the heart chambers. Eventually this can lead to congestive heart failure if it becomes bad enough.

An example of a cancerous disease of the cardiovascular system would be hemangiosarcoma. This is a neoplasia that arises from the lining of the blood vessels and branches off from normal vessels to create very fragile pseudo-vessels. Unfortunately, one of the more common symptoms of this cancer is sudden death; thankfully in humans this cancer is relatively rare.

Laboratory Testing

How long does it take to get results for brain tumor biopsy?

Usually about 7 days - 10 days in th U.K and then you will be asked to come back and see the specialist for your results.

Digestive System
Macular Degeneration

What is hydropic degeneration?

Hydropic degeneration is a condition in which excessive amounts of water accumulate in dysfunctional cells. In general, hydropic degeneration is reversible, provided the inciting cause is resolved prior to cell death.

Hydropic degeneration is commonly seen in cells collected from areas of edema.


Can adrenaline stop bleeding?

Adrenaline (epinephrine) can help stop bleeding because it is a vasoconstrictor.


What are the respiratory sounds heard upon auscultation denoting pathology?


English Language
Mycology or Fungi

What is the definition of fungi?

sing. fungus

this is whta i learned abought fungus.

Lichens are underground. They reproduce by sporangium. The tree different types are fungi like, animal like, plant like. I think there are 5 different kinds of fungi here they are. One is club that would be mushrooms. Another one is sac fungi an example would be mold ect. One of the other is zygote fungi. That makes alcohol and wine, well it fertile it, it also makes carbon dioxide witch they use to make bread rise such as yeast. The last one is imperfect fungi, and yes there are only four that I could think of. The thing that imperfect fungi makes is well doesn't makes but causes athletes foot the thing we all hate. Those are what I think they are I might not be completely right. But I know those are all true. Club fungi use curves to produce. That is the thing when you look under the mushroom. Zygote fungi I think reproduces by sporangium. Then I forget witch one but one of them reproduces by budding. Just like in figure 12. Haha that all might not be right but one of them uses budding. I also learned that you are not allowed well not allowed is not true you are not suppose to eat wild fungi because it might be piousness. I also know there is a type or all of them break down or eat dead organisms. That is helpful because if they didn't the whole world would be full of sewage, and dead animals.
fungi are Eukaryotic ,achlorophyllus organisms consisting of filamentous , aseptate or septate, somatic structures called HYPHAE.
Fungi are spore bearing organism that lack chlorophyll and reproduce by sexual and asexual method

Women's Health

How long should it take to get the results of a biopsy?

Unfortunately, in the U.S. and Canada our Health Care is over-loaded so a biopsy can take up to several days to even two to three weeks. Please phone your doctor's office after a week has gone by and they can give you an approximate time as to when your biopsy results should be in.

I know waiting for a biopsy is very difficult and it seems to be the worst part in the whole process.


What are the three primary goals of the inflammatory response?

isolate invader, destroy it, and clean up debris


What is the name given to a person who takes a blood sample?

Many different people can take blood samples, all the way from physicians, to nurses, techs, and phlebotomists.

I am guessing you are asking about phlebotomists, however.


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