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Bachelors Degrees

A bachelor’s degree is typically an academic degree conferred for an undergraduate major or course that usually lasts for four year, but can range between two and six years depending on the country.

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Which core leader competency do you create promulgate a vision of the future?

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Leads.

The Army Core Leader Competency where you create and promulgate a vision for the future is "Leads Others." Creating and promulgating a vision of the future helps leaders execute their mission. Leaders who are able to instill their vision in their subordinates can avoid common leader missteps, such as micromanagement, by giving their subordinates the vision and guidance they need to act.

The Army Core Leader Competencies provide a clear and consistent way of conveying expectations for Army leaders. The 3 competencies are:

  1. Leads
  2. Develops
  3. Achieves

What kind of bachelor's degree should a pre-law student get?

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Individuals who pursue a career as a lawyer come from a variety of educational backgrounds. Read the following carefully.

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a lawyer. Formal requirements to become a lawyer usually include a 4-year college degree, 3 years of law school, and passing a written bar examination; however, some requirements may vary by State. Competition for admission to most law schools is intense. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. Education and training.Becoming a lawyer usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school-4 years of undergraduate study, followed by 3 years of law school. Law school applicants must have a bachelor's degree to qualify for admission. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions. Although there is no recommended "prelaw" undergraduate major, prospective lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically-skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the law. Regardless of major, a multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English, foreign languages, public speaking, government, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For example, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax lawyers must have extensive knowledge of accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant's ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant's undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes, a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight they place on each of these and other factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association require applicants to take the LSAT. As of 2006, there were 195 ABA-accredited law schools; others were approved by State authorities only. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then submits the applicants' LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. The Law School Admission Council administers both this service and the LSAT. Competition for admission to many law schools-especially the most prestigious ones-is usually intense, with the number of applicants greatly exceeding the number that can be admitted. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students usually study core courses, such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may choose specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate law. Law students often gain practical experience by participating in school-sponsored legal clinics; in the school's moot court competitions, in which students conduct appellate arguments; in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges; and through research and writing on legal issues for the school's law journals. A number of law schools have clinical programs in which students gain legal experience through practice trials and projects under the supervision of lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid offices, for example, or on legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience. Such training can lead directly to a job after graduation and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Law school graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.), a first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which usually require an additional semester or year of study. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including business administration or public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practices. In 2006, 43 States and jurisdictions required lawyers to participate in mandatory continuing legal education. Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. Some States allow continuing education credits to be obtained through participation in seminars on the Internet. Licensure.To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. All States require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination; most States also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one State occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking another examination if they meet the latter jurisdiction's standards of good moral character and a specified period of legal experience. In most cases, however, lawyers must pass the bar examination in each State in which they plan to practice. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must earn a college degree and graduate from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. ABA accreditation signifies that the law school, particularly its library and faculty, meets certain standards. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 48 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of their overall bar examination; the MBE is not required in Louisiana or Washington. The MBE covers a broad range of issues, and sometimes a locally prepared State bar examination is given in addition to it. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the bar examination in several States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. Many States also require Multistate Performance Testing to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers. Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam and is a one-time requirement. In 2007, law school graduates in 52 jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. Other qualifications. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Individuals planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Perseverance, creativity, and reasoning ability also are essential to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases and handle new and unique legal problems. Advancement. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired attorneys usually start as associates and work with more experienced lawyers or judges. After several years, some lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm, which means they are partial owners of the firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some experienced lawyers are nominated or elected to judgeships. (See the section on judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Others become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number of these lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or managerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation's legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What is the major to become a lawyer?

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Those who pursue law school come from a variety of educational backgrounds. You will most always hear them say they are in pre-law. Still, there is no such thing as a degree in pre-law. It is a curriculum track to ensure the student is taking the appropriate prerequisites required by law schools. Thus, their actual major can be in most any area. Read the following carefully and follow through on the link provided below this answer box. It should be of great value to you.

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a lawyer. Formal requirements to become a lawyer usually include a 4-year college degree, 3 years of law school, and passing a written bar examination; however, some requirements may vary by State. Competition for admission to most law schools is intense. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. Education and training.Becoming a lawyer usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school-4 years of undergraduate study, followed by 3 years of law school. Law school applicants must have a bachelor's degree to qualify for admission. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions. Although there is no recommended "prelaw" undergraduate major, prospective lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically-skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the law. Regardless of major, a multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English, foreign languages, public speaking, government, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For example, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax lawyers must have extensive knowledge of accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant's ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant's undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes, a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight they place on each of these and other factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association require applicants to take the LSAT. As of 2006, there were 195 ABA-accredited law schools; others were approved by State authorities only. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then submits the applicants' LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. The Law School Admission Council administers both this service and the LSAT. Competition for admission to many law schools-especially the most prestigious ones-is usually intense, with the number of applicants greatly exceeding the number that can be admitted. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students usually study core courses, such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may choose specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate law. Law students often gain practical experience by participating in school-sponsored legal clinics; in the school's moot court competitions, in which students conduct appellate arguments; in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges; and through research and writing on legal issues for the school's law journals. A number of law schools have clinical programs in which students gain legal experience through practice trials and projects under the supervision of lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid offices, for example, or on legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience. Such training can lead directly to a job after graduation and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Law school graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.), a first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which usually require an additional semester or year of study. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including business administration or public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practices. In 2006, 43 States and jurisdictions required lawyers to participate in mandatory continuing legal education. Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. Some States allow continuing education credits to be obtained through participation in seminars on the Internet. Licensure.To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. All States require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination; most States also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one State occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking another examination if they meet the latter jurisdiction's standards of good moral character and a specified period of legal experience. In most cases, however, lawyers must pass the bar examination in each State in which they plan to practice. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must earn a college degree and graduate from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. ABA accreditation signifies that the law school, particularly its library and faculty, meets certain standards. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 48 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of their overall bar examination; the MBE is not required in Louisiana or Washington. The MBE covers a broad range of issues, and sometimes a locally prepared State bar examination is given in addition to it. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the bar examination in several States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. Many States also require Multistate Performance Testing to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers. Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam and is a one-time requirement. In 2007, law school graduates in 52 jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. Other qualifications. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Individuals planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Perseverance, creativity, and reasoning ability also are essential to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases and handle new and unique legal problems. Advancement. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired attorneys usually start as associates and work with more experienced lawyers or judges. After several years, some lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm, which means they are partial owners of the firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some experienced lawyers are nominated or elected to judgeships. (See the section on judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Others become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number of these lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or managerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation's legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What kind of bachelors of science degree do you need to become an engineer?

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A bachelor in science is a degree category under which many programs of study fall. You will have to choose the specific program of study. In other words, architectural, electrical, chemical, or mechanical engineering.

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for an engineer. Engineers typically enter the occupation with a bachelor's degree in an engineering specialty, but some basic research positions may require a graduate degree. Engineers offering their services directly to the public must be licensed. Continuing education to keep current with rapidly changing technology is important for engineers. Education and training. A bachelor's degree in engineering is required for almost all entry-level engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a natural science or mathematics occasionally may qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in electrical, electronics, mechanical, or civil engineering. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in related branches. For example, many aerospace engineers have training in mechanical engineering. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in which engineers may be in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects or to those that more closely match their interests. Most engineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along with courses in both mathematics and the physical and life sciences. Many programs also include courses in general engineering. A design course, sometimes accompanied by a computer or laboratory class or both, is part of the curriculum of most programs. General courses not directly related to engineering, such as those in the social sciences or humanities, are also often required. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer 2-year or 4-year degree programs in engineering technology. These programs, which usually include various hands-on laboratory classes that focus on current issues in the application of engineering principles, prepare students for practical design and production work, rather than for jobs that require more theoretical and scientific knowledge. Graduates of 4-year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor's degree in engineering. Engineering technology graduates, however, are not qualified to register as professional engineers under the same terms as graduates with degrees in engineering. Some employers regard technology program graduates as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions and many research and development programs, but is not required for the majority of entry-level engineering jobs. Many experienced engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to learn new technology and broaden their education. Many high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. About 1,830 programs at colleges and universities offer bachelor's degrees in engineering that are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), Inc., and there are another 710 accredited programs in engineering technology. ABET accreditation is based on a program's faculty, curriculum, and facilities; the achievement of a program's students; program improvements; and institutional commitment to specific principles of quality and ethics. Although most institutions offer programs in the major branches of engineering, only a few offer programs in the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some programs emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, whereas others are more theoretical and are designed to prepare students for graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curriculums and check accreditations carefully before selecting a college. Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include a solid background in mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus) and science (biology, chemistry, and physics), with courses in English, social studies, and humanities. Bachelor's degree programs in engineering typically are designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies. In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory engineering, humanities, and social sciences. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one specialty. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize on the job or in graduate school. Some engineering schools have agreements with 2-year colleges whereby the college provides the initial engineering education, and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrangements that allow students who spend 3 years in a liberal arts college studying pre-engineering subjects and 2 years in an engineering school studying core subjects to receive a bachelor's degree from each school. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master's degree programs. Some 5-year or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and to finance part of their education. Licensure. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require licensure for engineers who offer their services directly to the public. Engineers who are licensed are called professional engineers (PE). This licensure generally requires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, 4 years of relevant work experience, and successful completion of a State examination. Recent graduates can start the licensing process by taking the examination in two stages. The initial Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination can be taken upon graduation. Engineers who pass this examination commonly are called engineers in training (EIT) or engineer interns (EI). After acquiring suitable work experience, EITs can take the second examination, the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam. Several States have imposed mandatory continuing education requirements for relicensure. Most States recognize licensure from other States, provided that the manner in which the initial license was obtained meets or exceeds their own licensure requirements. Many civil, electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineers are licensed PEs. Independent of licensure, various certification programs are offered by professional organizations to demonstrate competency in specific fields of engineering. Other qualifications. Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail oriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and to communicate well, both orally and in writing. Communication abilities are becoming increasingly important as engineers frequently interact with specialists in a wide range of fields outside engineering. Certification and advancement. Beginning engineering graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in large companies, also may receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As new engineers gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult projects with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may advance to become technical specialists or to supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some may eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial or sales jobs. In sales, an engineering background enables them to discuss a product's technical aspects and assist in product planning, installation, and use. (See the statements under management and business and financial operations occupations, and the statement on sales engineers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Numerous professional certifications for engineers exist and may be beneficial for advancement to senior technical or managerial positions. Many certification programs are offered by the professional societies listed as sources of additional information for engineering specialties at the end of this statement. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What are the educational requirements to become an attorney?

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The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a lawyer. Formal requirements to become a lawyer usually include a 4-year college degree, 3 years of law school, and passing a written bar examination; however, some requirements may vary by State. Competition for admission to most law schools is intense. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. Education and training.Becoming a lawyer usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school-4 years of undergraduate study, followed by 3 years of law school. Law school applicants must have a bachelor's degree to qualify for admission. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions. Although there is no recommended "prelaw" undergraduate major, prospective lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically-skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the law. Regardless of major, a multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English, foreign languages, public speaking, government, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For example, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax lawyers must have extensive knowledge of accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant's ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant's undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes, a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight they place on each of these and other factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association require applicants to take the LSAT. As of 2006, there were 195 ABA-accredited law schools; others were approved by State authorities only. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then submits the applicants' LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. The Law School Admission Council administers both this service and the LSAT. Competition for admission to many law schools-especially the most prestigious ones-is usually intense, with the number of applicants greatly exceeding the number that can be admitted. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students usually study core courses, such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may choose specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate law. Law students often gain practical experience by participating in school-sponsored legal clinics; in the school's moot court competitions, in which students conduct appellate arguments; in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges; and through research and writing on legal issues for the school's law journals. A number of law schools have clinical programs in which students gain legal experience through practice trials and projects under the supervision of lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid offices, for example, or on legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience. Such training can lead directly to a job after graduation and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Law school graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.), a first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which usually require an additional semester or year of study. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including business administration or public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practices. In 2006, 43 States and jurisdictions required lawyers to participate in mandatory continuing legal education. Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. Some States allow continuing education credits to be obtained through participation in seminars on the Internet. Licensure.To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. All States require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination; most States also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one State occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking another examination if they meet the latter jurisdiction's standards of good moral character and a specified period of legal experience. In most cases, however, lawyers must pass the bar examination in each State in which they plan to practice. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must earn a college degree and graduate from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. ABA accreditation signifies that the law school, particularly its library and faculty, meets certain standards. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 48 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of their overall bar examination; the MBE is not required in Louisiana or Washington. The MBE covers a broad range of issues, and sometimes a locally prepared State bar examination is given in addition to it. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the bar examination in several States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. Many States also require Multistate Performance Testing to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers. Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam and is a one-time requirement. In 2007, law school graduates in 52 jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. Other qualifications. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Individuals planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Perseverance, creativity, and reasoning ability also are essential to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases and handle new and unique legal problems. Advancement. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired attorneys usually start as associates and work with more experienced lawyers or judges. After several years, some lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm, which means they are partial owners of the firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some experienced lawyers are nominated or elected to judgeships. (See the section on judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Others become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number of these lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or managerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation's legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

How long do you have to attend college to becom a teacher?

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The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a teacher. The traditional route to becoming a public school teacher involves completing a bachelor's degree from a teacher education program and then obtaining a license. However, most States now offer alternative routes to licensure for those who have a college degree in other fields. Private school teachers do not have to be licensed but still need a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree may not be needed by preschool teachers and vocational education teachers, who need experience in their field rather than a specific degree. Education and training. Traditional education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses designed specifically for those preparing to teach. These courses include mathematics, physical science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Aspiring secondary school teachers most often major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking a program of study in teacher preparation. Many 4-year colleges require students to wait until their sophomore year before applying for admission to teacher education programs. To maintain their accreditation, teacher education programs are now required to include classes in the use of computers and other technologies. Most programs require students to perform a student-teaching internship. Teacher education programs are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Graduation from an accredited program is not necessary to become a teacher, but it may make fulfilling licensure requirements easier. Many States now offer professional development schools, which are partnerships between universities and elementary or secondary schools. Professional development schools merge theory with practice and allow the student to experience a year of teaching firsthand, under professional guidance. Students enter these 1-year programs after completion of their bachelor's degree. Licensure and certification. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public school teachers to be licensed. Licensure is not required for teachers in most private schools. Usually licensure is granted by the State Board of Education or a licensure advisory committee. Teachers may be licensed to teach the early childhood grades (usually preschool through grade 3); the elementary grades (grades 1 through 6 or 8); the middle grades (grades 5 through 8); a secondary-education subject area (usually grades 7 through 12); or a special subject, such as reading or music (usually grades kindergarten through 12). Requirements for regular licenses to teach kindergarten through grade 12 vary by State. However, all States require general education teachers to have a bachelor's degree and to have completed an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits, as well as supervised practice teaching. Some States also require technology training and the attainment of a minimum grade point average. A number of States require that teachers obtain a master's degree in education within a specified period after they begin teaching. Almost all States require applicants for a teacher's license to be tested for competency in basic skills, such as reading and writing, and in teaching. Almost all also require teachers to exhibit proficiency in their subject. Many school systems are presently moving toward implementing performance-based systems for licensure, which usually require teachers to demonstrate satisfactory teaching performance over an extended period in order to obtain a provisional license, in addition to passing an examination in their subject. Most States require teachers to complete a minimum number of hours of continuing education to renew their license. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers licensed in one State to become licensed in another. Licensing requirements for preschool teachers also vary by State. Requirements for public preschool teachers are generally more stringent than those for private preschool teachers. Some States require a bachelor's degree in early childhood education, while others require an associate's degree, and still others require certification by a nationally recognized authority. The Child Development Associate (CDA) credential, the most common type of certification, requires a mix of classroom training and experience working with children, along with an independent assessment of the teacher's competence. Nearly all States now also offer alternative licensure programs for teachers who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they will teach, but who lack the necessary education courses required for a regular license. Many of these alternative licensure programs are designed to ease shortages of teachers of certain subjects, such as mathematics and science. Other programs provide teachers for urban and rural schools that have difficulty filling positions with teachers from traditional licensure programs. Alternative licensure programs are intended to attract people into teaching who do not fulfill traditional licensing standards, including recent college graduates who did not complete education programs and those changing from another career to teaching. In some programs, individuals begin teaching quickly under provisional licensure under the close supervision of experienced educators while taking education courses outside school hours. If they progress satisfactorily, they receive regular licensure after working for 1 or 2 years. In other programs, college graduates who do not meet licensure requirements take only those courses that they lack and then become licensed. This approach may take 1 or 2 semesters of full-time study. The coursework for alternative certification programs often leads to a master's degree. In extreme circumstances, when schools cannot attract enough qualified teachers to fill positions, States may issue emergency licenses to individuals who do not meet the requirements for a regular license that let them begin teaching immediately. In many States, vocational teachers have many of the same licensure requirements as other teachers. However, knowledge and experience in a particular field are important, so some States will license vocational education teachers without a bachelor's degree, provided they can demonstrate expertise in their field. A minimum number of hours in education courses may also be required. Private schools are generally exempt from meeting State licensing standards. For secondary school teacher jobs, they prefer candidates who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they intend to teach, or in childhood education for elementary school teachers. They seek candidates among recent college graduates as well as from those who have established careers in other fields. Other qualifications. In addition to being knowledgeable about the subjects they teach, teachers must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand the students' educational and emotional needs. Teachers must be able to recognize and respond to individual and cultural differences in students and employ different teaching methods that will result in higher student achievement. They should be organized, dependable, patient, and creative. Teachers also must be able to work cooperatively and communicate effectively with other teachers, support staff, parents, and members of the community. Private schools associated with religious institutions also desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. Additional certifications and advancement. In some cases, teachers of kindergarten through high school may attain professional certification in order to demonstrate competency beyond that required for a license. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards offers a voluntary national certification. To become nationally certified, experienced teachers must prove their aptitude by compiling a portfolio showing their work in the classroom and by passing a written assessment and evaluation of their teaching knowledge. Currently, teachers may become certified in a variety of areas, on the basis of the age of the students and, in some cases, the subject taught. For example, teachers may obtain a certificate for teaching English language arts to early adolescents (aged 11 to 15), or they may become certified as early childhood generalists. All States recognize national certification, and many States and school districts provide special benefits to teachers who earn certification. Benefits typically include higher salaries and reimbursement for continuing education and certification fees. In addition, many States allow nationally certified teachers to carry a license from one State to another. With additional preparation, teachers may move into such positions as school librarians, reading specialists, instructional coordinators, or guidance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or supervisors, although the number of these positions is limited and competition for them can be intense. In some systems, highly qualified, experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their own teaching responsibilities. Preschool teachers usually work their way up from assistant teacher, to teacher, to lead teacher-who may be responsible for the instruction of several classes-and, finally, to director of the center. Preschool teachers with a bachelor's degree frequently are qualified to teach kindergarten through grade 3 as well. Teaching at these higher grades often results in higher pay. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

Do I need an associates or bachelor's degree to become a teacher in Mississippi?

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The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a teacher. The traditional route to becoming a public school teacher involves completing a bachelor's degree from a teacher education program and then obtaining a license. However, most States now offer alternative routes to licensure for those who have a college degree in other fields. Private school teachers do not have to be licensed but still need a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree may not be needed by preschool teachers and vocational education teachers, who need experience in their field rather than a specific degree. Education and training. Traditional education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses designed specifically for those preparing to teach. These courses include mathematics, physical science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Aspiring secondary school teachers most often major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking a program of study in teacher preparation. Many 4-year colleges require students to wait until their sophomore year before applying for admission to teacher education programs. To maintain their accreditation, teacher education programs are now required to include classes in the use of computers and other technologies. Most programs require students to perform a student-teaching internship. Teacher education programs are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Graduation from an accredited program is not necessary to become a teacher, but it may make fulfilling licensure requirements easier. Many States now offer professional development schools, which are partnerships between universities and elementary or secondary schools. Professional development schools merge theory with practice and allow the student to experience a year of teaching firsthand, under professional guidance. Students enter these 1-year programs after completion of their bachelor's degree. Licensure and certification. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public school teachers to be licensed. Licensure is not required for teachers in most private schools. Usually licensure is granted by the State Board of Education or a licensure advisory committee. Teachers may be licensed to teach the early childhood grades (usually preschool through grade 3); the elementary grades (grades 1 through 6 or 8); the middle grades (grades 5 through 8); a secondary-education subject area (usually grades 7 through 12); or a special subject, such as reading or music (usually grades kindergarten through 12). Requirements for regular licenses to teach kindergarten through grade 12 vary by State. However, all States require general education teachers to have a bachelor's degree and to have completed an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits, as well as supervised practice teaching. Some States also require technology training and the attainment of a minimum grade point average. A number of States require that teachers obtain a master's degree in education within a specified period after they begin teaching. Almost all States require applicants for a teacher's license to be tested for competency in basic skills, such as reading and writing, and in teaching. Almost all also require teachers to exhibit proficiency in their subject. Many school systems are presently moving toward implementing performance-based systems for licensure, which usually require teachers to demonstrate satisfactory teaching performance over an extended period in order to obtain a provisional license, in addition to passing an examination in their subject. Most States require teachers to complete a minimum number of hours of continuing education to renew their license. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers licensed in one State to become licensed in another. Licensing requirements for preschool teachers also vary by State. Requirements for public preschool teachers are generally more stringent than those for private preschool teachers. Some States require a bachelor's degree in early childhood education, while others require an associate's degree, and still others require certification by a nationally recognized authority. The Child Development Associate (CDA) credential, the most common type of certification, requires a mix of classroom training and experience working with children, along with an independent assessment of the teacher's competence. Nearly all States now also offer alternative licensure programs for teachers who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they will teach, but who lack the necessary education courses required for a regular license. Many of these alternative licensure programs are designed to ease shortages of teachers of certain subjects, such as mathematics and science. Other programs provide teachers for urban and rural schools that have difficulty filling positions with teachers from traditional licensure programs. Alternative licensure programs are intended to attract people into teaching who do not fulfill traditional licensing standards, including recent college graduates who did not complete education programs and those changing from another career to teaching. In some programs, individuals begin teaching quickly under provisional licensure under the close supervision of experienced educators while taking education courses outside school hours. If they progress satisfactorily, they receive regular licensure after working for 1 or 2 years. In other programs, college graduates who do not meet licensure requirements take only those courses that they lack and then become licensed. This approach may take 1 or 2 semesters of full-time study. The coursework for alternative certification programs often leads to a master's degree. In extreme circumstances, when schools cannot attract enough qualified teachers to fill positions, States may issue emergency licenses to individuals who do not meet the requirements for a regular license that let them begin teaching immediately. In many States, vocational teachers have many of the same licensure requirements as other teachers. However, knowledge and experience in a particular field are important, so some States will license vocational education teachers without a bachelor's degree, provided they can demonstrate expertise in their field. A minimum number of hours in education courses may also be required. Private schools are generally exempt from meeting State licensing standards. For secondary school teacher jobs, they prefer candidates who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they intend to teach, or in childhood education for elementary school teachers. They seek candidates among recent college graduates as well as from those who have established careers in other fields. Other qualifications. In addition to being knowledgeable about the subjects they teach, teachers must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand the students' educational and emotional needs. Teachers must be able to recognize and respond to individual and cultural differences in students and employ different teaching methods that will result in higher student achievement. They should be organized, dependable, patient, and creative. Teachers also must be able to work cooperatively and communicate effectively with other teachers, support staff, parents, and members of the community. Private schools associated with religious institutions also desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. Additional certifications and advancement. In some cases, teachers of kindergarten through high school may attain professional certification in order to demonstrate competency beyond that required for a license. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards offers a voluntary national certification. To become nationally certified, experienced teachers must prove their aptitude by compiling a portfolio showing their work in the classroom and by passing a written assessment and evaluation of their teaching knowledge. Currently, teachers may become certified in a variety of areas, on the basis of the age of the students and, in some cases, the subject taught. For example, teachers may obtain a certificate for teaching English language arts to early adolescents (aged 11 to 15), or they may become certified as early childhood generalists. All States recognize national certification, and many States and school districts provide special benefits to teachers who earn certification. Benefits typically include higher salaries and reimbursement for continuing education and certification fees. In addition, many States allow nationally certified teachers to carry a license from one State to another. With additional preparation, teachers may move into such positions as school librarians, reading specialists, instructional coordinators, or guidance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or supervisors, although the number of these positions is limited and competition for them can be intense. In some systems, highly qualified, experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their own teaching responsibilities. Preschool teachers usually work their way up from assistant teacher, to teacher, to lead teacher-who may be responsible for the instruction of several classes-and, finally, to director of the center. Preschool teachers with a bachelor's degree frequently are qualified to teach kindergarten through grade 3 as well. Teaching at these higher grades often results in higher pay. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

How long does it take ton get your bachelor of law?

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Within the United States there is no such thing as a bachelor's degree in law. Typically, law school can take approximately three years post bachelor's degree. Read the following carefully and follow through on the link provided below this answer box for more detailed information.

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a lawyer. Formal requirements to become a lawyer usually include a 4-year college degree, 3 years of law school, and passing a written bar examination; however, some requirements may vary by State. Competition for admission to most law schools is intense. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. Education and training.Becoming a lawyer usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school-4 years of undergraduate study, followed by 3 years of law school. Law school applicants must have a bachelor's degree to qualify for admission. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions. Although there is no recommended "prelaw" undergraduate major, prospective lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically-skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the law. Regardless of major, a multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English, foreign languages, public speaking, government, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For example, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax lawyers must have extensive knowledge of accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant's ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant's undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes, a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight they place on each of these and other factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association require applicants to take the LSAT. As of 2006, there were 195 ABA-accredited law schools; others were approved by State authorities only. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then submits the applicants' LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. The Law School Admission Council administers both this service and the LSAT. Competition for admission to many law schools-especially the most prestigious ones-is usually intense, with the number of applicants greatly exceeding the number that can be admitted. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students usually study core courses, such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may choose specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate law. Law students often gain practical experience by participating in school-sponsored legal clinics; in the school's moot court competitions, in which students conduct appellate arguments; in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges; and through research and writing on legal issues for the school's law journals. A number of law schools have clinical programs in which students gain legal experience through practice trials and projects under the supervision of lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid offices, for example, or on legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience. Such training can lead directly to a job after graduation and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Law school graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.), a first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which usually require an additional semester or year of study. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including business administration or public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practices. In 2006, 43 States and jurisdictions required lawyers to participate in mandatory continuing legal education. Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. Some States allow continuing education credits to be obtained through participation in seminars on the Internet. Licensure.To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. All States require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination; most States also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one State occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking another examination if they meet the latter jurisdiction's standards of good moral character and a specified period of legal experience. In most cases, however, lawyers must pass the bar examination in each State in which they plan to practice. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must earn a college degree and graduate from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. ABA accreditation signifies that the law school, particularly its library and faculty, meets certain standards. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 48 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of their overall bar examination; the MBE is not required in Louisiana or Washington. The MBE covers a broad range of issues, and sometimes a locally prepared State bar examination is given in addition to it. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the bar examination in several States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. Many States also require Multistate Performance Testing to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers. Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam and is a one-time requirement. In 2007, law school graduates in 52 jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. Other qualifications. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Individuals planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Perseverance, creativity, and reasoning ability also are essential to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases and handle new and unique legal problems. Advancement. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired attorneys usually start as associates and work with more experienced lawyers or judges. After several years, some lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm, which means they are partial owners of the firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some experienced lawyers are nominated or elected to judgeships. (See the section on judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Others become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number of these lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or managerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation's legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

How do you get hired as a counselor with no experience and only a BA in sociology?

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It depends on what type of counselor. Typically, most counselors are required to have a minimum of a master's degree while others a doctorate. Read the below carefully and follow through on the link provided below this answer box.

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a counselor. Education and training requirements for counselors are often very detailed and vary by State and specialty. Prospective counselors should check with State and local governments, employers, and national voluntary certification organizations to determine which requirements apply. Education and training. Education requirements vary based on occupational specialty and State licensure and certification requirements. A master's degree is usually required to be licensed as a counselor. Some States require counselors in public employment to have a master's degree; others accept a bachelor's degree with appropriate counseling courses. Counselor education programs in colleges and universities are often found in departments of education or psychology. Fields of study include college student affairs, elementary or secondary school counseling, education, gerontological counseling, marriage and family therapy, substance abuse counseling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, clinical mental health counseling, career counseling, and related fields. Courses are often grouped into eight core areas: human growth and development, social and cultural diversity, relationships, group work, career development, assessment, research and program evaluation, and professional identity. In an accredited master's degree program, 48 to 60 semester hours of graduate study, including a period of supervised clinical experience in counseling, are required. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Others may offer time off or tuition assistance to complete a graduate degree. Often counselors must participate in graduate studies, workshops, and personal studies to maintain their certificates and licenses. Licensure. Licensure requirements differ greatly by State, occupational specialty, and work setting. Many States require school counselors to hold a State school counseling certification and to have completed at least some graduate course work; most require the completion of a master's degree. Some States require school counselors to be licensed, which generally requires continuing education credits. Some States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certificates and to have had some teaching experience. For counselors based outside of schools, 49 States and the District of Columbia have some form of counselor licensure that governs the practice of counseling. Requirements typically include the completion of a master's degree in counseling, the accumulation of 2 years or 3,000 hours of supervised clinical experience beyond the master's degree level, the passage of a State-recognized exam, adherence to ethical codes and standards, and the completion of annual continuing education requirements. However, counselors working in certain settings or in a particular specialty may face different licensure requirements. For example, a career counselor working in private practice may need a license, but a counselor working for a college career center may not. In addition, substance abuse and behavior disorder counselors are generally governed by a different State agency or board than other counselors. The criteria for their licensure vary greatly and in some cases, these counselors may only need a high school diploma and certification. Those interested in entering the field must research State and specialty requirements to determine what qualifications they must have. Other qualifications. People interested in counseling should have a strong desire to help others and should be able to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Counselors must follow the code of ethics associated with their respective certifications and licenses. Counselors must possess high physical and emotional energy to handle the array of problems that they address. Dealing daily with these problems can cause stress. Certification and advancement. Some counselors elect to be certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc., which grants a general practice credential of National Certified Counselor. To be certified, a counselor must hold a master's degree with a concentration in counseling from a regionally accredited college or university; have at least 2 years of supervised field experience in a counseling setting (graduates from counselor education programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs are exempted); provide two professional endorsements, one of which must be from a recent supervisor; and must have a passing score on the board's examination. This national certification is voluntary and is distinct from State licensing. However, in some States, those who pass the national exam are exempted from taking a State certification exam. The board also offers specialty certifications in school, clinical mental health, and addiction counseling. These specialty certifications require passage of a supplemental exam. To maintain their certifications, counselors retake and pass the exam or complete 100 credit hours of acceptable continuing education every 5 years. The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification offers voluntary national certification for rehabilitation counselors. Many State and local governments and other employers require rehabilitation counselors to have this certification. To become certified, rehabilitation counselors usually must graduate from an accredited educational program, complete an internship, and pass a written examination. Certification requirements vary, however, according to an applicant's educational history. Employment experience, for example, is required for those with a counseling degree in a specialty other than rehabilitation. To maintain their certification, counselors must successfully retake the certification exam or complete 100 credit hours of acceptable continuing education every 5 years. Other counseling organizations also offer certification in particular counseling specialties. Usually, becoming certified is voluntary, but having certification may enhance job prospects. Prospects for advancement vary by counseling field. School counselors can become directors or supervisors of counseling, guidance, or pupil personnel services; or, usually with further graduate education, become counselor educators, counseling psychologists, or school administrators. (psychologists and education administrators are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some counselors choose to work for a State's department of education. Some marriage and family therapists, especially those with doctorates in family therapy, become supervisors, teachers, researchers, or advanced clinicians in the discipline. Counselors may also become supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some counselors move into research, consulting, or college teaching or go into private or group practice. Some may choose to pursue a doctoral degree to improve their chances for advancement. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What type of degree is needed to become an art teacher?

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Asked by Wiki User

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a teacher.

The traditional route to becoming a public school teacher involves completing a bachelor's degree from a teacher education program and then obtaining a license. However, most States now offer alternative routes to licensure for those who have a college degree in other fields. Private school teachers do not have to be licensed but still need a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree may not be needed by preschool teachers and vocational education teachers, who need experience in their field rather than a specific degree. Education and training. Traditional education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses designed specifically for those preparing to teach. These courses include mathematics, physical science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Aspiring secondary school teachers most often major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking a program of study in teacher preparation. Many 4-year colleges require students to wait until their sophomore year before applying for admission to teacher education programs. To maintain their accreditation, teacher education programs are now required to include classes in the use of computers and other technologies. Most programs require students to perform a student-teaching internship. Teacher education programs are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Graduation from an accredited program is not necessary to become a teacher, but it may make fulfilling licensure requirements easier. Many States now offer professional development schools, which are partnerships between universities and elementary or secondary schools. Professional development schools merge theory with practice and allow the student to experience a year of teaching firsthand, under professional guidance. Students enter these 1-year programs after completion of their bachelor's degree. Licensure and certification. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public school teachers to be licensed. Licensure is not required for teachers in most private schools. Usually licensure is granted by the State Board of Education or a licensure advisory committee. Teachers may be licensed to teach the early childhood grades (usually preschool through grade 3); the elementary grades (grades 1 through 6 or 8); the middle grades (grades 5 through 8); a secondary-education subject area (usually grades 7 through 12); or a special subject, such as reading or music (usually grades kindergarten through 12). Requirements for regular licenses to teach kindergarten through grade 12 vary by State. However, all States require general education teachers to have a bachelor's degree and to have completed an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits, as well as supervised practice teaching. Some States also require technology training and the attainment of a minimum grade point average. A number of States require that teachers obtain a master's degree in education within a specified period after they begin teaching. Almost all States require applicants for a teacher's license to be tested for competency in basic skills, such as reading and writing, and in teaching. Almost all also require teachers to exhibit proficiency in their subject. Many school systems are presently moving toward implementing performance-based systems for licensure, which usually require teachers to demonstrate satisfactory teaching performance over an extended period in order to obtain a provisional license, in addition to passing an examination in their subject. Most States require teachers to complete a minimum number of hours of continuing education to renew their license. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers licensed in one State to become licensed in another. Licensing requirements for preschool teachers also vary by State. Requirements for public preschool teachers are generally more stringent than those for private preschool teachers. Some States require a bachelor's degree in early childhood education, while others require an associate's degree, and still others require certification by a nationally recognized authority. The Child Development Associate (CDA) credential, the most common type of certification, requires a mix of classroom training and experience working with children, along with an independent assessment of the teacher's competence. Nearly all States now also offer alternative licensure programs for teachers who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they will teach, but who lack the necessary education courses required for a regular license. Many of these alternative licensure programs are designed to ease shortages of teachers of certain subjects, such as mathematics and science. Other programs provide teachers for urban and rural schools that have difficulty filling positions with teachers from traditional licensure programs. Alternative licensure programs are intended to attract people into teaching who do not fulfill traditional licensing standards, including recent college graduates who did not complete education programs and those changing from another career to teaching. In some programs, individuals begin teaching quickly under provisional licensure under the close supervision of experienced educators while taking education courses outside school hours. If they progress satisfactorily, they receive regular licensure after working for 1 or 2 years. In other programs, college graduates who do not meet licensure requirements take only those courses that they lack and then become licensed. This approach may take 1 or 2 semesters of full-time study. The coursework for alternative certification programs often leads to a master's degree. In extreme circumstances, when schools cannot attract enough qualified teachers to fill positions, States may issue emergency licenses to individuals who do not meet the requirements for a regular license that let them begin teaching immediately. In many States, vocational teachers have many of the same licensure requirements as other teachers. However, knowledge and experience in a particular field are important, so some States will license vocational education teachers without a bachelor's degree, provided they can demonstrate expertise in their field. A minimum number of hours in education courses may also be required. Private schools are generally exempt from meeting State licensing standards. For secondary school teacher jobs, they prefer candidates who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they intend to teach, or in childhood education for elementary school teachers. They seek candidates among recent college graduates as well as from those who have established careers in other fields. Other qualifications. In addition to being knowledgeable about the subjects they teach, teachers must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand the students' educational and emotional needs. Teachers must be able to recognize and respond to individual and cultural differences in students and employ different teaching methods that will result in higher student achievement. They should be organized, dependable, patient, and creative. Teachers also must be able to work cooperatively and communicate effectively with other teachers, support staff, parents, and members of the community. Private schools associated with religious institutions also desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. Additional certifications and advancement. In some cases, teachers of kindergarten through high school may attain professional certification in order to demonstrate competency beyond that required for a license. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards offers a voluntary national certification. To become nationally certified, experienced teachers must prove their aptitude by compiling a portfolio showing their work in the classroom and by passing a written assessment and evaluation of their teaching knowledge. Currently, teachers may become certified in a variety of areas, on the basis of the age of the students and, in some cases, the subject taught. For example, teachers may obtain a certificate for teaching English language arts to early adolescents (aged 11 to 15), or they may become certified as early childhood generalists. All States recognize national certification, and many States and school districts provide special benefits to teachers who earn certification. Benefits typically include higher salaries and reimbursement for continuing education and certification fees. In addition, many States allow nationally certified teachers to carry a license from one State to another. With additional preparation, teachers may move into such positions as school librarians, reading specialists, instructional coordinators, or guidance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or supervisors, although the number of these positions is limited and competition for them can be intense. In some systems, highly qualified, experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their own teaching responsibilities. Preschool teachers usually work their way up from assistant teacher, to teacher, to lead teacher-who may be responsible for the instruction of several classes-and, finally, to director of the center. Preschool teachers with a bachelor's degree frequently are qualified to teach kindergarten through grade 3 as well. Teaching at these higher grades often results in higher pay. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What kinds of classes do you have to take to become a Psychologists?

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Asked by Wiki User

The following is written by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for psychologists.

A master's or doctoral degree, and a license, are required for most psychologists.

Education and training. A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, health care services, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and government. Psychologists with a doctoral degree often work in clinical positions or in private practices, but they also sometimes teach, conduct research, or carry out administrative responsibilities.

A doctoral degree generally requires 5 to 7 years of graduate study, culminating in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computer-based analysis, are an integral part of graduate study and are necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. degree may be based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, and school psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree include at least a 1-year internship.

A specialist degree or its equivalent is required in most States for an individual to work as a school psychologist, although a few States still credential school psychologists with master's degrees. A specialist (Ed.S.) degree in school psychology requires a minimum of 3 years of full-time graduate study (at least 60 graduate semester hours) and a 1-year full-time internship. Because their professional practice addresses educational and mental health components of students' development, school psychologists' training includes coursework in both education and psychology.

People with a master's degree in psychology may work as industrial-organizational psychologists. They also may work as psychological assistants under the supervision of doctoral-level psychologists and may conduct research or psychological evaluations. A master's degree in psychology requires at least 2 years of full-time graduate study. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting and a master's thesis based on an original research project.

Competition for admission to graduate psychology programs is keen. Some universities require applicants to have an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only coursework in basic psychology with additional courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences and in statistics and mathematics.

A bachelor's degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psychologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs. Bachelor's degree holders may also work as research or administrative assistants for psychologists. Some work as technicians in related fields, such as marketing research. Many find employment in other areas, such as sales, service, or business management.

In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry-level positions. However, competition for these jobs is keen because this is one of the few ways in which one can work as a psychologist without an advanced degree.

The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accredits doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology, as well as institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. The National Association of School Psychologists, with the assistance of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, helps to approve advanced degree programs in school psychology.

Licensure. Psychologists in independent practice or those who offer any type of patient care-including clinical, counseling, and school psychologists-must meet certification or licensing requirements in all States and the District of Columbia. Licensing laws vary by State and by type of position and require licensed or certified psychologists to limit their practice to areas in which they have developed professional competence through training and experience. Clinical and counseling psychologists usually need a doctorate in psychology, an approved internship, and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, all States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State licensing boards administer a standardized test, and many supplement that with additional oral or essay questions. Some States require continuing education for renewal of the license.

The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) awards the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) designation, which recognizes professional competency in school psychology at a national, rather than State, level. Currently, 29 States recognize the NCSP and allow those with the certification to transfer credentials from one State to another without taking a new certification exam. In States that recognize the NCSP, the requirements for certification or licensure and those for the NCSP often are the same or similar. Requirements for the NCSP include the completion of 60 graduate semester hours in school psychology; a 1,200-hour internship, 600 hours of which must be completed in a school setting; and a passing score on the National School Psychology Examination.

Other qualifications. Aspiring psychologists who are interested in direct patient care must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compassion, good communication skills, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important qualities for people wishing to do clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work both independently and as part of a team. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities, because achieving results in the psychological treatment of patients or in research may take a long time.

Certification and advancement. The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) recognizes professional achievement by awarding specialty certification in 13 different areas. Candidates for ABPP certification need a doctorate in psychology, postdoctoral training in their specialty, several years of experience, professional endorsements, and are required to pass the specialty board examination.

Psychologists can improve their advancement opportunities by earning an advanced degree and by participation in continuing education. Many psychologists opt to start their own practice after gaining experience working in the field.

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'What education and training are required to become a high school art teacher?

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To teach within the public school system in the United States at the pre-K through high school levels, you must have a bachelor's degree in a teacher education program from a regionally accredited college or university and state teacher certification. This would take approximately four years to complete as a full-time student, provided you take the program as prescribed by the college or university.

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Do you have to go to college to become a psychologist?

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A master's or doctoral degree, and a license, are required for most psychologists. Education and training. A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, health care services, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and government. Psychologists with a doctoral degree often work in clinical positions or in private practices, but they also sometimes teach, conduct research, or carry out administrative responsibilities. A doctoral degree generally requires 5 to 7 years of graduate study, culminating in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computer-based analysis, are an integral part of graduate study and are necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. degree may be based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, and school psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree include at least a 1-year internship. A specialist degree or its equivalent is required in most States for an individual to work as a school psychologist, although a few States still credential school psychologists with master's degrees. A specialist (Ed.S.) degree in school psychology requires a minimum of 3 years of full-time graduate study (at least 60 graduate semester hours) and a 1-year full-time internship. Because their professional practice addresses educational and mental health components of students' development, school psychologists' training includes coursework in both education and psychology. People with a master's degree in psychology may work as industrial-organizational psychologists. They also may work as psychological assistants under the supervision of doctoral-level psychologists and may conduct research or psychological evaluations. A master's degree in psychology requires at least 2 years of full-time graduate study. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting and a master's thesis based on an original research project. Competition for admission to graduate psychology programs is keen. Some universities require applicants to have an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only coursework in basic psychology with additional courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences and in statistics and mathematics. A bachelor's degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psychologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs. Bachelor's degree holders may also work as research or administrative assistants for psychologists. Some work as technicians in related fields, such as marketing research. Many find employment in other areas, such as sales, service, or business management. In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry-level positions. However, competition for these jobs is keen because this is one of the few ways in which one can work as a psychologist without an advanced degree. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accredits doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology, as well as institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. The National Association of School Psychologists, with the assistance of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, helps to approve advanced degree programs in school psychology. Licensure. Psychologists in independent practice or those who offer any type of patient care-including clinical, counseling, and school psychologists-must meet certification or licensing requirements in all States and the District of Columbia. Licensing laws vary by State and by type of position and require licensed or certified psychologists to limit their practice to areas in which they have developed professional competence through training and experience. Clinical and counseling psychologists usually need a doctorate in psychology, an approved internship, and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, all States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State licensing boards administer a standardized test, and many supplement that with additional oral or essay questions. Some States require continuing education for renewal of the license. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) awards the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) designation, which recognizes professional competency in school psychology at a national, rather than State, level. Currently, 29 States recognize the NCSP and allow those with the certification to transfer credentials from one State to another without taking a new certification exam. In States that recognize the NCSP, the requirements for certification or licensure and those for the NCSP often are the same or similar. Requirements for the NCSP include the completion of 60 graduate semester hours in school psychology; a 1,200-hour internship, 600 hours of which must be completed in a school setting; and a passing score on the National School Psychology Examination. Other qualifications. Aspiring psychologists who are interested in direct patient care must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compassion, good communication skills, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important qualities for people wishing to do clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work both independently and as part of a team. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities, because achieving results in the psychological treatment of patients or in research may take a long time. Certification and advancement.The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) recognizes professional achievement by awarding specialty certification in 13 different areas. Candidates for ABPP certification need a doctorate in psychology, postdoctoral training in their specialty, several years of experience, professional endorsements, and are required to pass the specialty board examination. Psychologists can improve their advancement opportunities by earning an advanced degree and by participation in continuing education. Many psychologists opt to start their own practice after gaining experience working in the field. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

How many years of college to be an RN?

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The three major educational paths to registered nursing are a bachelor's degree, an associate degree, and a diploma from an approved nursing program. Nurses most commonly enter the occupation by completing an associate degree or bachelor's degree program. Individuals then must complete a national licensing examination in order to obtain a nursing license. Further training or education can qualify nurses to work in specialty areas, and may help improve advancement opportunities. Education and training.There are three major educational paths to registered nursing-a bachelor's of science degree in nursing (BSN), an associate degree in nursing (ADN), and a diploma. BSN programs, offered by colleges and universities, take about 4 years to complete. In 2006, 709 nursing programs offered degrees at the bachelor's level. ADN programs, offered by community and junior colleges, take about 2 to 3 years to complete. About 850 RN programs granted associate degrees. Diploma programs, administered in hospitals, last about 3 years. Only about 70 programs offered diplomas. Generally, licensed graduates of any of the three types of educational programs qualify for entry-level positions. Many RNs with an ADN or diploma later enter bachelor's programs to prepare for a broader scope of nursing practice. Often, they can find an entry-level position and then take advantage of tuition reimbursement benefits to work toward a BSN by completing an RN-to-BSN program. In 2006, there were 629 RN-to-BSN programs in the United States. Accelerated master's degree in nursing (MSN) programs also are available by combining 1 year of an accelerated BSN program with 2 years of graduate study. In 2006, there were 149 RN-to-MSN programs. Accelerated BSN programs also are available for individuals who have a bachelor's or higher degree in another field and who are interested in moving into nursing. In 2006, 197 of these programs were available. Accelerated BSN programs last 12 to 18 months and provide the fastest route to a BSN for individuals who already hold a degree. MSN programs also are available for individuals who hold a bachelor's or higher degree in another field. Individuals considering nursing should carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of enrolling in a BSN or MSN program because, if they do, their advancement opportunities usually are broader. In fact, some career paths are open only to nurses with a bachelor's or master's degree. A bachelor's degree often is necessary for administrative positions and is a prerequisite for admission to graduate nursing programs in research, consulting, and teaching, and all four advanced practice nursing specialties-clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, nurse-midwives, and nurse practitioners. Individuals who complete a bachelor's receive more training in areas such as communication, leadership, and critical thinking, all of which are becoming more important as nursing care becomes more complex. Additionally, bachelor's degree programs offer more clinical experience in nonhospital settings. Education beyond a bachelor's degree can also help students looking to enter certain fields or increase advancement opportunities. In 2006, 448 nursing schools offered master's degrees, 108 offered doctoral degrees, and 58 offered accelerated BSN-to-doctoral programs. All four advanced practice nursing specialties require at least a master's degree. Most programs include about 2 years of full-time study and require a BSN degree for entry; some programs require at least 1 to 2 years of clinical experience as an RN for admission. In 2006, there were 342 master's and post-master's programs offered for nurse practitioners, 230 master's and post-master's programs for clinical nurse specialists, 106 programs for nurse anesthetists, and 39 programs for nurse-midwives. All nursing education programs include classroom instruction and supervised clinical experience in hospitals and other health care facilities. Students take courses in anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, nutrition, psychology and other behavioral sciences, and nursing. Coursework also includes the liberal arts for ADN and BSN students. Supervised clinical experience is provided in hospital departments such as pediatrics, psychiatry, maternity, and surgery. A growing number of programs include clinical experience in nursing care facilities, public health departments, home health agencies, and ambulatory clinics. Licensure and certification.In all States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories, students must graduate from an approved nursing program and pass a national licensing examination, known as the NCLEX-RN, in order to obtain a nursing license. Nurses may be licensed in more than one State, either by examination or by the endorsement of a license issued by another State. The Nurse Licensure Compact Agreement allows a nurse who is licensed and permanently resides in one of the member States to practice in the other member States without obtaining additional licensure. In 2006, 20 states were members of the Compact, while 2 more were pending membership. All States require periodic renewal of licenses, which may require continuing education. Certification is common, and sometimes required, for the four advanced practice nursing specialties-clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, nurse-midwives, and nurse practitioners. Upon completion of their educational programs, most advanced practice nurses become nationally certified in their area of specialty. Certification also is available in specialty areas for all nurses. In some States, certification in a specialty is required in order to practice that specialty. Foreign-educated and foreign-born nurses wishing to work in the United States must obtain a work visa. To obtain the visa, nurses must undergo a federal screening program to ensure that their education and licensure are comparable to that of a U.S. educated nurse, that they have proficiency in written and spoken English, and that they have passed either the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools (CGFNS) Qualifying Examination or the NCLEX-RN. CGFNS administers the VisaScreen Program. (The Commission is an immigration-neutral, nonprofit organization that is recognized internationally as an authority on credentials evaluation in the health care field.) Nurses educated in Australia, Canada (except Quebec), Ireland, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, or foreign-born nurses who were educated in the United States, are exempt from the language proficiency testing. In addition to these national requirements, foreign-born nurses must obtain state licensure in order to practice in the United States. Each State has its own requirements for licensure. Other qualifications. Nurses should be caring, sympathetic, responsible, and detail oriented. They must be able to direct or supervise others, correctly assess patients' conditions, and determine when consultation is required. They need emotional stability to cope with human suffering, emergencies, and other stresses. Advancement. Some RNs start their careers as licensed practical nurses or nursing aides, and then go back to school to receive their RN degree. Most RNs begin as staff nurses in hospitals, and with experience and good performance often move to other settings or are promoted to more responsible positions. In management, nurses can advance from assistant unit manger or head nurse to more senior-level administrative roles of assistant director, director, vice president, or chief nurse. Increasingly, management-level nursing positions require a graduate or an advanced degree in nursing or health services administration. Administrative positions require leadership, communication and negotiation skills, and good judgment. Some nurses move into the business side of health care. Their nursing expertise and experience on a health care team equip them to manage ambulatory, acute, home-based, and chronic care. Employers-including hospitals, insurance companies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and managed care organizations, among others-need RNs for health planning and development, marketing, consulting, policy development, and quality assurance. Other nurses work as college and university faculty or conduct research. For the source and more detailed information concerning this subject, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What are proliferous parasites?

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Proliferous parasites are those that proliferate, or reproduce freely and rapidly, within the human body. Such parasites can cause the host serious problems by reaching dangerous levels very quickly after the person is infected.

Can you become a teacher with a bachelor's degree in communication?

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It is possible for there are a number of routes you can take. Read the following carefully for a better understanding.

The traditional route to becoming a public school teacher involves completing a bachelor's degree from a teacher education program and then obtaining a license. However, most States now offer alternative routes to licensure for those who have a college degree in other fields. Private school teachers do not have to be licensed but still need a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree may not be needed by preschool teachers and vocational education teachers, who need experience in their field rather than a specific degree. Education and training. Traditional education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses designed specifically for those preparing to teach. These courses include mathematics, physical science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Aspiring secondary school teachers most often major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking a program of study in teacher preparation. Many 4-year colleges require students to wait until their sophomore year before applying for admission to teacher education programs. To maintain their accreditation, teacher education programs are now required to include classes in the use of computers and other technologies. Most programs require students to perform a student-teaching internship. Teacher education programs are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Graduation from an accredited program is not necessary to become a teacher, but it may make fulfilling licensure requirements easier. Many States now offer professional development schools, which are partnerships between universities and elementary or secondary schools. Professional development schools merge theory with practice and allow the student to experience a year of teaching firsthand, under professional guidance. Students enter these 1-year programs after completion of their bachelor's degree. Licensure and certification. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public school teachers to be licensed. Licensure is not required for teachers in most private schools. Usually licensure is granted by the State Board of Education or a licensure advisory committee. Teachers may be licensed to teach the early childhood grades (usually preschool through grade 3); the elementary grades (grades 1 through 6 or 8); the middle grades (grades 5 through 8); a secondary-education subject area (usually grades 7 through 12); or a special subject, such as reading or music (usually grades kindergarten through 12). Requirements for regular licenses to teach kindergarten through grade 12 vary by State. However, all States require general education teachers to have a bachelor's degree and to have completed an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits, as well as supervised practice teaching. Some States also require technology training and the attainment of a minimum grade point average. A number of States require that teachers obtain a master's degree in education within a specified period after they begin teaching. Almost all States require applicants for a teacher's license to be tested for competency in basic skills, such as reading and writing, and in teaching. Almost all also require teachers to exhibit proficiency in their subject. Many school systems are presently moving toward implementing performance-based systems for licensure, which usually require teachers to demonstrate satisfactory teaching performance over an extended period in order to obtain a provisional license, in addition to passing an examination in their subject. Most States require teachers to complete a minimum number of hours of continuing education to renew their license. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers licensed in one State to become licensed in another. Licensing requirements for preschool teachers also vary by State. Requirements for public preschool teachers are generally more stringent than those for private preschool teachers. Some States require a bachelor's degree in early childhood education, while others require an associate's degree, and still others require certification by a nationally recognized authority. The Child Development Associate (CDA) credential, the most common type of certification, requires a mix of classroom training and experience working with children, along with an independent assessment of the teacher's competence. Nearly all States now also offer alternative licensure programs for teachers who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they will teach, but who lack the necessary education courses required for a regular license. Many of these alternative licensure programs are designed to ease shortages of teachers of certain subjects, such as mathematics and science. Other programs provide teachers for urban and rural schools that have difficulty filling positions with teachers from traditional licensure programs. Alternative licensure programs are intended to attract people into teaching who do not fulfill traditional licensing standards, including recent college graduates who did not complete education programs and those changing from another career to teaching. In some programs, individuals begin teaching quickly under provisional licensure under the close supervision of experienced educators while taking education courses outside school hours. If they progress satisfactorily, they receive regular licensure after working for 1 or 2 years. In other programs, college graduates who do not meet licensure requirements take only those courses that they lack and then become licensed. This approach may take 1 or 2 semesters of full-time study. The coursework for alternative certification programs often leads to a master's degree. In extreme circumstances, when schools cannot attract enough qualified teachers to fill positions, States may issue emergency licenses to individuals who do not meet the requirements for a regular license that let them begin teaching immediately. In many States, vocational teachers have many of the same licensure requirements as other teachers. However, knowledge and experience in a particular field are important, so some States will license vocational education teachers without a bachelor's degree, provided they can demonstrate expertise in their field. A minimum number of hours in education courses may also be required. Private schools are generally exempt from meeting State licensing standards. For secondary school teacher jobs, they prefer candidates who have a bachelor's degree in the subject they intend to teach, or in childhood education for elementary school teachers. They seek candidates among recent college graduates as well as from those who have established careers in other fields. Other qualifications. In addition to being knowledgeable about the subjects they teach, teachers must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand the students' educational and emotional needs. Teachers must be able to recognize and respond to individual and cultural differences in students and employ different teaching methods that will result in higher student achievement. They should be organized, dependable, patient, and creative. Teachers also must be able to work cooperatively and communicate effectively with other teachers, support staff, parents, and members of the community. Private schools associated with religious institutions also desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. Additional certifications and advancement. In some cases, teachers of kindergarten through high school may attain professional certification in order to demonstrate competency beyond that required for a license. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards offers a voluntary national certification. To become nationally certified, experienced teachers must prove their aptitude by compiling a portfolio showing their work in the classroom and by passing a written assessment and evaluation of their teaching knowledge. Currently, teachers may become certified in a variety of areas, on the basis of the age of the students and, in some cases, the subject taught. For example, teachers may obtain a certificate for teaching English language arts to early adolescents (aged 11 to 15), or they may become certified as early childhood generalists. All States recognize national certification, and many States and school districts provide special benefits to teachers who earn certification. Benefits typically include higher salaries and reimbursement for continuing education and certification fees. In addition, many States allow nationally certified teachers to carry a license from one State to another. With additional preparation, teachers may move into such positions as school librarians, reading specialists, instructional coordinators, or guidance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or supervisors, although the number of these positions is limited and competition for them can be intense. In some systems, highly qualified, experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their own teaching responsibilities. Preschool teachers usually work their way up from assistant teacher, to teacher, to lead teacher-who may be responsible for the instruction of several classes-and, finally, to director of the center. Preschool teachers with a bachelor's degree frequently are qualified to teach kindergarten through grade 3 as well. Teaching at these higher grades often results in higher pay. For the source and more detailed information concerning this subject, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

Education required to become an accountant?

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Most accountants and auditors need at least a bachelor's degree in business, accounting, or a related field. Many accountants and auditors choose to obtain certification to help advance their careers, such as becoming a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Education and training. Most accountant and auditor positions require at least a bachelor's degree in accounting or a related field. Beginning accounting and auditing positions in the Federal Government, for example, usually require 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in accounting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience. Some employers prefer applicants with a master's degree in accounting, or with a master's degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. Some universities and colleges are now offering programs to prepare students to work in growing specialty professions such as internal auditing. Many professional associations offer continuing professional education courses, conferences, and seminars. Some graduates of junior colleges or business or correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting positions and advance to accountant positions by demonstrating their accounting skills on the job. Most beginning accountants and auditors may work under supervision or closely with an experienced accountant or auditor before gaining more independence and responsibility. Licensure and certification. Any accountant filing a report with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is required by law to be a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). This may include senior level accountants working for or on behalf of public companies that are registered with the SEC. CPAs are licensed by their State Board of Accountancy. Any accountant who passes a national exam and meets the other requirements of the State where they practice can become a CPA. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, but a few States will substitute a number of years of public accounting experience for a college degree. As of 2007, 42 States and the District of Columbia required CPA candidates to complete 150 semester hours of college coursework-an additional 30 hours beyond the usual 4-year bachelor's degree. Several other States have adopted similar legislation that will become effective before 2009. Colorado, Delaware, New Hampshire, and Vermont are the only States that do not have any immediate plans to require the 150 semester hours. In response to this trend, many schools have altered their curricula accordingly, with most programs offering master's degrees as part of the 150 hours. Prospective accounting majors should carefully research accounting curricula and the requirements of any States in which they hope to become licensed. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). The CPA examination is rigorous, and less than one-half of those who take it each year pass every part they attempt on the first try. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, but most States require candidates to pass all four sections within 18 months of passing their first section. The CPA exam is now computerized and is offered 2 months out of every quarter at various testing centers throughout the United States. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certificate to have some accounting experience; however requirements vary by State or jurisdiction. Nearly all States require CPAs and other public accountants to complete a certain number of hours of continuing professional education before their licenses can be renewed. The professional associations representing accountants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Other qualifications. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an applicant get a job. Many colleges offer students the opportunity to gain experience through summer or part-time internship programs conducted by public accounting or business firms. In addition, as many business processes are now automated, practical knowledge of computers and their applications is a great asset for jobseekers in the accounting and auditing fields. People planning a career in accounting and auditing should have an aptitude for mathematics and be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work to clients and managers both verbally and in writing. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people, business systems, and computers. At a minimum, accountants and auditors should be familiar with basic accounting and computer software packages. Because financial decisions are made on the basis of their statements and services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Certification and advancement. Professional recognition through certification, or a designation other than the CPA, provides a distinct advantage in the job market. Certification can attest to professional competence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. Accountants and auditors can seek credentials from a wide variety of professional societies. The Institute of Management Accountants confers the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon applicants who complete a bachelor's degree or who attain a minimum score or higher on specified graduate school entrance exams. Applicants must have worked at least 2 years in management accounting, pass a four-part examination, agree to meet continuing education requirements, and comply with standards of professional conduct. The exam covers areas such as financial statement analysis, working-capital policy, capital structure, valuation issues, and risk management. The Institute of Internal Auditors offers the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) designation to graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have worked for 2 years as internal auditors and have passed a four-part examination. The IIA also offers the designations of Certified in Control Self-Assessment (CCSA), Certified Government Auditing Professional (CGAP), and Certified Financial Services Auditor (CFSA) to those who pass the exams and meet educational and experience requirements. The ISACA, formerly known as the Information Systems Audit and Control Association, confers the Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) designation upon candidates who pass an examination and have 5 years of experience auditing information systems. Information systems experience, financial or operational auditing experience, or related college credit hours can be substituted for up to 2 years information systems auditing, control or security experience. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, a satellite organization of the National Society of Accountants, confers four designations: Accredited Business Accountant (ABA), Accredited Tax Advisor (ATA), Accredited Tax Preparer (ATP), and Elder Care Specialist (ECS)-on accountants specializing in tax preparation for small and medium-sized businesses. Candidates for the ABA must pass an exam; candidates for the other designations must complete the required coursework and in some cases pass an exam. The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners offers the Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) designation for forensic or public accountants involved in fraud prevention, detection, deterrence, and investigation. To obtain the designation, individuals must have a bachelor's degree, 2 years of relevant experience, pass a four-part examination, and abide by a code of professional ethics. Related work experience may be substituted for the educational requirement. The Association of Government Accountants grants the Certified Government Financial Manager (CGFM) designation for accountants, auditors, and other government financial workers at the Federal, State, and local levels. Candidates must have a minimum of a bachelor's degree, 24 hours of study in financial management, 2 years of experience in government, and passing scores on a series of three exams. The exams cover topics in governmental environment; governmental accounting, financial reporting, and budgeting; and financial management and control. For those accountants with their CPA, the AICPA offers the option to receive any or all of the Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV), Certified Information Technology Professional (CITP), or Personal Financial Specialist (PFS) designations. CPA's with these designations demonstrate a level of expertise in these areas in which accountants practice ever more frequently. The business valuation designation requires a written exam and the completion of a minimum of 10 business valuation projects that demonstrate a candidate's experience and competence. The technology designation requires the achievement of a set number of points awarded for business technology experience and education. Candidates for the personal financial specialist designation also must achieve a certain level of points based on experience and education, pass a written exam, and submit references. Many senior corporation executives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance. Beginning public accountants often advance to positions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, or partners; open their own public accounting firm; or transfer to executive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms. Management accountants often start as cost accountants, junior internal auditors, or trainees for other accounting positions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors usually have much occupational mobility. Practitioners often shift into management accounting or internal auditing from public accounting, or between internal auditing and management accounting. It is less common for accountants and auditors to move from either management accounting or internal auditing into public accounting. Additionally, because they learn about and review the internal controls of various business units within a company, internal auditors often gain the experience needed to become upper-level managers. For the source and more detailed information concerning this subject, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What is the difference between a major and a concentration in college?

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Your major is your core studies like Business (general) and the concentration could be International Business, Finance, Accounting (specific). Another example is majoring in Education with concentration on Reading or Foreign Language.

What is the Syllabus of BCA in Nagpur University?

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For syllabus of nagpur university BCA Bachleor of computer application you can

visit Atlanta Computer Institute Nagpur website i.e www.atlantacomputer.in

http://www.atlantacomputer.in/bca-syllabus-nagpur.html

What percentage of US population has a college degree?

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According to the newest studies, more than 30 percent of U.S. citizens have a bachelor's degree. This is the highest percentage in the history of the country.

Is it better if schools are nationally or regionally accredited?

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To begin with, "national" accreditation versus "regional" accreditation has nothing to do with comparing national versus state (or any other kind of) apples and/or oranges. It also has nothing to do with geography, or who "monitors" what, or what "region" a given accreditor covers; and "regionally" accredited schools are not either better or worse than "nationally" accredited schools simply on account of such things. It also has nothing to do with where one intends to work, whether in or out of one's "region," whatever that even means in this context. It also has nothing to do with whether the school in question is "elite" or not; and, yes, there is a difference between "national" and "regional" accreditation, at least in the ignorant minds of many. Pretty much most of every previous answer, here, then, is flat-out wrong. It should be illegal, in my opinion, for answers in a place like this to be so reckless and misleading. Shame on the lot of them for that.

The first and most important thing to understand is that as long as whatever kind of accreditation it is -- be it "regional" or "national" -- is approved by either or both of the US Department of Education (USDE), and/or the USDE-sanctioned Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), then it's all approximately equally credible. Yes, there are practical difference which should not be ignored, and I'll cover them all, here. However, believe me, both regional and national accreditors, as is required of them by USDE and/or CHEA, are painstakingly rigorous in their assessments of their accredited schools.

There are six big both USDE- and CHEA-approved "regional" accreditors, each covering only certain of -- approximately one-sixth of -- the 50 US states. In other words, they accredit only schools in the one-sixth of the 50 US states that are in their respective USDE-assigned regions. Some "regional" accreditors also cover parts of non-US countries, though it's mostly just the 50 US states with which they concern themselves. "Accreditation" in most non-US countries can be quite different from how we do it here, in the US, so most US "regional" accreditors tend not to want to stick their toes into non-US accreditation waters...

...though, that said, some are intentionally expanding to try to do just that. For our purposes, here, though, let's just stick with the US.

The "regional" accreditors came first. At the higher-education (post-secondary) level, the USDE established them, originally, mostly just to ensure that any school -- college, university, seminary, or even post-secondary technical and/or trade/career school -- had sufficiently high academic and administrative standards, and financial soundness, that post-war "GI Bill" money spent by the government to educate veterans would not be wasted. It, at least in the beginning, was really as simple as that. Soon, thereafter, the USDE also became additionally concerned about ensuring that schools on which government grant and/or loan money was spent -- be it money given directly to schools, or to students -- were credible, in the same ways that it wanted to ensure that GI Bill money was only spent on credible schools. So, then, at least at first, that's mostly all that at least USDE-approved accreditation was about: ensuring that government money spent on schools was only spent on academically and administratively and financially sound ones.

However, in very short order, USDE-approved "regional" accreditation became about a whole lot more than just that; it became a way to ensure that all schools, at all levels, were academically rigorous/credible and financially sound, for all kinds of reasons which, ultimately, inure to society's benefit.

On the purely academic side of things, the USDE-sanctioned organizations that were the forerunners of today's CHEA, and now CHEA, today, have always been more about pure educational quality -- academic rigor, financial soundeness, and new and creative educational methods -- than has traditionally been the USDE... though the USDE now cares about all aspects of things, too, and not merely protecting GI Bill, or grant, or student loan money from less-than-credible schools. Both USDE and CHEA, now, care about the whole package.

IMPORTANT NOTE: It is USDE and/or CHEA -- and those two entities, along, in the US -- which approve accreditors. No accreditor which isn't approved by either or both of USDE and/or CHEA may legitimately call itself an educational accreditor; and most so-called accreditors which are not approved by at least one or the other of USDE and/or CHEA are not really accreditors at all; they are, in fact, usually, just fake or bogus accreditors... so-called "accreditation mills." Remember that fake, bogus, unaccredited schools -- degree and diploma mills -- are very sophsticated, and will not hesitate to create a fake/bogus accreditor and impressive-looking website, and then claim that they are accredited by said fake/bogus accreditor. Some of those both fake school and fake accreditor websites can look very professional and sophisticated; and some of the names of the fake/bogus accreditors are sometimes created to sound intentionally confusingly similar to the names of real, USDE- and/or CHEA-approved accreditors. So be careful!

For example, there once was a fake/bogus so-called "accreditor" which called itself "DETC," and which used the .NET version of the real DETC's .ORG domain name. However, DETC, as the rightful owner of that name, used the courts, and the WIPO domain name hearing system, to get that fake DETC's domain name away from it, and to also get its website and operation shut down. Until that happened, though, many degree seekers were misled and ripped-off. Today, though, all common versions of DETC's domain name (the .COM, and the .NET) point toward the real DETC's .ORG website. Were that that were the only example, out there, of such shenanigans, that I could cite. There are many!

Stay away from any school which claims bogus or fake accreditation from an "accreditation mill" (defined as a fake or bogus accreditor which is not either or both of USDE- and/or CHEA-approved). Only schools which have been accredited by agencies approved by either or both of USDE and/or CHEA are legitimate and truly accredited. Down in the "sources and related links" section of this page, beneath these answers, I have added links to the official lists of both USDE- and CHEA-approved accreditors on the USDE and CHEA websites. Stay away from any school which claims alleged accreditation by any so-called "accreditor" which isn't on at least one of those lists!

The only possible exception is an accreditor that's just getting started, and so it must operate for a few years, and show the USDE and/or CHEA that it's legitimate and credible so that it can finally be approved by either or both of USDE and/or CHEA. Such new accreditors would, of course, for at least their first few years of existence, not be USDE- and/or CHEA-approved, even though they're completely credible and operating pursuant to USDE and/or CHEA standards. However, the really credible of such new accreditation start-ups usually have a provable relationship with USDE and/or CHEA; and most of them so respect what the word "accreditation" means, in an educational context, that they won't actually refer to what they do as "accreditation" until they're finally USDE and/or CHEA approved. Until then, they'll tend to call what they do "approval" or "certification," in anticipation of later "accreditation" once they're USDE- and/or CHEA-approved; and the schools which pay them oney for such approval or certification look forward to when the accreditor is finally USDE- and/or CHEA-approved so that their "approval" or "certification" can be turned into real "accreditation." Fortunately, new, start-up accreditors, unlike new, start-up schools, are quite rare. They so rarely happen, in fact, that it's fairly safe to say, just generally, as a rule of thumb, that if the accreditor is not USDE- and/or CHEA-approved, then it's most likely a fake, bogus, "accreditation mill;" and so should be stayed away from, at all costs! Rely only on the lists of real accreditors, as found listed on the USDE and/or CHEA websites, to which I link the reader in the "sources and related links" section, below.

The reason that each "regional" accreditor covers only roughly one-sixth of the US states is not because of any differences in what happens in the regions or anything like that. They did it that way simply because one-sixth of the nation is about all that any one "regional" accreditor can handle. Remember that they handle accreditation for K-12, and all types of post-secondary schools. That's a lot... and so the task was divided-up, by USDE, into six geographical regions. It's as simple as that.

Moreover, each region's standards are approximately identical. A "regionally" accredited school in one region is going to have the same academic and financial standards as any other "regionally" accredited school in any other region; and their respective credits in transfer, or lower-level degrees as requisite for entry into higher-level degree programs, will all be equally respected and acceptable, as "regionally" accredited, regardless in which region they're either earned or proffered.

Additionally, in what USDE region a person obtains his/her degree has nothing, whatsoever, to do with where s/he will or won't either work, or be allowed to work, or anything like that. The answerer, here, who suggested otherwise was just making stuff up... just guessing, based, obviously, on what about it all seemed to make sense to him/her. Again, such as that is shameful in a place like this where readers may be so easily misled.

Whether or not a school is elite also has nothing whatsoever to do with anything. It's important to remember that accreditation, regardless of type, is a minimal standard: the standard of both academic, administrative and financial quality below which the school in question may simply never sink and still have its credits worthy of transfer to other schools; or its finished degrees worthy of being requisite for entry into higher-level degree programs at said other schools.

Accreditation is not an "optimal" standard... something to which schools aspire as evidence of how good they are. Rather, accreditation is a "minimal" standard which evidences how bad that the school in question simply cannot be; the standard below which it simply may not sink, no matter what. That simple thing about educational accreditation is critically important for the reader to understand!

The proof of that accreditation is only a minimal, and not optimal, standard is easy to show, to wit: Both Harvard and Yale (or Princeton, or whatever top US schools one chooses) have exactly the same kind of "regional" accreditation, with the exact same academic standards, as one's local two-year community college. And, believe me, and no one who hasn't fallen on his/her head too many times in life would ever suggest that anyone's local community college is on-par with the likes of Harvard or Yale.

So let's just get the whole, silly "elite" schools business, and what that may or may not mean for what kind of accreditation they have, off the table. The answerer, here, who suggested that that made any difference was also wrong... and irresponsible, to boot!

"National" accreditors came about, in the main, because there began to be a need for specialized accreditation, in addition to the more generalize "regional" accreditation. A need for accreditors that focused on just certain aspects of higher education, or on certain subject areas/professions, or on certain kinds of post-secondary schooling, or on certain specific course delivery modalities, was identified. And so "national" accreditors (with the word "national" having nothing to do with geography) were created; and both USDE and CHEA ended-up approving most of them. Some "national" accreditors are approved by USDE, but not CHEA, and vice versa, for a variety of reasons, an example of which I'll herein cover. Keep reading.

For example: A a course delivery modality -- distance learning -- which everyone agreed deserved its own "national" accreditor, spawned the both USDE- and CHEA-approved national accreditor "Distance Education and Training Counsel" (DETC). All of its accredited schools offer their courses and degrees, in a wide variety of both academic and professional/career areas, primarily via one means or another of distance learning... ranging from old-fashioned correspondence, or by videotape and/or DVD through the US Mail; to online learning of all manners and types using sometimes old-fashioned and sometimes bleeding-edge computer technologies; and pretty much any and all other "distance learning" modalities and types that there are out there.

Yes, many "regionally" accredited schools now also offer all manner of distance learning; and their "regional" accreditation adequately covers that. But DETC was created to help schools that offer pretty much nothing but distance learning to have a way to be academically, administratively and financially credible in the same manner as is evidenced by "regional" accreditation...

...though -- and this is important -- for a much lower cost. It costs a lot of money -- an outrageous amount, in my opinion -- for any school to become "regionally" accredited. "Regional" accreditors, in fact, use that, in my professional opinion, as an intentional barrier to entry for small and start-up schools. I do a lot of writing of both local ordinances and state laws as part of my consulting, and I've learned, the hard way, through Court rulings and their concomitant case law, that government may not use inordinately high license application fees to be an effective barrier to a citizen's being able to obtain a license as long as s/he meets all other reasonable and justifiable licensure requirements. Someone, I've long said, should sue the "regional" accreditors for doing effectively the same thing, just as cities and counties which tried to impede business licensure of undesirable businesses got sued... and lost! I believe that the regional accreditors which gouge applicants with outrageous fees would also lose. I've just not, so far, convinced any small school to step-up and be the test case. Pity. But, alas, now I digress. Sorry.

The "national" accreditor DETC exists, in largest measure, so that smaller schools which specialize in the distance learning modality, and so tend to not earn the kind of money that would allow them to become "regionally" accredited, may nevertheless become accredited by a USDE- and/or CHEA-approved agency; and thereby become just as credible as any "regionally" accredited school... at least in theory.

Though those in academia who prefer "regional" accreditation over "national" accreditation will disagree (though usually based on nothing more than their personal bias), "national" accreditors like DETC have standards which are just as academically, administratively, and financially rigorous as any "regional" accreditor. DETC is, in fact, among the best of the "national" accreditors, and so is most likely, among them, to be on-par in pretty much every way with pretty much any "regional" accreditor. And, to their chagrin, all the "regional" accreditors' wishing otherwise won't change that. The notion that "national" accreditors are somehow inherently sub-standard to "regional" ones is little more than "regional" accreditor propaganda. I discuss this more further down herein.

Other "national" accreditors specialize in subject areas, or professions. For example, the USDE- and/or CHEA-approved accreditors which specialize in accrediting engineering degree programs, or accounting degree programs, or law schools, or dental schools, or nursing schools, etc....

...they're all "national" accreditors. And some of their accreditations are so important to their respective professions that most state government professional licensing agencies -- such as nursing boards, for example; or boards which offer Certified Public Accountant (CPA) licenses; or law licenses; or psychologist licenses, etc. -- will not accept a degree as requisite for sitting for their exams which are not accredited by their respective professions' USDE- and/or CHEA-approved "national" programmatic accreditors. Said boards usually also require that said degrees be generally "regionally" accredited, too. But profession-specific, programmatic "national" accreditation is usually also required by state professional licensing boards.

Similarly, many professions, though not governmentaly licensed, maintain certain self-iimposed standards with regard to how the degrees of those in said professions are "nationally" accredited. For example, though many "regionally" accredited (and even nationally, DETC-for-example-accredited) schools offer Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, it's very difficult for an MBA-holder to get a serious job in, for example, one of the big national banks or Wall Street firms unless his/her MBA is also "nationally" accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). It's not that the MBA degree holder can't get a good job even if his/her MBA is not AACSB-accredited; however, it's simply true that at the highest levels of employment where an MBA is the dead-minimum educational requirement, said MBA's AACSB accreditation -- in addition to its school's likely also "regional" accreditation -- is essential.

Same thing in the world of religion: The big "national" USDE- and CHEA-approved accreditor of mainline denominational seminaries and schools of theology and divinity is the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (ATS). Pretty much anyone with a Master of Divinity (MDiv) degree who plans to be clergy in one of the mainline denominations (Roman Catholicism, the big/main Episcopal denomination in the US, the big/main Presbyterian denomination in the US, the three main/big Lutheran denominations in the US, the big/main Methodist denomination in the US, etc.), had better have gotten said MDiv from an ATS-accredited seminary, even if said seminary was also "regionally" or even "nationally" accredited by some other means, or s/he will likely not be allowed to become clergy in any of those mainline denominations. Or, if s/he ultimately would be, then it would likely only be after s/he spent at least a few months -- maybe a semester or two -- in said denomination's official ATS-accredited seminary.

There are also career/trade/tech-school "national" accreditors: accreditors which specialize in helping career, trade and technical schools and colleges maintain high academic, administrative and financial standards, despite that said schools tend to want to just teach the kinds of non-academic courses that will best prepare their students for the hands-on work and career for which they're training. Such schools train, hands-on, for things like automobile or motorcycle repair, dental or medical assisting, medical billing, becoming a journeyman electrician, becoming one of the lower-level (non-RN) types of nurses (an LPN or LVN), etc. These career/trade/tech school "national" accreditors tend to be the most controversial (and some say they've given "national" accreditation a bad name) because they really do only require the dead minimum amount of true academic rigor from their accredited schools as is minimally necessary so that as many as possible of said schools' courses may be devoted to the hands-on caeer training part.

Such academically minimal standards drive nuts those in legitimate academia at "regionally" (and even some "nationally") accredited schools because they value real and serious academic rigor, and not all this non-academic and hands-on career training coursework that trade/career/tech schools offer. They, in their bias, want all degrees to consist, primarily, of only academically rigorous courses in the sciences, in the arts and humanities, etc. And so that, in the main, is how "national" accreditation started to get a bad name among academicians...

...usually academicians who haven't bothered to realize that it is only the trade/career/tech post-secondary schools which offer the dead minimum of true academic rigor that's necessary for their degrees to still be worthy of USDE- and/or CHEA-approved accreditation. All other "national" accreditors have pretty much the same standards with regard to academic rigor as any "regional" accreditor. The "national" accreditors just charge less money!

And so, yes, it's true that some "national" career/trade/tech school accreditors have comparatively less academically rigorous standards, generally speaking. However, that's only for their accredited schools' non-academic courses. The general education courses that such schools teach which are the same as what "regionally" accredited schools teach -- things like English Composition, College Algebra, etc. -- are exactly the same, in terms of academic rigor, as what "regionally" accredited schools teach. And said "nationally" accredited career/tech/trade schools must nevertheless be as administratively and financially sound as any "regionally" accredited school. Even their hands-on, career-training courses must still meet the same kinds of basic standards as any "regionally" accredited school in terms of the number of clock hours, both in the classroom, and doing homework, which must be invested by the student in order to earn three (3) semester credit hours of credit for a given course.

So, then, even the often maligned career/trade/tech school accreditor, Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS), is given a bad rap by those in "regionally" accredited academia, simply because it allows less-academically-rigorous (but nevertheless stll mathematically worthy of three semester credit hours of college-level credit) hands-on, career training courses, alongside the legitimately academic courses it also requires of its schools.

That said, it really is possible for a USDE-approved "national" accreditor to be fairly objectively bad. The career/trade/tech school accreditor, Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges (ACCSC) is not very good...

...so much so, in fact, that USDE approves it as an accreditor, but CHEA won't have anything to do with it. And rightly so. In my educational consulting experience, I've observed that ACCSC's standards, just generally speaking, border on objectively sub-par. And so, then, any school accredited by it tends to have a fairly poor reputation. ACICS, on the other hand, is a head-and-shoulders better "national" career/trade/tech school accreditor than is ACCSC... hence the reason that both USDE and CHEA approve ACICS, but only USDE approves ACCSC.

And I could go on and on with other examples; but, hopefully, what I've herein provided about "national" accreditors helps the reader to really and truly understand them, as oppsed to "regional" ones. "Regional" accreditation, though, remains the preferred, "go to" kind of accreditation. Here's why...

"Regional accreditation" is a term that most people use interchangeably with the word "accreditation." For them, "regional" accreditation is the only kind they know or have ever heard of, and so when they say "regional accreditation," they really just mean "accreditation." For them, it can be surprising to learn that there's any other kind. That's, in part, because every public elementary school, middle school and high school across the nation is "regionally" accredited... most private ones, too. Also, virtually every both public and private college, university, seminary, and even some career/trade/tech school(s) in most US states are "regionally" accredited. There is no question, then, that "regional" accreditation is the "big dog" on the block when it comes to accreditation, just generally.

"Regional" accreditation is thought of, by many in academia as the "gold standard" of accreditation. Many employers -- including both those who don't know there's any other kind, as well as those who do, but who see "regional" as an inherently superior kind -- agree. And -- and this is key -- most "regionally" accredited colleges and universities see "regional" accreditation as the only kind worth having; the only kind that's any good; the only kind that anyone need bother with or respect.

Sadly, that's an arrogance mostly proffered and maintained by the "regional" accreditors, and their brainwashed "regionally accredited" schools. And the reason, in the main, is that "regionally" accredited schools wand everyone to only attend them, and to ignore the "nationally" accredited schools... for largely financial reasons, of course. Consequently, if an applicant for admission at a "regionally" accredited school presents with a "nationally" accredited degree (or transfer credits) and offers same as requisite for entry into a higher-level (or any, for that matter) degree at said "regionally" accredited school, then it's quite possible (though, gratefully, becoming less and less so, with every passing year, because of the HETA program, described in the next paragraph) that said applicant's "nationally" accredited degree (or transfer credits) will likely be summarily rejected as requisite for entry into the higher-level (or any, for that matter) "regionally" accredited degree program. Not all"regionally" accredited schools are so arrogant, but many still are.

CHEA sees that as a huge problem, and so it launched, a few years ago, its "Higher Education Transfer Alliance" (HETA) program (see the link to it in the "sources and related links" section, below) to educate schools about the credibility of all accreditation, as long as it's USDE- and/or CHEA-approved; and to encourage all schools, be they "regionally" or "nationally" accredited, to respect one another's accreditation, and to allow either "regionally" or "nationally" accredited credits to equally transfer between either "regionally" or "nationally" accredited schools; and/or to allow either "regionally" or "nationally" accredited lower-level degrees to be equally acceptable at both "regionally" and "nationally" accredited schools as requisite for entry into higher-level degree programs.

Sadly, while that all works nicely on paper, the cold, harsh reality is that "regional" accreditation tends to be the coin of the realm with most employers, with much of government, and especially among the "regionally" accredited schools out there. For many of them, the HETA program means little or nothing. For many of them, if the degree isn't "regionally" accredited, then it's not really worth anything. They're wrong, of course, but since they're the ones, ignorant or not, who decide whether a person with a degree will or won't be hired, or will or won't be allowed to obtain professional licensure, or will or won't be admitted to a "regionally" accredited degree program, then what they believe matters, like it or not.

For that reason, even though "nationally" accrredited schools and their degrees are every bit as academically rigorous and valid and impressive as most "regionally" accredited ones, I always advise degree seekers to be painfully aware of the regional-is-better-than-national bias out there. It's always better to just play it safe and go to the the "regionally" accredited school, and get its "regionally" accredited degree. Only if the "nationally" accredited school and its degree will positively serve the degree-seeker's ultimate career or vocational or educational enlightenment needs should said "nationally" accredited school and its degree be chosen over the "regionally" accredited one.

It's a pity -- actually, it borders on criminal, in my personal opinion -- that that's how things are in the real world, but it is what it is; and all my wishing in the world won't change that. All I can do is try to educate people, like I'm herein doing, as to the real truth of it all, and than hope that sometime in the not too distant future the goals of CHEA's HETA program are finally met; and that all schools, as long as their accreditation is either or both of USDE- and/or CHEA-approved, will treat one another equally; and also that all employers, and government professional licensing agencies, will do the same.

In the meantime, though, yes, there is a difference between "national" and "regional" accreditation; and it's important for those who deign to proffer reasons why, in places like this, to bother to get it right. The first answerers, here, did not so bother... and so degree-seekers gott misled. Shame, again, on them.

There are really two "bottom lines" for degree-seekers. The first is to ensure that whatever school one attends is accredited by a USDE- and/or CHEA-approved agency. The second is to ensure that a "regionally" accredited school and degree is chosen, unless there's a compelling reason to go with "national" accreditation. And I say, again, that it's a pity that that's the way things are!

Determining that a given school is accredited by either or both of a USDE- and/or CHEA-approved agency is as simple as taking literally only 30 seconds to look-up the school in either or both of the USDE and/or CHEA online databases, on their respective websites. I've provided the links to said databases down in the "sources and related links" section, beneath these answers, on this webpage. If any school that one is considering attending isn't listed in one or the other (or both) of those USDE and/or CHEA databases, then said school is not accredited, no matter what it claims...

...and don't forget that degree/diploma mills will shameless claim that they're accredited, even when nothing could be further from the truth. They'll argue it, in fact, to the death. Don't believe them, though. If the school isn't listed in either or both of the USDE and/or CHEA databases of accredited schools, then said school is not accredited. Period. Simple as that. Believe and act on nothing else!

All that said, yes, it's actually possible for a completely good and legitimate school to not be listed in either the USDE and/or CHEA database if said school is a brand new start-up. All new schools must operate for a few years, and graduate a certain number of students, before they may apply for USDE- and/or CHEA-approved accreditation... be it "regional" or "national" accreditation. And so, yes, brand new schools will not be listed in either the USDE or CHEA databases for the first few yeas of their operation, yet they're usually not rip-off degree/diploma mills.

The problem, though, with daring to enroll in such unaccredited, but nevertheless credible new schools is that if they don't become accredited before the student finally graduates, then said student ends-up with an unaccredited degree, for life, even if the school from which s/he earned it later becomes accredited. Whether or not a degree is accredited is determined by whether or not the school that awarded it was accredited at the time said degree was awarded. That's why, also, some people have accredited degrees, even though the school from which they earned it somehow subsequently lost its accreditation. Again, whethher or not a given degree is accreditated depends, entirely, on whether or not the school from which it was earned was accredited at the moment the finished degree was awarded.

And having an unaccredited degree, even from a school which, subsequent to said degree's awarding, become accredited, is not good. I'm not saying that all unaccredited schools and degrees are worthless. As my examples, below, illustrate, nothing could be further from the truth. However, there are some very serious lifetime downsides to getting an unaccredited degree, as I'll explain in a moment. So important is it that even a brand new school should be considered suspect if it does not, as soon as it is finally able, apply for either "national" or "regional" accreditation.

I've always hounded, for example, Rockbridge Seminary for that. It's a perfectly credible seminary (though way too both theologically and socio-politically conservative for at least my tastes); however, once it had been in business long enough, and had graduated enough students that it could finally apply for accreditation, it did not; and it continued to operate for way too long, in my opinion, as an unaccredited school. This began to make it a bit suspect, in my mind. Lots of new schools start-out with good intentions, and claim that they'll be seeking accreditation as soon as they're able, yet they never do. And they become less and less credible, over time, in part because of it...

...until they're finally offering nothing but worthless credentials, and become little more than a degree/diploma mill. The nefarious Trinity Bible College and Seminary, in Newburgh, Indiana, is a classic examplee of that. And, sadly, such patterns are especially true with religious schools. That, just so the reader knows, is because religious schools, in many states, are very easy to start-up because said states have language in their higher education regulation laws which specifically exempt from said regulation any and all religious colleges, universities and seminaries. Therefore, many new religious schools start-up which are under-funded, poorly run, and so never really have a chance, despite their original good intentions, of becoming accredited, even after they've been in business long enough, and have graduated enough students.

Sadly, though, there's another, more nefarious reason why religious schools often have less-than-laudible histories, and that's because the very religious exemption I cited in the previous paragraph is often seen by degree/diploma mill operators as a convenience legal loophole which they then use to start-up religious schools, and then claim the state law exemption so they may operate with impunity. Most states, though, have finally figured that out, and so said loophole is now finally closed in most of them. Still, it has given religious schools -- which one would think, just categorically, would be honest -- a bad name in many academic circles.

In any case, getting back to Rockbridge Seminary: I see that, as of this writing, it is finally an official candidate for DETC accreditation. Good! I'm sure it will get it. Again, I'm not wild about its conservatism, but Rockbridge is a nevertheless good seminary. I wish it luck, then, getting accredited. But now I digress, again. Sorry, again.

There actually are situations in which an unaccredited school's degree could still be useful. California, for example, has unaccredited schools which are nevertheless approved by various state professional licensing agencies such that even the unaccredited degrees from them will nevertheless qualify their holders to sit for professional state licensing exams, and to ultimately become professionally state licensed if said exams are passed.

For example, California has several unaccredited colleges/universities that are nevertheless approved by the state's various psychological professions licensing boards; and which offer degrees in psychology and counseling which, when accompanied by several hundred or even thousand hours of practica, will qualify their holders to sit for such as the "Marriage and Family Therapist" (MFT), or the "Licensed Clinical Social Worker" (LCSW), or even the "licensed psychologist" exams; and then to become state licensed in those professions upon passing same.

Or, another example: California's Committee of Bar Examiners (CBE) approves several both night-and-weekend and in-classroom, as well as even entirely online law schools which are nevertheless not accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA), like pretty much all other law schools in the country. However, the graduates of these CBE-approved, but not ABA-accredited night-and-weekend and/or online law schools may, if they meet/satisfy all other requirements, nevertheless sit for California's Bar Exam and, if passed, to be admitted to the bar, and become licensed attorneys at law. Moreover, the bar card in the pockets of said lawyers are the exact same color, and say the exact same thing on them, as those in the pockets of graduates from the more-impressive, ABA-accredited law schools; and said lawyers from CBE-approved, but not ABA-accredited law schools may practice in all the same courts of law, in all the same areas and ways, as lawyers who graduated from ABA-accredited law schools. In fact, if they take the additional CBE-offered/approved specialist courses, they may even be listed, alongside any other lawyer, in the state's legal specialist directores.

So, then, it's not that an unaccredited, but nevertheless objectively and provably credible college/university can have no value. It can, indeed. But even an objectively and provably credible school's credits will likely not transfer to even a "nationally" (and especially to a "regionally") accredited school; nor, likely, will the unaccredited school's finished degrees be acceptable to either "nationally" or "regionally" accredited schools as requisite for entry into their higher-level degree programs. I'm not saying it never happens, but I'm just saying that it's highely unlikely. There are always interesting exceptions (though usually only for demonstrably exceptional people... as is true in much of life).

In the case of the CBE-approved, but not ABA-accredited California law schools, only around half (actually, a bit less) of the other 50 US states will allow their graduates to ever sit for their respective state Bar exams, and then to practice law in said states. Most US states require that their licensed attorneys-at-law be graduates of ABA-accredited law schools. And even among the less than half of the 50 US states that will ultimately allow graduates of CBE-approved, but not ABA-accredited law schools to sit for their Bar exams, most require that said graduates have first practiced law in California for several (usually 7, give or take, depending on the state) years before s/he may ever sit for said other state's Bar exam. Only Wisconsin, it turns out, will allow a California CBE-approved, but not ABA-accredited law school graduate to sit for its state Bar exam more or less immediately after graduation; but even then, Wisconsin requires that said graduate pass the California Bar Exam, first, and then be admitted to its Bar first (but not to have actually practiced law, there), before it will then allow him/her to sit for the Wisconsin Bar Exam and become admitted there, too. All other states which allow those with Calfornia CBE-approved, but not also ABA-accredited law degrees to eventually sit for their respective Bar exams require admission to California's bar, and then a few years of law practice in California, first.

A couple or three other US states have similar situations: that is, unaccredited, but nevertheless state-approved law schools which qualify their graduates to sit for their respective states' bar exams, and then, if passed, to become licensed to practice law in said states. Let me think... I believe Tennessee is one... then... um... oh, yeah, Massachusetts... and then... wait... there's at least one more. Oh, well, I can't remember, and don't want to bother to look it up; but my point is that California's not alone in at least that sort of unaccredited, but nevertheless objectively and provably credible schools thing. But I still wouldn't recommend ever fiddling with an unaccredited school if it can be avoided.

Accreditation really matters. Messing around with unaccredited schools, even if they're provably and objectively credible, is, generally speaking, a big waste of time. Yes, they can be useful in certain circumstances, some examples of which I've just provided. However, why even fiddle with it? It, in the end, is usually just not worth it. Always stick, then, with an accredited school; with "accredited" meaning only by an agency that's either or both of USDE- and/or CHEA-approved.

Beyond that, whether the school is "nationally" or "regionally" accredited, and which one should choose, depends on what the degree-seeker is ultimately trying to accomplish. Yes, "nationally" accredited schools are often less expensive than "regionally" accredited schools tend to me... sometimes considerably so, as one previous answerer correctly mentioned. And so, if one's finances are severely limited, then a "nationally" accredited school may be one's only choice. However -- and this is important -- it's not that difficult to find very affordable "regionally" accredited schools. There are enough of them out there, in fact, that money, alone, should pretty much never be the reason that one chooses a "nationally" accredited school over a "regionally" accredited one. And since many of the most affordable "regionally" accredited schools know that they will be, because of their low costs, attractive to students from across the nation or even around the world, most of them have potent distance learning programs through which even out-of-state (or even out-of-country) students could save a ton of money on even "regionally" accredited coursework! So, then, cost, alone, should never force anyone to get a "nationally" accredited degree if one would really and truly prefer a "regionally" accredited one.

In the end, because of academia's (and most employers', and most of government's) bias against "nationally" accredited schools in favor of "regionally" accredited ones -- no matter how irrational and unfair; and despite what CHEA's HETA is trying to accomplish -- it's generally safer and better for the degree-seeker to attend a "regionally" accredited school if at all possible.

I, personally, just hate that that's the way things are; but other than helping people to understand it all, as I'm herein doing, there's not really very much I can do to change any of it. Oh, sure, occasionally I'm retained, as a consultant, to represent a degree-seeker who has a "nationally" accredited bachelors degree, for example, who's attempting to use it as requisite for entry into a "regionally" accredited masters degree program, but is having said "nationally" accredited bachelors degree summarily rejected. And so I will sit down with the "regionally" accredited school's registrar and admissions department and educate it/them about the realities of "national" versus "regional" accreditation; and I'm usually able, ultimately, to disabuse the "regionally" accredited school of its anti-"national"-accreditation bias. However, it's an uphill battle, and I don't always win. Some "regionally" accredited schools are intransigent about their insensible biases, and that's the long and short of it. Still, when I win, it's nice because from that day forward, the "regionally" accredited school tends to be more open-minded, and to comply, intentionally or not, with the goals CHEA's HETA program... heck, some of them even join it, and then advertise it! And that's very cool. In that sense, then, I suppose I'm changing things, one school at a time. But that's not the kind of change, nor the speed with which it should happen, that higher education truly needs.

Finally, regarding "national" versus "regional" accreditation at the high school level: Always, always, always, no matter what, make sure that your high school diploma is "regionally" accredited. I'm sorry, DETC and the other "national" accreditors which accredit high school programs, but that is the best advice I can give. Enough "regionally" accredited colleges/universities won't accept a "nationally" accredited high school diploma that it's just not worth messing around with one.

Even the "nationally" accredited colleges which also offer high school programs know this; and so they've all made sure that even if their college degrees are only "nationally" accredited, at least their high school diplomas are, impressively, "regionally" accredited. For example, the two big players in "nationally" accredited career and business (and other) certificates, diplomas and degrees -- Penn Foster College, and Ashworth College -- both offer only "regionally" accredited high school diplomas, even though their post-secondary college certificates, diplomas and degrees are "nationally" accredited by DETC. They understand that a "nationally" accredited high school diploma has almost no usefulness in the real world, and so they don't even dare offer one. Kudos to them, for that. The two of them may be pejoratively known as the sort of "Wal-Mart of higher education" because they offer their DETC-accredited degree courses almost as if they were blister-packed and hanging on a retail store gondola, but they at least know better than to mess around with anything but "regionally" accredited high school diplomas. My hat's off to 'em for that...

...and the reader, here, should take a lesson from it: Only a "regionally" accredited high school diploma is worth having; and one should only dare get a "nationally" accredited (instead of a "regionally" accredited) degree if one completely understands what one is getting into, and how a "nationally" (instead of a "regionally") accredited degree might ultimately hurt one. As long as one's eyes are wide open about it, then, fine. But just make sure that that is, in fact, the case.

Only if the school and/or its degree is professional and/or programmatically specialized in some way, and so also requires a programmatic "national" accreditation of some kind, in addition to its general overall "regional" accreditation, so that said degree will be credible in whatever is its profession or industry, should it be pursued.

So, then, that should, once and for all, pretty much clear-up the whole business about "national" versus "regional" accreditation. Bottom line: Stick with "regional," unless you've really done your homework and have determined that "national" will served you just as well. And even then, because of the insensible bias out there in the world, try to stick with "regional," regardless, just to play it safe. One never knows, as one ages, how one's career might change; and if one gets a "nationally" accredited degree because it's fine for one kind of career early in life, one might later find, if one changes careers, that said "nationally" accredited degree might actually hurt one. So, to play it safe, much as I hate to recommend it, stick with "regional" accreditation at every possible opportunity. It's just safer.

What is the best college for a degree in physical therapy?

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You can obtain this information by going to www.collegeboard.com/splash/ and using the sites College MatchMaker search engine, or you can also click on the related links below which will take you directly to the site. You can research colleges and universities by name, or by programs of study, or by geographical location, size, or combinations of part or all of them etc. The site will provide you with a list of institutions based on your request. It will give you the schools background, accreditation, degree offerings, programs of study, entrance requirements, tuition and fees, room and board, athletic programs etc. and a link to each institutions official web page. Make sure the college or university has a regional accreditation (most important). Practice navigating this site. It will be well worth the time and effort.

How much is 112 lbs in stone?

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One stone equals 14lb. Thus 112lb = 8st

One stone equals 14lb. Thus 112lb = 8st

One stone equals 14lb. Thus 112lb = 8st

One stone equals 14lb. Thus 112lb = 8st

One stone equals 14lb. Thus 112lb = 8st

One stone equals 14lb. Thus 112lb = 8st

What is 7.5 stone equivalent to?

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1 stone equals 14 lbs so 14 stone is (14x14) 196 lbs plus the 2.5 lbs to the total of 198.5 lbs.