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International Relations

International Relations (IR) is the study of the relationships among states, and other economic and political units in the international system. It is closely related to various academic disciplines, including geography, political science, law, economics, sociology, history, philosophy, and psychology.

500 Questions

Happiness is to Senipah as 517768399 is to?

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Answer: 9386715 Reason: if each consecutive letter in "happiness" relates to the consecutive numbers in 517768399, then H=5, A=1, P=7, I=6, N=8, E=3 and S=9. Using the numbers that relate to the letters in senipah, you will arrive at SENIPAH=9386715. there's another way to figure it out: Happiness Hapines Senipah 517768399 5176839 9386615

Why do Israel treat the Palestinians so badly?

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Because people can't decide on who god is. Because their believes are different than others. People fight over holly ground and who they believe god is, or what book to read. We are a product of our enviroment. It may be a never ending war. When this war against Allah, Christ, Mohammad, and all the gods and their disciples ends in a world war, then the Jewish may start to get treated as equals. Perhaps then will all men be treated as one. God loves us all, or perhaps there is no god. Who am I to say? Who are you to say? I would tell tell you what I believe, but this is not the forum.

Is Pakistan a nuclear state?

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Yes, Pakistan is a nuclear state, and it is growing its nuclear arsenals day by day.

Was it right for the US to get involved in the affairs of Columbia Nicaragua and Mexico?

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You should note that when international politics and diplomacy are involved, there are no real friends but different countries with common or diverging interests that more often than not, end up in 'friendly rivalries', contempt or even outright war.

The US does not have the right to get involved in the affairs of any other nation, but diplomacy and national interests usually end up like that: bigger powers often meddle on the internal affairs of less powerful nations, to the extreme of bullying and even invading them. Even now, the US is actively involved in the internal affairs of several developing nations, including Mexico, Colombia and Nicaragua; it is just that nowadays the media has paid more attention to the Middle East and China.

What are facts about the US and Mexico relations?

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You should note that when international politics and diplomacy are involved, there are no real friends but different countries with common or diverging interests that more often than not, end up in 'friendly rivalries', contempt or even outright war.

That being said, Mexico and the United States are neither allies nor enemies. Both countries aren't allies, as neither have signed any mutual-defense treaties such as NATO. Both aren't enemies either, as there haven't been any military confrontations between both countries for the last 93 years.

The US and Mexico are close business partners, and at least on paper, respect each other's interests.

What best describes the purpose of the Ostend Manifesto?

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Written in 1854, the Ostend Manisfesto described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused.

2 Discuss the most important differences between realism liberalism and world system view of international relations with respect to actors motive force and values?

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In extreme brevity:

Realism/neorealism: States are the actors playing a rational game in an anarchic international system. They aim for their own self interest, that is typically expressed in terms of power (political, military, economic and so on), and relative gain as compared to other actors. Classical realism explains power as a need, whereas neorealism adds some constraints in terms of power politics and provides further explanation through the international system, using the external structures of the anarchic system as determinants of the power game through mechanisms such as security dilemmas, spiralling models, signals etc. Most often when investigating conflict, realists apply bargaining models and game theory. Read Waltz and Morgenthau for details

Liberalism/neoliberalism: States are still the main actors, and are still participating in an anarchic international system but they aim for absolute gain, the maximum possible total output. Thus, while realists contend that power is expressed in relative terms compared to other actors, and thus strengthning another actor is a loss, liberalists consider that power is expressed in absolute terms (and thus, cooperation may bring gains through itself). Another major difference is that liberalism focuses on the connections and interactions as well as interdependence between states in terms of understanding state behavior, while realism explains those interactions solely from the state interest for power. Read Mearsheimer for more.

Constructivism is slightly more complex - it focuses on social constructs and ideas and the way they create the relations between states. Individual actors and individual identities create the structure of the system, their social construct (their formation, their internal ideology etc.) will determine how they behave, as will systemic level rules and ideas. States can no longer be defined independently and cannot be considered to be equal and thus act equally - they will act as their nature will dictate (in a very simplified explanation, a democracy will behave different from an authoritarian system), and their nature comes from a large mix of factors, not least the way others have defined it. Furthermore, perceptions, attitudes and social constructs can change and influence the structure, thus altering the behavior of the state (for example, the IMF can alter the way one thinks about economic behavior or poverty, and thus alter the way a state will behave or perceive itself in the international sphere, as can "security complexes" and "securitization" - the process of perceiving a threat). Thus, the state system is a system of ideas, norms and social constructs and behaviors, that is defined and defines the actors, working with conjectures as the main tool for undestanding the international system. It is thus a post-positivist, post-modernist approach, unlike realism or liberalism. See Read Wendt or Buzan for more.

World System theory is a marxist based approach. It focuses on the world as being divided in a core (states posessing power and technology and capital) and a periphery (states posessing labor and resources), with the core, for historical reasons, becoming the center of trade and the accumulator of wealth. International relations are structured along these lines - imperialism and colonialism, where the core exploits the periphery becoming two main attributes of the international system. In this approach, the international system is no longer anarchic, it is structured by history and, in a way, by predispositions towards a certain behavior. It is still positivist in approaches. For more of this, read Wallerstein.

There's also functionalism and structuralism, as there is feminism in IR, but since you don't want an answer, that's it.

A person from Brazil?

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Is known as a Brazillian

What is diplomatic pressure?

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Diplomatic pressure refers to the use of threats by international actors to sway other actors into following their desired policy.

Why do countries fight against other countries?

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Countries fight to obtain territory, power, or wealth, or to protect what they have. If two countries are in conflict, and cannot settle it diplomatically, then force may be used by one side, or by both.

Why does the arctic hare have thick fur?

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SO that they can keep warm in the cold temperature. And their fur is white so they can camouflage.

What is the importance of ethics in political science?

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Politics encompasses a broad set of social relations and, even more specifically, that of power. Ethics, which delineates how one should act, makes normative valuation of which types of behaviours, intents, or outcomes are considered good or bad. By considering these things good or bad, we can drastically change what type of political relations are considered desirable.

Why are strong foreign relations important to the US and Texas?

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It is one of the largest contributors to both countries' economies:

  • For the US, it represents 8% of the total population and 7.95% of its GDP (ranked second in both terms after California).
  • For Mexico, it represents by far the largest business and trade partner: Texas accounts for 23% and 21% of total exports, only followed by California (9% of total exports) and China (15% of total imports)

Determinants of foreign policy of Pakistan?

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Geographical LocationImpact of Ideology

Economic Condition

Security, Defence

Cold War

What influence did foreign nations have on china from 1912-1938?

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Influence started with the purchasing of tea from China, who was not involved in the world trade of the day. At that time Chinese were the only peoples into drinking tea, and would only sell it for gold to other nations.

The British East India Co started the production of tea in India. British government financial support of the East India Co, was the reason for the tea tax, that sparked the "Boston Tea Party".

China's attitude to the sail of tea for gold, caused both Briton & America financial problems, and to get back some of the gold spent for tea, was started the first drug war. Britain, and America used their warships, in what was caled "The China Station" to protect their merchant ships, shipping opium from Turkey, the only place opium grew naturally, to sell it for gold to the Chinese.

Funny thing! This opium war was responsible for the widening of the farming of the opium poppy. The opium products coming from Afghanistan to day, would not have happened, had the British & Americans not taken poppy seeds out of turkey!

Like most things, foreign trade has proved destructive, to both sides of the trade relationship eventually.

The arctic hare has white fur in the winter This helps it survive because?

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it helps it survive because it blends in with the snow. so other predators don't find it and eat. Its a very important adaptation for most prey (hunted animal) and helps animals not become endangered or extinct.

Roosevelt supported US involvement in foreign affairs?

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Theodore Roosevelt carried a big stick and had no foreign power lol

What is history and evolution of international relations?

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What is the origin and groth of ir

How did the superpowers react to the existence of two China's?

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After the takeover of mainland China, the US supported the ousted Kuomintang, and it was the Republic of China (based in Taipei) that represented China in the UN (due to the influence of the US and the West).

The USSR supported the People's Republic of China. They boycotted the UN during 1950 in protest at Mao's exclusion, which allowed the US to gain the backing of the UN in the Korean War (the USSR could have vetoed this had it been in the session).

Brinksmanship and sabre rattling continued from the mainland across the strait. In response, the US pledged military support for Taiwan should she be invaded. Following the Sino-Chinese split in the late 1950s, the US began developing diplomatic relations with the People's Republic. But it was not until 1976 that the PRC replaced Taiwan as the official representative of China in the UN.

What are the objectives of development cooperation?

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the objective of social development is to improve the quality of life of the people within a country. thus, social development is man-centred. no matter the numerous theories of social development and the many definitions, social development has its main objective, that is, to improve the quality of life of people.

BY: OPOKU MICHAEL, KNUST.

Why are they actors in international relations?

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Most classical IR theory (i.e., realism, liberalism and world systems theory) considers that the actors (main participants/decision makers) in the international sphere are the states. That means that decisions are considered as being aggregated at state level and that the international system is the creation of the states.

Constructivists and structuralists (as well as a few neorealists and neoliberals) add other actors, such as non-national entities (multi-national corporations, large NGOs), subnational entities (such as structures of government competing for ideological dominance, federal regions, lobby and pressure groups and even individuals in power) and transnational entities (such as international organizations in themselves as opposed to being just expression arenas for states) as well as ideatic structures (such as securitization complexes, social constructs, social norms and laws, ideologies etc.). In these schools, defining what an actor is is left to the author, so it is best to read carefully so that you can understand what the actor considers.