International Relations

International Relations (IR) is the study of the relationships among states, and other economic and political units in the international system. It is closely related to various academic disciplines, including geography, political science, law, economics, sociology, history, philosophy, and psychology.

1,805 Questions
North Korea
South Korea
International Relations

Who are the allies of North Korea?

North Korea, famous for being the most isolated country in the world, currently does not maintain any alliances with other nations. Though the country it has the strongest diplomatic relationships with is China and Russia.

Political Science
International Relations
International Laws

Is international law true or not?

It is true in that it exists. Therefore, it is not illusory or false.

History, Politics & Society
International Relations

Why is the world bank important?

The World Bank is a financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. World Bank's stated goal is to reduce poverty.

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.

The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty. By law,[which?] all of its decisions must be guided by a commitment to promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment.

The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group, in that the World Bank comprises only two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), whereas the latter incorporates these two in addition to three more: International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

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International Relations
Political Theory

What is state-centrism?

The only actors recognized in International Relations are state and state alliances

International Relations
Barack Obama
Example Sentences

What is racial realism?

Racial realism is a term used for either of two directly opposed positions, both motivated by the durability and social importance of racial distinctions: * The view that racial distinctions are socially constructed but enduringly important because dominant social forces continually reinforce them. Law professor Derrick Bell is a characteristic advocate of this view.

International Relations

Does Brazil belong to a trade alliance?

Yes the name is Mercosul

Mer -> Market

cosul -> Countrys of Sul Americans

Political Science
International Relations

Why is the study of political science important?

Ours is the age politics. The government has become the business of everybody. Whether we like it or not, we are part of the state from the moment we are born to the day we die. Our birth, marriage, and death must be registered with the state. Secondly, it will broaden our knowledge about our duties and obligations as a citizen, what government is, what state is and discuss political issues and concerns. We can even criticize effectively cases of incompetence, dishonesty or unscrupulous in government. Thirdly, we will know about our cultural backgrounds for "history is past of politics and politics is present of history."

It is an acknowledge of understanding about state and government. It also gives knowledge of right to choose.

International Government
Politics and Government
Political Science
International Relations

The basic determinants of a foreign policy?

The basic determinants of a foreign policy are

2) Size/Geography

3) Economic Development

4) Security

5) Advancement in Technology

4) National Capacity

5) Political Parties/Leadership

6) Ideology

7) National Interest

8) Role of Press/Bureacracy

9) Social Structure

10) Public Opinion

11) Diplomacy.

Also external factors like International Power Structure, International Organizations, World Public Opinion and reaction of other states also feature in determining the foreign policy

Acronyms & Abbreviations
Synonyms and Antonyms
International Relations

A list of synonyms and antonyms of the word intrepid?


Society and Civilization
Units of Measure
International Relations

What are the differences between realism and neo-realism in international relations?

The main difference between the two is in their view of the causes of conflict in international relations. Classical realism puts an emphasis on the self-interested and unchanging human nature which therefore makes states self-interested and power seeking units. Neo-realism, on the other hand, argues that the conflict in international relations can be explained by the state of anarchy: lack of overarching authority in IR which pushes individual states to seek power (self-help system).

Political Science
International Relations

What is political science and why is it important?

Political science, as currently conceived, is a relatively new concept that dates to the nineteenth-century United States. Prior to this time, the study of politics in the West remained a part of natural philosophy, and it tended to focus on philosophical, historical, and institutional approaches. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle is often named as the first "political scientist," but his approach differs markedly from what is currently understood to be "political science." Aristotle primarily occupied himself with addressing what sort of political system would best enable the highest human life of eudaimonia(happiness). In the Politics, Aristotle surveys an array of constitutions, separating them into six categories based on how many rule the system and whether or not they rule well. This may be considered an empirical study of sorts and perhaps the first "typology," but his method of study falls well short of what is currently considered to be scientific.

The ancient Indian approach exemplified in the treatise Arthashastra (written by Kautilya around 300 B.C.E.) similarly differs from the modern approach to studying politics. Kautilya, often compared to Thucydides, Thomas Hobbes, and Niccolò Machiavelli, discusses the importance of law, kingly conduct, foreign policy, and administrative practices in an attempt to explain that governments have the responsibility of tending to the well-being (broadly understood) of their people. While these ancient approaches to studying politics differ in important ways from the contemporary approach of political science, their emphasis on the pragmatics of political rule connect rather well with contemporary political practice in the West. The Islamic approach to political practice, however, contains some important differences. Notably, Islamic political practice is firmly grounded in religion in so far as it sees the purpose of the state to be the satisfaction of Allah's wishes, namely, the eradication of evil. Thus, whereas political practice in the industrialized West has been able to evolve as ethical and moral codes have been altered or evaporated (for example, the Christian prohibition on usury no longer carries much weight in a capitalist framework), Islamic political practice has much more difficulty with such changes because Allah is considered the One who dictates moral and ethical codes.

Political scientists of the early twenty-first century are motivated far more by an interest in attaining political "knowledge" than Aristotle or Kautilya were. Aristotle sought less to be sure of what he knew than to assess the role of politics in the good life. Indeed, this was the motivating force behind almost all studies of politics (with the notable exceptions, perhaps, of Augustine of Hippo and Machiavelli) until the nineteenth century. In many areas of the world, such as Continental Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, the importance of studying politics for more metaphysical reasons, rather than for simply epistemological ones, continues into the twenty-first century. In these places, society still generally tends to take precedence over the individual as the focus of political study. In the United States and the United Kingdom, by contrast, the study of politics has adopted a strongly scientific stance, a stance that has embedded itself in empiricist epistemology and individualism.

International Relations
International Business and Trade

What is the oil for food scandal?

It was intended to allow Iraq to sell oil through an escrow system in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to rebuild its military. It is termed a scandal because of the corruption related to it and not, contrarily to popular belief, because of it having allowed Iraq to rebuild its military.

Individuals and organizations favoring Saddam's Iraqi regime were offered oil contracts through the Oil-for-Food program. These contracts were then sold on the open market and the seller was allowed to keep a transaction fee. These contracts were awarded to persons who agreed to refund a portion of this fee the Iraqi government or politicians who could influence their countries' policies toward Iraq. Companies that sold commodities were overcharging by up to 10%, with part of the overcharged amount being diverted into private bank accounts for Saddam Hussein and other regime officials and the other part being kept by the supplier. Some commodities ordered and paid for were never delivered or were unfit for use, and the distribution system within Iraq was controlled by politics, not humanitarianism. The French bank handling funds transfers for the program made payments without proof that goods were delivered and to third parties who were not authorized recipients. Investigators estimate that the bank received more than $700 million in fees under the program. This webpage gives more detail about the program and the various UN officials, politicians, businessmen and companies involved in the scandal.

Politics and Government
Australia in WW2
International Relations

What is domestic politics?

Domestic politics refer to issues that are local (town or city), state, or country-wide. These issues include local, state, and Federal tax rates, building roads, highways, airports,, and schools, the need to hire (or not) more teachers, and regulating insurance companies, healthcare, and banks.

International Relations

What is a trust deficit?

A trust deficit just means a lack of trust ... between people or nations.

If you and your parent or sibling don't trust each other, you have a trust deficit. And when countries don't trust each other, they have a trust deficit.

Politics and Government
Social Sciences
International Relations

What theories are in realism in international relations theory?

Realism, as a very basic definition, is a theory based on the following ideas:

Sovereign states are sacrosanct; they are the major players in global relations.

Sovereignty must not be violated by interference from outside a state.

A state's primary duty is to look after its own interests. This means developing a strong economy, which can support a strong military to ensure the security of the state.

Economic realism (mercantilism) involves protectionism on a zero-sum basis.

Political Theory
International Relations

What was the most recent use of military as a tool of foreign policy?

Force is used all the time, but one very recent example was in Libya, where a coalition of mostly Western nations supported anti-Qadaffi rebels.

International Relations

Why countries cooperate with each other?


North Korea
International Relations

Is North Korea part of the UN?

Yes, North Korea is an active member of UN.

Political Science
International Relations

Ma Political science syllabus for Punjabi university patiala?


Bonds and Treasuries
North Korea
International Relations

What does North Korea have that makes the US nervous?

Weapons, including probable nuclear.

International Government
International Relations

What are the effects of modernization?

(Also Modernization) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals.

The concept of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard evolutionary pattern, as described in the social evolutionism theories. According to this each society would evolve inexorably from barbarism to ever greater levels of development and civilization. The more modern states would be wealthier and more powerful, and their citizens freer and having a higher standard of living. This was the standard view in the social sciences for many decades with its foremost advocate being Talcott Parsons. This theory stressed the importance of societies being open to change and saw reactionary forces as restricting development. Maintaining tradition for tradition's sake was thought to be harmful to progress and development.

This approach has been heavily criticized, mainly because it conflated modernization with Westernization. In this model, the modernization of a society required the destruction of the indigenous culture and its replacement by a more Westernized one. Technically modernity simply refers to the present, and any society still in existence is therefore modern. Proponents of modernization typically view only Western society as being truly modern arguing that others are primitive or unevolved by comparison. This view sees unmodernized societies as inferior even if they have the same standard of living as western societies. Opponents of this view argue that modernity is independent of culture and can be adapted to any society. Japan is cited as an example by both sides. Some see it as proof that a thoroughly modern way of life can exist in a non-western society. Others argue that Japan has become distinctly more western as a result of its modernization. In addition, this view is accused of being Eurocentric, as modernization began in Europe and has long been regarded as reaching its most advanced stage in Europe (by Europeans), and in Europe overseas (USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand etc).

According to the Social theorist Peter Wagner (Social theorist), modernization can be seen as processes, and as offensives. The former view is commonly projected by politicians and the media, and suggests that it is developments, such as new data technology or dated laws, which make modernization necessary or preferable. This view makes critique of modernization difficult, since it implies that it is these developments which control the limits of human interaction, and not vice versa. The latter view of modernization as offensives argues that both the developments and the altered opportunities made available by these developments, are shaped and controlled by human agents. The view of modernization as offensives therefore sees it as a product of human planning and action, an active process capable of being both changed and criticized. Modernization is most likely one of the most influential happenings in society.


When we use the word development we imply a process or movement, presumably forward, upward or generally toward something better than what was. But this immediately raises all sorts of questions. Take the case of the man in the village who has spent the day fishing. Today, in many parts of the Pacific he is liable to bring his catch into his home to feed his own household. In years past, he may have felt obliged to share his catch with his whole lineage group and possibly a good part of the village as well. By today's standards the fisherman could be called provident and enterprising for providing inexpensive protein for his family; by yesterday's norms he would be judged stingy for failing to share his catch with the wide circle of kinfolk towards whom he was obligated. By which norms should he be judged?

The matter becomes still more complicated when we consider other possibilities. Suppose the way the man disposes of his fish is intimately bound up with other values and attitudes that are the effect of modernization. Suppose the very same values which lead him to limit the distribution of his fish also dictate that he will avoid beating his wife, send his daughter to school and take disciplinary action against a brother-in-law who is working under him in a government bureau. Does this pattern of values to which the man now subscribes represent genuine development or regression? What if the very changes that undermine his broad kin group are also responsible for greater individual freedom and a vision that looks beyond the boundaries of the village for the first time? The ethical dilemmas of modernization do not yield easy answers.

In taking up the difficult theme of the ethics of development, there are three important premises we must keep firmly in mind. First, since development is a process or movement, we must remember it is relevant to ask: where have we come from? where are we now? and where are we headed? The danger is that ignoring the first and last, we may focus exclusively at where we are now. Only when we consider all three can we make adequate ethical judgments on development.

The second thing to remember is that change rarely happens piecemeal and in isolation. Modernization involves not so much discrete elements as clusters of interrelated attitudes and values that are of a piece. One buys what the world calls development or modernization in wholesale lots rather than by the single item. This is not to say that a people on the path to development are doomed to become carbon copies of the industrialized nations of the world. They have real choices. But each choice made entails various other elements implicit in and related to the first, although they may not be perceived as such at the outset. An option for the money economy, for instance, implies much more than a decision to replace barter with a single medium of exchange, as we well know. The same can be said of bank accounts and refrigerators, which offer people the means of preserving resources that formerly would have had to be distributed immediately.

If this should seem unduly fatalistic, then it is well to keep in mind our third premise. Years ago it was fashionable for cultural anthropologists to regard societies or cultures as complex bits of machinery, like the old-fashioned spring watch, in which every part was interrelated. An alteration in one of the parts would invariably change, and often damage, the functioning of the entire machine. Lately we have come to realize that societies are as organic as the people who form them. Like the human body, a society can adapt to stresses and changes in their environment and even to the viruses and bacteria that assail its inner workings. Societies, then, are capable of healing themselves. And they can do so even as they retain their own distinctiveness.

With this in mind, then, I would like to describe three of the broad areas of change that modernization is bringing to island societies, at least those in Micronesia, the part of the Pacific in which I have worked for the past twenty years. My hope, of course, is that at least some of this will have application to societies in Papua New Guinea as well. The three broad areas of change we will consider here are related to some of the sub-themes taken up in other volumes in this series. We will first examine kin group or tribal loyalties as opposed to the demands of the state. Then we shall take up the tension between the nuclear family and the extended family. Finally, we will look at the relations between the sexes as they have been altered in recent years.

International Relations

Which actor is the most influential in International Relations and why?

robert de niro

Manners and Etiquette
International Relations
Business Communication
Market Research

What is the importance of cooperation?

Cooperation leads to productivity, "team morale", and a generally good working atmosphere. Cooperation is a necessity of world peace. Cooperation is our aim in our lives, to help others achieve things not only for peace but for the advancement of human society. Cooperation comes firstly from within ourselves. In order for it to work you must devote a large part of yourself - without greed and jealousy - to fullfilling work which aims to help the world. To achieve something if you are part of a team, of any kind we need to cooperate so that we achieve what we are trying to do. If we don't talk to each other (one message doesn't go where it's intended, for example), and you want to tell someone somethinng, it doesn,'t get done, does it? If people do do what they say they will do then it gets done. If someone expects you to do something and you don't, it could result in confusions in other people's minds, possibly, I don't know if you have observed this or not of course, but have a look and see if it makes sense to you.

Political Science
International Relations

What is scientific approach to the study of politics?

Political science is the scientific approach to the study of politics.

Business & Finance
International Relations

What factors shift aggregate supply curve?

-an increase/decrease in government purchases -a reduction/increase in taxes -an increase/decrease in investor confidence -foreigners develop/lose a taste for American goods or aMericans develop/lose their taste for foreign goods -increase/decrease in money supply


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