Australia and Britain were very close, mainly due to the fact that Britain founded Australia, and Australia considered them their "mother country". However in World War 2, the relationship started to change, and it started with the British Prime Minister Churchill diverting Australia's 6th and 7th Divisions to reinforce their own troops in Burma when Australia needed them for their defense due to the Japanese advance. This was done without consultation, but eventually, Australian Prime Minister Curtin, managed to get the troops back. This caused some of the changes between Australia and Great Britain. Another reason is because Britain could not help Australia when they needed them most, even when Australia helped Britain when they needed it. This caused PM Curtin to publicly appeal to the US for military assistance, and this was done on 27 December, 1941 (I think). The US came immediately, as they were also eager to drive back the Japanese who bombed Pearl Harbour. The US commander Douglas MacArthur arrived in March the next year and became Supreme Commander of all Allied Forces in the South-West Pacific, and Australia became his headquarters for command. The US military assistance was vital in driving back the Japanese, and they were considered as saviors by Australians. However, as time wore on, the relationship began to sour, with Australian commanders resenting MacArthur's arrogant manner and the way he deployed Australian troops and undervalued their efforts. Sometimes, fights would occur, which occasionally became serious, resulting with deaths. However, the US did help Australia drive the Japanese back and win the war. The original relationship between Britain and Australia resumed, but with Australia being more cautious and independent.
Ever since WWI, Australia's relationship with its traditional ally and mother country Britain had been waning. The senseless slaughter of the ANZAC's at Galipoli is credited to the 'birth' of the new Australian nation and spirit. Australians decided that their troops would never be put in complete control of the British ever again. So Australia (still closely tied with Britain because it was a colony) went in search for a new 'mother' nation. The Americans were the answer. America (A growing world power) and Australia announced that it would now work as closely with the Americans as possible. Despite all this when WW2 broke out the Australian soldiers were still sent off to help the British fight 'their war' and were not allowed to withdraw when the troops were needed to defend their own country. The big transfer of 'mother' nations came when the Japanese began to expand further and further into south east Asia, and threatening Australia. The Australian PM appealed to the US President directly and gave the message that Australia would be at Americas 'beck-and-call' as long as they helped fight the Japanese, prevent invasion of Australia and free south east Asia. With the bombing of Pearl Harbour America not only entered the war but sent huge numbers of army units to the south pacific to help fight off the Japanese. The alliance of the US and Australia began during WW1 but really took off during ww2 and both countries are still closely aligned today.
Britain's Prime Minister Churchill, without the consultation with Australia's prime minister Curtin commanded Australian troops to fight in the middle east for Britain's defenses.
Also because Britain in the end was having enough trouble of her own dealing with Nazi Germany, Australia realised she could not rely on Britain anymore and turned to the US.
Britain is Australians mother country; Australia looked up to Britain for everything. When War was declared by Britain the prime minister of Australia also declared war. �It is my melancholy duty to inform you officially that in consequence of persistence by Germany and her invasion of Poland, Great Britain has declared war upon her and that, as a result, Australia is also at war.� When Australia needed its troops at Australia because Japan was attacking they got them back. Australia looked to Britain for help but they said no and this is were America came in. Australia's relationships during WW2 undertook serious changes that still affect us today. Australia stopped looking to Britain for the support it used to and started looking to America. American and Australian troops disliked each other but worked together on that battle field. The Americans were brought into the war due to Pearl Harbour and Australia formed a relationship with them almost immediately. I think that this downfall in Australian and Britain's friendship wasn't smart because even though Australia is still in the commonwealth and ruled by the queen, we still look to America and our allies with America rather than Britain.
Australia had always depended on a great power for protection and that power had always been Britain, the Mother Country. Now Britain was fighting for its own survival against Germany and the Nazis. Britain's Empire in the far East was falling to Japan. So instead of focusing on Britain for protection, Australia's interests shifted to America. John Curtin (Australia's PM at the time) soon realized that the US alone has the power and capacity to assist Australia if ever there was an invasion from Japan, which was foreseen. Also the fact that Britain did not come to Australia's aid when they were under attack weakened their relationship somewhat. Australia was just a minion of the "Mother Country" to be protected at all costs.
This is just my opinion, but here goes. the ANZACS was part of the commonwealth and her military served at the pleasure of the King, under "British Officers" In WW1 the Aussies felt their men were used as cannon fodder (which they were) and they could see the same thing happening again They thought the Brits had left their men to die in SE Asia. The opinion of most Australians is that the British will fight to the last Australian. And by the way they were no better treated by the Americans. They have been sorely treated from the time of Galipoli until now.
Australia's relationship between England and the USA endured a critical turning point as a result of the war. When the war broke out in 1939, Australia considered itself apart of the British Empire, and has always supported Britain's interests. So in 1939 when WW11 broke out, Australia declared its support for Britain and troops of the 6th, 7th and 9th battalion were sent to the Middle East, 27000 Australians in the air force were involved in the Empire Air Training Scheme that provided air crews to fight in Britain, and half the Australian navy went to the Mediterranean to assist the war effort. There was always the mutual agreement that if support was required in Australia, Britain would immediately come to her aid. The reality was that when Australia was attacked in 1942, Britain failed to keep their promise to Australia and did not provide support or aid. Australia became aware that they were both vulnerable and alone, and since the British government had neither the will nor power to support Austria, the Australian government turned to the USA. The realisation that the British empire had failed to support Australia was an important turning point in Australia's relationship with Britain. The USA did come to Australia's aid in 1942 but the motive was very much in America's self interest. Given the danger of Japanese advances form the North and the failure of Britain's support, the Australian government had little choice but to comply with the US military plans and strategy. Britain was no longer considered as Australia's protector and provider but instead America resumed the role. WW11 marked the beginning for Australia's relationship with America that would be further demonstrated through Australia's support to the USA in future wars.
Note: The war against Germany and Italy is commonly referred to as the "European theater", however, reference to this war against Germany and Italy (and other nations) also includes actions in North Africa and the Middle East.
Australian relations at the beginning of WWII were much the same as they had been in WWI. Australia still felt the need to support Britain as a 'mother' country and in 1939 went to war for her. Men joined the war effort such as to support Britain and to enforce Australia in her own right. During WWII Australian's believed that they were safe: both because of the facts that the country is so secluded and because in Singapore stood a British naval force that would act as a front line between Australia and any impending attack from Japan. The fall of Singapore to the Japanese Army in 1942 is considered to be Britain's worst defeat in WWII. The fall of Singapore was not only a humiliation to Britain but it also worked as a shock to Australia. Australia felt the full force of WWII for the first time as the Japanese threat was on their borders. Australia felt the loss of Singapore severely as it had been a major defense between them and Britain. In 1941 after Pearl Harbour but before the fall of Singapore PM Curtin of Australia made a powerful appeal. This appeal however was not directed to Britain but to America. "Without any inhibition of any kind, i make it clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs of the traditional kinship with Britain..." He went on to say that he had plan which involved America as a keystone. The Sydney Morning herald published in 1942: "Australia is the last bastion between Japan and America. If Australia goes, America is wide open..." In some opinions 'Britain would fight to the last Australia. In others 'Britain had left Australians to die in Singapore'. Whatever the reason whether the British had too much on their plate or they just felt that Australians would always look up to them, when Australia was in the open, Britain was not there to help. As a result of this Australia turned to America for aid. Australia complied with American plans and strategy to fight Japan. In the end it was not Britain we turned to for help but America, and this was a major step towards our position with them today.
Australia's alliance with Britain and the USA changed during the World War 2. Winston Churchill wanted to send the troops to Burma, to fight and protect the land for Britain, whilst John Curtin wished to send the troops to South East Asia to fight and protect Australia, and to prevent the arrival of the Japanese coming into Australian Territory. He established that Australia would be better-off to protect their own country, and America would assist them in protecting their country.
Australia's relationship with Britain changed for various reasons. Australia at the time had little people and we were not a very powerful country. With little economic statues (after the Great Depression) and little men to fight for war, Australia wasn't very strong to fight for war and protect there own country. Britain was one of the most powerful and richest countries with headquarters all over the world including Singapore. Because Britain to Australia was known as the mother country, when Britain decided to go to war so did Australia as they felt it was there duty and had to be loyal. Britain became self fish and 100s of 1000's of men were over fighting in the Mediterranean and Middle East to support Britain and their country, and Australia had no one supporting the home front. After Japan entering the war and bombing pearl harbour invading Indonesia, Papua, New Guinea etc and Australia being there next target, Britain head quarters in Singapore falling, things for Australia were heating up. the prime minister began to realise we need a better allies, USA was not involved until pearl harbour was bombed and then after discussion USA and Australia joined forces and Australia demanded all their troops from Europe and Britain to return home and fight for their country. This is how and why the relationship with Britain ceased and USA's grew bigger with us.
Australia's relationship with Britain and America changed in ww2 as before ww2, Australia was very loyal to its mother country of Britain. It always went to Britain's help, like the ANZACS in ww1. The same thing happened in ww2. When Churchill asked for men from Menzies, Australia gave. But our national security was undermined when the Japanese were taking over the Pacific. They quickly took China, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula. This caused worry back home which increased when the British warships, the Repulse and the Prince of Wales were sunk off the Malay coast on the 10th December 1941. This was a major blow for Britain's naval strength in the region and Singapore's defenses. Due to its lack of security in the region, Australia looked to America for help on the 27th December 1941. Curtin said,I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the UK. This said, Singapore fell on the 15th February 1942 with the biggest mass surrender of all time. (85000 Allied troops including 15000 Australians)
Britain was Australian Mother country, Australia looked up to Britain for everything. When Britain declared they were going into war, naturally Prime minister of Australia also declared war." It is my melancholy duty to inform you officially that in consequence of persistence by Germany and her invasion of Poland, Great Britain has declared war upon her and that, as a result, Australia is also at war" Australia was a weak country with little people and were suffering after the depression, they needed Britain. Australia soon needed help itself, they were threatened by the Japanese. They turned to Britain for help, but their mother country didn't help at all. Prime Minister John Curtin ordered the Australian troops who had completed action in the middle east to return to Australia. Winston Churchill had no part of it, he wanted the Australian troops to continue assisting with England's defeat of Germany. It was obvious that Britain could no longer help Australia and so they were on their own. Australia was still closely tied with Britain because it was a colon but they had no choice other then to look for a new 'mother' nation. Australia then made a decision that still affects today, Australia decided to turn to America for the help they needed. At first the change to mother nations went well. The Australian solders got on with the American soldiers, but not for long. The American Governor General started to become very biased towards the American soldiers. The Australian soldiers soon started to resent the Americans as they got many more rights, and the Australian girls found that the American men were interesting and paid more attention to them. They were described as "over paid, over sexed and over here". Not only did the American soldiers get more rights, but when an Australian soldier did do something great they weren't rewarded for there bravery and skills.
During the war Australia looked to USA when threatened with invasion since USA would suffer greatly from Australia's invasion and Britain was too busy in Europe. This alliance with the USA made Australia less Dependant on Britain. After the war Australia became more independent since it was less dependent on Britain.
Australia's relationship stayed strong with Britain throughout the war, their friendship didn't fail, although there were some points where Australian soldiers thought it was all for nothing
After war broke out in Europe and the Middle-East, in September 1939, Britain (and her colonies) declared war on Germany, thus bringing Australia into the war. At the time, Australia saw Britain as its major source of Protection and security, and decided to respect the ties of Kinship it had with Britain, consequently entering the second world war. However when the Japanese attacked the US naval base, Pearl Harbour(Hawaii), on the 7th December 1941, the war was extended to the Pacific. On February 15th 1942, Britain's naval base, in Singapore, was also attacked by the Japanese. This left Australia vulnerable, and John Curtin, the Australian Prime Minister, turned to the USA for help. The USA were already fighting in the Pacific, and accepted Curtin's plea for help. US troops began to arrive in Australia, influencing Australia's culture, and triggered the change in how Australian society saw itself - as an extension of Great Britain, to 'true-blue' Australian. Sydney and Newcastle were next to be attacked by Japanese migit Submarines in May 1942, but after the defeat of the Japanese in the Battle of Mid-way (Papua New Guinea), the tables were soon turned on the Japanese, soon bringing the American and Australian troops, (under command of the US general MacArthur) to victory, and ending the Japanese threat of invasion to Australia, (or so they thought that was their plan at the time, but that matter is still being debated today). After originally having only strong ties with Britain, during WW1, Australia looked more towards the United States of America for assistance in WW2, extending its links of kinship, marketing and trade, to around the world. I've missed out some stuff... but o'well
Australia's relationship with Britain changed for various reasons. Australia at the time had little people and we were not a very powerful country. with little economic statues (after the Great Depression) and little men to fight for war, Australia wasn't very strong to fight for war and protect there own country. Britain was one of the most powerful and richest countries with headquarters all over the world including Singapore.Because Britain to Australia was known as the mother country, when Britain decided to go to war so did Australia as they felt it was there duty and had to be loyal. Britain became self fish and 100s of 1000's of men were over fighting in the Mediterranean and middle east to support Britain and their country, and Australia had no one supporting the home front. After japan entering the war and bombing pearl harbour invading Indonesia papua new guinea etc and Australia being there next target, and Britain head quarters in Singapore falling things for Australia were heating up. and the prime minister began to realise we need a better ally .USA was not involved until pearl harbour was bombed and then after discussion USA and Australia joined forces and Australia demanded all their troops from Europe and Britain to return home and fight for their country.This is how and why the relationship with Britain ceased and USA's grew bigger with us.
Here's a few contributing facts to the change in attitude towards England during the second world war. Australia, as a former English colony was still very 'English' had always relied on England to protect the country from invaders. With a powerfully manned English outpost in Singapore, Australia always hada a feeling of safety and never worried about building up a powerful defence force. During the war English forces were stretched thin and when the threat of invasion from the powerful Japanese loomed over the Country their was a sudden feeling of vulnerability, which was escalated to an almost intense fear when two of the strongest English Naval Vessels were sunk off the coast of Singapore by an overwhelming Japanese force. With the Germans wreaking havoc in Europe, and now Japan over running the Pacific, the defenseless nation of Australia felt it was time to develop a sense of independence, and started enlistment for a second AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) division.
Australia's relationships during WW2 undertook serious changes that still affect us today. Australia stopped looking to Britain for the support it used to and started looking to America. American and Australian troops disliked each other but worked together on that battle field. The Americans were brought into the war due to Pearl Harbour and Australia formed a relationship with them almost immediately.
Australia was a self governing dominion within the British Empire. As such it depended on Britain for its defense and came to Britain's aid when the war broke out. In 1940 and 1941 Britain was committing virtually every resource it had and every one it could gather from the Empire, to fighting Germany. Australia was sending all the troops it could spare to be used in that fight. Most of them were in North Africa. Suddenly Japan attacked in the Pacific. Britain had no additional strength to use to meet her obligations to defend Australia. Much of Australia's strength was on the other side of the world. The United States stepped forward and assumed the responsibility of providing for Australia's defense. Although Australia remained a British Dominion, it came under the protection of the United States. Naturally its relations with both of those countries changed significantly.
After the fall of Singapore the Australian people and army didn't look to Britain for it's defense anymore. The Australians felt that they had been betrayed by the British, instead they looked to the yanks for help and after the successful defense of New Guinea, Australia and Yankee relations improved even though there were constant fights between the American and Australian army (most notably the Battle of Brisbane and Battle of Fremantle).
How Did Australia's relationship with England and the USA change during World War II?
At the beginning of World War 2 Australia's links with Britain were close but this wasn't the case at the end of the war, Australia had looked towards America for its own safety as Britain had proven that they weren't powerful as they use to be, the fall of Singapore being an example that effected Australia's links with Britain as they surrounded without even trying to fight back.
John Curtin made a new years speech about Australia looking towards America as he believed that Britain wouldn't be able to defend Australia if they were under attack so he decided to make Australia's links with America stronger. Curtin had arguments with Churchill the Prime minister of Britain about bringing Australia's troops back form the Middle East as Churchill moved them there without even asking Curtin. Churchill apologized and sent the troops back to Australia's mainland to defend as what Curtin wanted, this weakening the links between Australia and Britain more.
With America by our sides Australian fought the Pacific War together, after the war America, New Zealand and Australia singed a mutual defense agreement.
Can I just add, that the relationship was not between England and such forth, it was between Britain. The Scot's and the Irish had a great deal to play in the British empire - Going as far as Glasgow being known as the "Second City of the Empire". Also, the founding of Britain was due to the Scottish king inheriting the English throne.
During WW2, Australia was fighting away from home. Then the allies started to attack Asia and the Pacific region. When this happened, Australia realized that Britain was losing its touch. Australia realized that if anything was to happen to them, Britain would not be able to protect them, thus drifting away.
Meanwhile, America was not involved in the war. when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the US was drawn into the war, so Australia and America worked together, and formed a close friendship.
After the bombing in of the British base in Singapore, Australia slightly lost trust in Britain and Britain was busy, so Australia went to US for help. The United States agreed because the location of Australia could also benefit them during the war and they could help protect Australia.
Australia's relationship with Britain changed because Australia was becoming a independent country and they were to fend for themselves. America was one of the most powerful countries, and still is, which meant that they had major influence over all the other countries.
The biggest change was the difference in perceived threat between Germany and Japan. Germany was bombing England, Japan had bombed Darwin. If you're Australian you want to repel the Japanese, if you're English you want to repel the Germans. Generally, the UK was in the 'driver's seat' in the relationship between the UK and Australia and England's obvious bias to fight the Germans first obviously caused some resentment in Australia (at least until the threat against Australia subsided).Australian Alliances WW2
Australia had troops in Europe fighting for the British Empire. Due to the threat of invasion from Japan Australia wanted assistance and troops sent home to ensure that the threat of invasion did not eventuate. Britain denied this request however America offered assistance and thus General McAuthor came to Australia and since then Australia has had close political ties with America.
The shortest answer is to say that Australia felt very 'let down' by Britain in WWII. Australia had sent, loyally, troops to almost every engagement of the British including the Boer War and WWI, and it was always expected that in return Britain and its supreme navy would protect Australia in time of need (the country being too vast and population too small to mount any reasonable self-defense at that time). With the fall of Singapore in WWII to the Imperial Japanese Army, the British presence in Asia and the Pacific was over. With Britain unable to spare troops from the European theater, and unwilling even to allow Australian troops in the Middle East to return to defend Australia, the spirit in Australia turned from one of support for Britain to disappointment in Britain. But focusing on the immediate need which was to prevent Japanese invasion of Australia, Australians also recognized the urgent need then to find an alternative Big Brother to protect them. In came the US with their massive forces in the Pacific. From that time until now, the US relationship has been the mainstay of Australian defense policy, hoping as earlier with Britain that if ever an enemy chose to attack Australia, the US would help out. In the meantime the price Australia pays for this 'insurance' is to send troops to most of the US' main military actions such as Iraq. So the change in WWII was a truly dramatic change in direction in defense reliance.
Britain was taking on Hitler, such a small country taking on the biggest threat at the time and Australia expected Britain to send over British troops (even though they were 100% tied up taking on Nazi Germany) and risk loosing Britain's war to help them. If Britain wasn't taking on the biggest threat at the time, then they would have helped Australia like agreed. Alongside taking on Germany, Britain was taking on Italy and the Soviet Union
Germany had taken over (or allied to), Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Egypt, Malta, Japan. Britain was taking them on, yet Australia became annoyed because Britain did what they did and effectively helped win the war.
Relations should not have gone sour simply because Britain was fighting in their own war. Sure Australia helped out Britain, but the difference was at anytime Australia was helping Britain, they weren't in their own major war at the time.
Have you ever since the reality show: "The 1940s House"? Where a family is picked out to live near London in WW2 stages. Have to do all they did back then.
See how this changes this family, including the woman! It is great!
Women worked in the aircraft and ship building industries doing mechanical and maintenance work. 40 per cent of the work force in munition factories were made up by women. Some women went to work on the battlefields as nurses. Women took part in the auxilliary Services which were basically organizations during war time that took over male jobs. Some examples of the organizations are the Womens Land ARmy, Womens Royal Australian NAval Service and the WOmen's Australian Air Force.
No. They were part of the British Empire (and still are a part of the remnants of it as one of the Commonwealth Dominions), but themselves have never actually had an empire of their own.
Looking back, 1998 was an important year. Google, now one of the world's most visited search engines, was incorporated, President Bill Clinton was in the midst of an impeachment trial and people everywhere had fallen in love with Jack and Rose from the movie Titanic. Below are a few more events that took place during the year 1998.
Dutch and Portuguese sailors were the first Europeans to discover Australia, but they showed absolutely no interest in the continent. The first Englishman to visit Australia was William Dampier. In 1688, his ship the 'Cygnet' was beached on the northwest coast of Australia. Dampier was unimpressed by the dry, barren landscape, the lack of water and what he described as the "miserablest people in the world" - the native population. His negative reports led to the delay of England's colonisation of what is now Australia. It was not until 1770 that Captain James Cook reported positively on the green, fertile countryside of New South Wales, and England sought to colonise the previously unknown continent. Australia was originally used as penal colony where criminals from England and other parts of today's United Kingdom were sent. Many people who live in Australia today are descendants of English people, although they by no means make up the majority. Australia is still an active member of the Commonwealth, which is bessentially made up of nations that have been colonised by Britain.
Here is a web site that gives you a pretty extensive coverage of how WW2 impacted Australia.
http://home.st.net.au/~dunn/index.htmAnswerDuring World War 2 women played an important role overseas and in the homefront and it changed and improved women?s place in the Australian society of today. Before the war few women followed careers. Most jobs for women were traditional roles such as nursing, secretarial or caring jobs.
Some women in World War 2 volunteered for the land army because all the men were away. So the Australian land army was set up to get girls to take the men?s places. They worked on farms at places like Mt Compass, Buckleboo and Gumeracha. They were looked after because they got free work clothes and food.
In the war women were cooks, stewardesses, transport drivers, signallers, coders, writers, cinematographer operators, visual signallers and there were girls working in classified sections. Others were trained as nurses and motor mechanics. The women go told they would never be permitted to go overseas but in 1941 the government announced that women would now be allowed to enrol in the armed forces. Only nurses would serve overseas and in battle zones. Some 300,000 women served in the army, navy and nursing corps, and a quarter of these served overseas.
The Women?s Royal Australian Naval Service was formed in 1941. They did not go overseas. They worked with communications. The Women?s Australian Auxiliary Air Force was also formed in 1941. They worked as radio communications and did mechanical repairs. Australian Women?s Army Service formed in 1941 if Australia was attacked they could fight but they could not replace the men fighting. The Australian Army Medical Women?s Service formed in 1942. They were nurses in Britain, Greece, North Africa, Malaya and Papua.
WAAF in 1941 had 29 women and 300 men. The WAAF put signs at universities reading ?if you are about to graduate, apply for a commission in the WAAF. Each person does a course from navigational and operations to accounts or equipment/
At home during the war women made up 40 per cent of the work force in munitions factories. Women worked in aircraft and ship building industries also they worked in industries doing mechanical and maintenance work all the women received training. Women also became tram conductors, bus drivers, taxi drivers, security guards, mail delivers, bread carters and meter readers. Women were paid lower wages then men. Many women hoped that these jobs would still be open to them after the war had ended but they were not.
World War 2 changed the lives of Australian women. Before the war women were housewives and mainly looked after the family and home. When the war started and the men left, women had to take the empty places of the men who were at war. They showed that they could manage work, family and home all together. Also proved that they could do as much work as a man does at his job and still get paid less.
I think that World War 2 improved the place of women in society for the better.Answerbecause of ww2 Australia lost most of our links with great brittian and strenghtened with America. this is because the Brittian ships fell in mayla and Singapore and also brittan fell to japan.the australians felt that brittian wasnt strong enough and that is why we have a much more closer relatioship with America than Brittian. Answerww2 actually strengthened Australia's ties with America, as many were beginning to feel that Britain was too weak to depend on. the pm at the time mentioned this in his speech. by the end of the war, Australia was more or less a very strong ally to the US. AnswerWe Yanks that were there during the war gained a greater respect for Australia and the Australian people. AnswerWhen the Japanese went to war against the British Empire (as well as the Americans) at the end of 1941, much of the Australian military was involved in fighting in the Middle East and Africa, alongside the British Royal Army. Most of the remainder found itself reeling under the Japanese onslaught throughout Southeast Asia and the southwest Pacific.
Generally, before World War II, Australia tended to look to Great Britain as a "parent" which could be relied upon in time of need, but under the circumstances particular to Australia in 1942, it was realized that Great Britain could not be of much help.
Some military assistance was obtained from the United States, establishing ties which still remain.
Australia set about to arm its own forces, and on the whole, did an amazing job, considering that whole industrial infrastructures had to be set up in a short time (here I will refer you to the stories of the development of the Australian AC-4 Sentinel Tank, the Australian Owen Submachine Gun, the development of the Boomerang fighter plane, the production of artillery, and also the building of ships, like the "Castle" -class corvette, etc.). It would seem that having been through such tribulations and coming out victorious gave Australia a great deal of national confidence, and a stronger national identity. Since World War II, Australia has been more of a world player in its own right, rather than simply being a member of the British Commonwealth.AnswerWorld war 2 impacted on Australian society in many ways. Women played an important role on the homefront. Roles dominated by males prior to the outbreak of war began to be shared by females.
Air raid drills occured regularly in larger cities like Sydney and Melbourne. Compulsory black-outs were enforced to minimise the risk of obvious targets in the event of an air-raid.
Air raids in Broome and Darwin affected citizens physically and psychologically. The deaths and injuries that occured affected many locals. Women and children (Asian and White) were evacuated into the country. Aboriginal persons were disregarded and not thought of.
As a result of troops overseas, Australia became economically unstable. Resources taken for granted to make goods such as clothes, butter, milk, bread etc were in short supply, so rationing books were distributed in 1942. A purchase could only be approved with rationing tickets.
Governments during the war attempted to prevent panic by censoring newspapers, magazines and radio. During the raids in Darwin, hundreds were killed and injured, while the government claimed under 30 people were killed or wounded.
Australia's loyalties changed. During WW1 Australia's ties with the 'Mother Country', Britain were strong. Events in the Great Depression, the bodyline attempts in cricket had weakened the ties before the war. Britain wanted Australian force in Britain fighting. Troops were returned home, however, when Australia's PM John Curtin felt Australia was under threat of invasion.
America and Australia became very close. When Australian troops were under threat, American troops came to give us a hand. When American troops were in trouble, we helped them out.
The three Axis counries, Italy, Germany and Japan were despised by the majority of Australians, so during the war, Japanese, German and Italians were sent to internment camps as to prevent any spy networking.
At the beginning of the war, soldiers only enlisted if they wanted to. When enlistment numbers were low, conscription was enforced, and all men between 18 and 33 had to register.AnswerIt was not only English speaking races that were allowed to fight. Indigenous Australians also got a chance and were able to fight. This gave them money food cloths able to be accepted in the white race after the war training; they had never had an opportunity like this before but after the war they were able to have alot more opertunity in Australians life than what they did befour the war. Answerwell firstly, as you know, thousands of young Australian men enlisted to fight, but not as fast as in the 1st world war. the horror of the first world war was still embeded in our minds, and many people were against it. infact the majority were agaist the idea of being apart of a war that had nothing to do with us! so Australia introduced conscription, but only if you were at a certain age and you fitted the basic health requirements, and Australia could only send these men to guard Australian territory incase of an invasion by the japs. the Japaneese had advanced far into Asia, and were around the area of Singapur and Indonesia. The Australian Government had its main army fighting in Europe and Africa at the time, and wanted to send the conscripted soldiers to fight at the front in Asia, but it was agaist the law. So they were very sneaky about it and claimed Papua New Guinea as theirs, because it didnt have a government and sent the majority of conscripts to fight against the well-trained japs at the kakoda track and other blood thirsty battles. Australia had the best conscript law, as towards the end of the war Germany made boys up to 13 yeard of age go to war, and also sent the old, blinde and sick because they were getting desperate. In classes of 30, only 2 13 year old boys came back from each on average. with the men of at war, the women were forced to take up jobs that were previously considered a mans job, such as working in factories doing numerous jobs and packing amunition. our bonds with the UK dies down because they didnt come and help us, whereas we built even strionger bonds with the US because they sent troops to our AID which helped our local economy a great deal. a rationing system was handed out where each aduly only got 112 coupons a year and each item of luxury costed a certain amount of coupons. there weer always bomb warnings and private and public bomb shelters were built. barb wire was put along the main beaches to prevent invasion and many many people died. AnswerJust wanted to make a few points from the above answer. It is incorrect to say that Australia just 'claimed' Papua New Guinea. Control of Papua New Guinea was actually awarded to Australia after the first world war. Also, theoretically, it wasn't against the law for Australia to send its troops back home to fight in the pacific. Prime Minister Curtin of Australia demanded to the US and the UK that its troops be sent back home from Europe, to face the oncoming threat of invasion by the Japanese. The UK agreed to do so, however, while the Australian troops were on the way back, Prime Minister Churchill of the UK ordered that they be diverted to Burma, as the UK and the US had first wished. Answera single point to the one on top of me. The other one on top of you mentions it was against the law to send conscripted soldiers to the other war fronts though you say it was against the law to bring the others back that's all AnswerThis was part of a posting that John Curtin issued in the Sydney Morning Herald 29th December 1941
"Without inhibitions of any kind, i make it quite clear that Australia looks to America free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom. We know ... that Australia can go and Britain can still hold on. We are, therefore, determined that Australia shall not go, we shall exert all our energies toward the shaping of a plan, with the United States as its keystone, which will give to our country some confidence of being able to hold out until the tide of battle swings against the enemy."AnswerIt devistated our society and left our nation as a whole in grief. War was never to be glorified but sadly in this time period it was and many young corageous men were tragically lost. porridge
Japan and the United States were in the process of peace talks when Japan launched their attack on Pearl Harbor. The Japanese did give the American people medals. The Americans put the medals on bombs that were dropped on Japan in the months following the attack on Pearl Harbor.
No one knew except the Japanese. It was basically a surprise attack, although the U.S sensed the Japanese on radar. By the time they could figure out what was happening, the bombings began.
Before the Pearl Harbor Attack, there was already tension between the Japanese and the Americans as America had stopped trading oil, which was vital to the Japanese, and was putting pressure on Japan for invading other South East Asian countries, which the Americans did not want to happen.
Working conditions for people in the Army can be very harsh. They may have to work in times of war, dealing with bullets, rockets and other hazards. They also have to work no matter what the weather is like, including in the heat and in the cold. Those members of the Army that work in offices may have an easier time of it, since they often have working conditions similar to those of their civilian counterparts.
the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist group.
The Australians experienced harsh conditions, especially on the kokoda trail. Their uniforms rotted and were subject to Malaria and Dysentry. I would think if you took some time abnd read this attached web site fully, it should give you a pretty good idea of how the war effected those living in Australia. home.st.net.au
Not all the time, since you cannot make someone love you. If they cannot love you then they can't. Sometimes it does work, but you have to be very very patient and only if that person is WORTH it and if they are not you should move on.
nationalism or patriotism is the love of one's country and the desire to be free from other countries .
Melissa De Sousa is 43 years old (birthdate: September 25, 1967).
The soundtrack is not out yet, but it is coming out soon.
For more information about the movie "Australia," see the website of the film (Australia Movie.net) via the Related Link.
Perhaps this book might offer some insight.
The home front : life in Australia during World War II by Rosemary Clark
During WW2, some White Australians and Indigenous Australians got their first real contact with each other. There was a job to be done and all of a sudden the colour line disappeared claimed Oodgeroo Noonucal, an Aboriginal poet and political activist. Many Indigenous Australians benefited from the war because men worked in war industries or joined the service. There were even Aboriginal and Torres Strait units formed in remote Northern Australia. They in turn received better training, pay and more social contact than they'd ever had before.
The role during World War 2 for women on the homefront included working in munition factories.During World War 2 women made up 40% of the work force in munition factories. Others worked in the aircraft and ship building industries, doing mechanical and maintenance work.Women received training in operating machinery and worked in conditions that were very different from their traditonal roles as housewives and mothers.By October 1942, over half a million women were employed in the industry. Their hours were long and the workload in war-related industries were heavy. Most also had the added responsibility of managing the household and looking after the children.As well as factory work, women entered a range of other occupations and became train conductors, bus drivers, taxi drivers and mail deliverers. Thousands volunteered for farm work with the Land Army.AnswerThey had to take over the men's jobs aswell as taking care of their children and homes. It was a hard and stressful time for them, and the wages were only about 40-45% of what the men usually got paid. AnswerNot all women participated as vigorusloy in war as revisonist historians would attempt to highlight now. Woman's roles were important as they still had to do all the female tasks that were always expected of them as well as other work in place of the men who were in the army. These woman were expected to go back to the homemaker role at the end of the war. Although some woman accepted there reduction of role, some woman found a new independence and could not accpet their diminissed roles. AnswerSince men were usually preferred to fight overseas, women were left with the "masculine" jobs in order to help their country. Women in cities were needed to help in factories and mills, whilst women in rural areas took on dairyin, crop planting and harvesting. By mid-1943, women began working in the Air Force, which trained them in combat. Many women also helped out greatly in their nursing services, serving anywhere in which their country was concerned.
After the war, the Government, churches and press tried to remind women that now that the "strong, trustworthy" men were home, they were to go back to their "traditional roles", and most were basically forced to - whether they liked it or not. It wasn't until the 1960's, that women truly began to make a stand for their working rights.AnswerDuring World War 2 for the first time women were being asked to do 'a man's job', either in the services or in industry. More women than ever before had entered the workforce, and many took on jobs that had previously been available to men only. These women gained all or nearly all the male rate for these 'men's jobs'. However, most of the new women workers went into traditional female work areas, where the wage was generally 54 per cent of the male rate - by the end of the world war 2 it was more closer to 70 per cent.Woman were now doing the exact same jobs as the men and were getting lower wages, these jobs disappeared at the end of the war because the men had been promised there jobs back when they returned from the war. The working experience, however, did have a profoundly liberating effect on many women, who then sought jobs after the war that would continue this independence and liberation. Although many others were more than happy to return to normal domestic life after the war.
Modern histories of the home front war all pay homage to the active role played by many women during the war. However, the fact also remains that the single most common women's experience of war was to remain at home, and not be employed. For many, this role took on new aspects, as women became financial heads of their households with the male breadwinner away, and this meant that many had problems giving up this responsibility after the war; but again, many were anxious and pleased to return to pre-war 'normality'. While the activities of groups such as the Women's Land Army are praised as being helpful to the war effort, we must not forget or undervalue the contribution of many thousands of farming women for whom sharing farm work was a normal and vital part of the pre-war economy. These women do not appear in statistics, but they provided far more and over a longer period of time than was provided by the new organisations.AnswerWomen did many things on the homefront during world war 2. The women's land army contributed a lot. They took over farms, made weapons and bullets and controled the radios and many important jobs. It was the first time most really worked.
When conscription came in hundreds of men were forced to go to war. This left a huge gap in the work force, a gap that the women filled. In the 1940's many women didn't have jobs and they saw this as an opportunity to take on roles that were only known as 'a man's job' and to show everyone that they were capable. Women were introduced into traditionally male jobs in factories, steel mills, construction of planes, transport industry e.g. driving trucks, buses and taxis and many other jobs. They also helped the men at war by making clothes, guns, bullets and planes.Employers of women in the metal industry applied to the arbitration court for a change of the award wage due to a state of 'national emergency'. The unions strongly opposed to the changes, fearing that further encouragement for women to work would signal a change of gender roles in the work force. The court ruled that a rise in wages be limited only to women employed in war work.
During the war women made up 40% of the work force in munition factories. Women received training in operating machinery and worked in conditions that were very different from their traditional roles as housewives and mothers. By October 1942 over half a million women were employed in the industry.
It was a very hard time for the women, accepting these new roles didn't have many perks. The work load in war-related industries was heavy and the hours were very long. Many also had the added responsibility of managing the household and looking after the children.
After the war had finished the men came back to a promised job and the jobs that the women were doing disappeared. The working experience for the women had a liberating effect on many women who then sought jobs after the war so that they could continue this independence.
19 April 1995 http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/3/33/180px-OkcW.jpg A security photo from a nearby building showing the Ryder truck approaching the Murrah Federal building.
um well it looks like a person and a person
Australia had been attacked by air in the north at Darwin. Its pans to defend a line around Brisbane were upset by the daring attack in Sydney Harbour. This attack increased public fears of an amphibious attack on the south, but of course this could not have happened as the Japanese had run out of resources to do any out any substantial invasion. The best they had left for the invasion of New Guinea was a marine regiment in the failed attempt at Milne Bay and a scratch half-division at Kokoda.
Australia's forces were five infantry and three armoured divisions in Australia and three infantry divisions returning from the Middle East. Still, that didn't stop[ a panic over the Sydney event. Our government was not very adept at responding to psychological warfare to put it mildly.
In Germany the main religion is Christianity - Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. Both denominations enjoy a semi-official status. The government tax offices collect church tax for the main churches and many state schools are denominational.
About 5% of the population is Islamic with 3.5 million adherents and very small numbers are followers of Buddhism or Judaism.
Most of Germany practices Christianity (62%). The two major denominations in Germany today are the Lutheran Church and Roman Catholicism, both equal in number (each 32% of the population).
Australia went to war against the Japanese and women took mens jobs helping end the Great Depression
Australian servicemen fought in campaigns against Germany and Italy in Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa They fought against Japan in South-east Asia and in other parts of the Pacific. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) participated in operations against Italy after its entry into the war in June 1940. A few Australians flew in the Battle of Britain in August and September of the 1940, but the Australian Army was not engaged in combat until 1941, when the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions joined Allied operations in the Mediterranean and North Africa. Answer Australia's relationship with Britain at the time was weak and Australia's involvement would strengthen the bond. Also the Australian prime minister Robert Menzies was pro-British and most Australians supported in his belief to help Britain.
Australia was in the war from the very beginning to the very end. Australian Prime Minister Menzies declared that Australia was at war with Germany on the same day that Great Britain did. Initially of course Australian personnel (Army, Air Force & Navy) were deployed in Europe, often under British command, but after Pearl Harbour and the fall of Singapore, Australians generally felt that the national priority was defending Australia against the oncoming Japanese, who were bombing towns in northern Australia, and seemed to be preparing an invasion. This change of focus became a point of sharp contention between the Australian and UK governments - Churchill did not want Australian forces switched from the war against Germany, but despite this, Prime Minister John Curtin withdrew a substantial force from North Africa to aid in Australia's defence. Subsequently, Australian troops inflicted the first significant defeat on the Japanese, driving them back to the northern coast of Papua New Guinea (immediately to Australia's north), and participating in other campaigns in SE Asia. Incidentally, US General MacArthur had his regional HQ in Brisbane, Australia. Another outstanding contribution from Australian troops was in the North African struggle against Rommel.
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